4,6-Dihydroxysalicylic Acid-Catalyzed Oxidative Condensation of Benzylic Amines and Aromatic Ketones for the Preparation of 2,4,6-Trisubstituted Pyridines and Its Application to Metal-Free Synthesis of G-Quadruplex Binding Ligands.
ABSTRACT: 4,6-Dihydroxysalicylic acid was activated under air to catalyze the one-pot oxidative condensation reaction of benzylamines with acetophenones in the presence of BF3·Et2O, affording 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyridines in yields of 59-91%. During this metal-free oxidative condensation reaction, the benzylamines not only provided the aryl moiety at the 4-position of the pyridines but also acted as the nitrogen donor. This method can be applied to the metal-free synthesis of G-quadruplex binding ligands by the sequential addition of 4-chlorobutyryl chloride and pyrrolidine to the reaction system of the 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyridine synthesis.
Project description:1,2,4-Trisubstituted-(1H)-imidazoles have been synthesized by the Cu(OTf)2- and I2-catalyzed unusual C-C bond cleavage of chalcones and benzylamines. After the ?,?-unsaturated C-C bond cleavage, the ?-portion is eliminated from the reaction. Various aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted chalcones and benzylamines were well tolerated in this unusual transformation to yield the trisubstituted-(1H)-imidazoles.
Project description:Stereospecific nucleophilic substitution at the C-4? position of 2?-chloro-2'(2',6')-(di)halogenopicropodophyllotoxin derivatives with carboxylic acids mediated by BF3·Et2O was described. Interestingly, this stereoselective products were completely controlled by the reaction time. That is, if the reaction time was prolonged to 24.5-31?h, the resulting compounds were all transformed into the unusual C-ring aromatization products. Additionally, it demonstrated that BF3·Et2O and reaction temperature were the important factors for C-ring aromatization, and AlCl3 could be substituted for BF3·Et2O as a lewis acid for C-ring aromatization. Halogenation of E-ring of 2?-chloropodophyllotoxins with NCS or NBS also led to the same C-ring aromatization compounds. Especially compounds 5c, 6g and 7b exhibited insecticidal activity equal to that of toosendanin.
Project description:Acids to bases: The synthesis of 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyridines from (phenylthio)acetic acid and a range of ?,?-unsaturated ketimines is reported. This process proceeds by intermolecular Michael addition/lactamization, thiophenol elimination, and N- to O-sulfonyl migration, giving 2-sulfonate-substituted pyridines which are readily derivatized to generate structural diversity.
Project description:The total synthesis of the natural stilbene (+)-schweinfurthin G (8) has been accomplished through a sequence based on an efficient cationic cascade cyclization. This cascade process is initiated by Lewis acid promoted ring opening of an epoxide and terminated through a novel reaction with a phenolic oxygen "protected" as its MOM ether. Several Lewis acids have been examined for their ability to induce this new reaction, and BF3 x Et2O was found to be the most effective. The only major byproduct under these conditions was one where the expected secondary alcohol was found as its MOM ether derivative (e.g., 30). While this byproduct could be converted to the original target compound through hydrolysis, it also could be employed as a protected alcohol to allow preparation of a benzylic phosphonate (43) without dehydration of the secondary alcohol. The resulting phosphonate was employed in a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation with an aldehyde representing the right half of the target compounds, an approach complementary to previous studies based on condensation of a right-half phosphonate and a left-half aldehyde.
Project description:A convergent and highly stereocontrolled synthesis of amphidinolide E (1) has been accomplished. The synthesis features a highly diastereoselective (>20:1) BF3.Et2O promoted [3+2] annulation reaction between aldehyde 3 and allylsilane 4 to afford substituted tetrahydrofuran 2.
Project description:An efficient base-catalyzed synthesis of arylated pyridines has been disclosed. This reaction involving conjugated acetylenes and substituted benzylamines proceeded smoothly, giving rise to tri-aryl substituted pyridines which are biologically relevant compounds in good to excellent yields in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) under air at 140 °C with K?CO? as catalyst.
Project description:Catalytic hydrogenation of dibenzyl 5-dipyrroketone-2,9-dicarboxylates followed by decarboxylative iodination affords a 2,9-diiododipyrroketone which gives a 2,5,9-trichlorodipyrromethene hydrochloride after nucleophilic addition/elimination, with adventitious chloride to replace the two iodide groups. Treatment with BF3·Et2O gives a 3,5,8-trichloro-BODIPY that readily undergoes regioselective Stille coupling at the 8-position, or homo/mixed couplings at the 3,8- or 3,5- and 8-positions. Stepwise and controlled replacement of the 3,5- and 8-chlorine atoms using Stille reagents results in formation of a completely unsymmetrical trisubstituted BODIPY. Several examples of unsymmetrical BODIPYs were synthesized and characterized using this methodology. Structure features of new BODIPYs are discussed within the context of 14 new X-ray structures, and photophysical parameters of all new BODIPY compounds are reported and discussed.
Project description:We have recently identified a new class of filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ)-interacting compounds that possess a 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidine-quinuclidine scaffold with moderate antibacterial activity. Employing this scaffold as a molecular template, a compound library of amine-linked 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines with 99 candidates was successfully established by employing an efficient convergent synthesis designed to explore their structure-activity relationship. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against Staphylococcus aureus strains and cytotoxicity assay against the mouse L929 cell line identified those compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties (MIC ranges from 3 to 8 ?g/mL) and some extent of cytotoxicity against normal cells (IC50 ranges from 6 to 27 ?M). Importantly, three compounds also exhibited potent antibacterial activities against nine clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. One of the compounds, 14av_amine16, exhibited low spontaneous frequency of resistance, low toxicity against Galleria mellonella larvae, and the ability to rescue G. mellonella larvae (20% survival rate at a dosage of 100 mg/kg) infected with a lethal dose of MRSA ATCC 43300 strain. Biological characterization of compound 14av_amine16 by saturation transfer difference NMR, light scattering assay, and guanosine triphosphatase hydrolysis assay with purified S. aureus FtsZ protein verified that it interacted with the FtsZ protein. Such a property of FtsZ inhibitors was further confirmed by observing iconic filamentous cell phenotype and mislocalization of the Z-ring formation of Bacillus subtilis. Taken together, these 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidine derivatives represent a novel scaffold of S. aureus FtsZ inhibitors.
Project description:We have synthesized the novel 4-(4-hydroxy-benzyl)-3-phenyl-chromen-2-one which is a precursor of SERMs with a smaller number of steps and good yield. Two methodologies for the synthesis have been worked out. Anhydrous BF3·Et2O catalyzed reaction was found to be selective for product formation while anhydrous AlCl3, FeCl3, and SnCl4 catalyzed ones were nonselective.
Project description:The synthesis of (+/-)-symbioimine (1) has been completed in only 12 linear steps in 8% overall yield. The key step is the treatment of 13b with BF3.Et2O to generate N-carboalkoxydihydropyridinium cation 14b, which undergoes a novel stereospecific intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to give adduct 16b in 42% yield. Cleavage of the N-Troc group of 16b afforded imine 24b stereospecifically. Cleavage of the TBDMS ethers and sulfation provided (+/-)-symbioimine (1). [reaction: see text].