One-Pot Synthesis of Nucleoside-Templated Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and Gold Nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT: In this study, a simple one-pot method was proposed to synthesize water-soluble nucleoside-templated fluorescent silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The nucleoside-templated fluorescent Ag NPs and Au NPs were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and fluorescence spectroscopy (FLS). The effects of the molar ratio of reactants, reaction environment, and nucleotides on the synthesis of Ag NPs and Au NPs were also discussed. The results showed that nucleoside and ascorbic acid acted as a stabilizer and reductant, respectively, in the synthesis of Ag NPs and Au NPs, while citrate buffer acted as both a pH regulator and reductant. The synthesized nucleoside-templated fluorescent Ag NPs and Au NPs have good fluorescence stability and easy water solubility. In this study, a simple one-pot method was proposed to synthesize water-soluble nucleoside-templated fluorescent silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs).
Project description:Plant extract of Pulicaria undulata (L.) was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing ligand for the rapid and green synthesis of gold (Au), silver (Ag), and gold-silver (Au-Ag) bimetallic (phase segregated/alloy) nanoparticles (NPs). These nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared in two hours by stirring corresponding metal precursors in the aqueous solution of the plant extracts at ambient temperature. To infer the role of concentration of plant extract on the composition and morphology of NPs, we designed two different sets of experiments, namely (i) low concentration (LC) and (ii) high concentration (HC) of plant extract. In the case of using low concentration of the plant extract, irregular shaped Au, Ag, or phase segregated Au-Ag bimetallic NPs were obtained, whereas the use of higher concentrations of the plant extract resulted in the formation of spherical Au, Ag, and Au-Ag alloy NPs. The as-prepared Au, Ag, and Au-Ag bimetallic NPs showed morphology and composition dependent catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NPh) to 4-aminophenol (4-APh) in the presence of NaBH4. The bimetallic Au-Ag alloy NPs showed the highest catalytic activity compared to all other NPs.
Project description:Advances in nanotechnology provide opportunities for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. While physicochemical properties of Ag containing nanoparticles (NPs) are known to influence the magnitude of their toxicity, it is thought that nanosilver can be made less toxic to eukaryotes by passivation of the NPs with a benign metal. Moreover, the addition of other noble metals to silver nanoparticles, in the alloy formulation, is known to alter the silver dissolution behavior. Thus, we synthesized glutathione capped Ag/Au alloy bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) via the galvanic replacement reaction between maltose coated Ag NPs and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) in 5% aqueous triblock F127 copolymer solution. We then compared the antibacterial activity of the Ag/Au NPs to pure Ag NPs on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, a key pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Only partially oxidized glutathione capped Ag and Ag/Au (Au:Ag?0.2) NPs inhibited the planktonic growth of P. gingivalis W83. This effect was enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which simulates the oxidative stress environment in the periodontal pocket during chronic inflammation.
Project description:Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ∼410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.
Project description:In this report, we demonstrate a rapid, simple, and green method for synthesizing silver-gold (Ag-Au) bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs). We used a novel modification to the galvanic replacement reaction by suspending maltose coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) in ? 2% aqueous solution of EO100PO65EO100 (Pluronic F127) prior to HAuCl4 addition. The Pluronic F127 stabilizes the BNPs, imparts biocompatibility, and mitigates the toxicity issues associated with other surfactant stabilizers. BNPs with higher Au:Ag ratios and, subsequently, different morphologies were successfully synthesized by increasing the concentration of gold salt added to the Ag NP seeds. These BNPs have enhanced catalytic activities than typically reported for monometallic Au or Ag NPs (? 2-10 fold) of comparable sizes in the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The 4-nitrophenol reduction rates were highest for partially hollow BNP morphologies.
Project description:Signal reproducibility in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) remains a challenge, limiting the scope of the quantitative applications of SERS. This drawback in quantitative SERS sensing can be overcome by incorporating internal standard chemicals between the core and shell structures of metal nanoparticles (NPs). Herein, we prepared a SERS-active core Raman labeling compound (RLC) shell material, based on Au?Ag NPs and assembled silica NPs (SiO?@Au@RLC@Ag NPs). Three types of RLCs were used as candidates for internal standards, including 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) and 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MBT), and their effects on the deposition of a silver shell were investigated. The formation of the Ag shell was strongly dependent on the concentration of the silver ion. The negative charge of SiO?@Au@RLCs facilitated the formation of an Ag shell. In various pH solutions, the size of the Ag NPs was larger at a low pH and smaller at a higher pH, due to a decrease in the reduction rate. The results provide a deeper understanding of features in silver deposition, to guide further research and development of a strong and reliable SERS probe based on SiO?@Au@RLC@Ag NPs.
Project description:A simple photochemical method for making conjoined bi-metallic gold-silver (Au/Ag) nanotwins, a new breed of nanoparticles (NPs), is developed. To the best of our knowledge, the photochemical method resulted in distinct, conjoined, bimetallic nanotwins that are different from any well-established alloyed or core-shell nanostructures in the literature. The conjoined Au-Ag NPs possessed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of both metals. The bimetallic nanostructures possessing distinctive optical properties of both metals were obtained using Au NPs as seeds in the first step, followed by the addition of a silver precursor as feed in the second step during a photochemical irradiation process. In the first step, small, isotropic or large, anisotropic Au NPs are generated by photoinduced reduction within a biocompatible chitosan (CS) polymer. In the second step, a silver precursor (AgNO₃) is added as the feed to the AuNPs seed, followed by irradiation of the solution in the ice-bath. The entire photochemical irradiation process resulting in the formation of bimetallic Au-AgNPs did not involve any other reducing agents or stabilizing agents other than the CS polymer stabilizer. The small, conjoined Au-Ag bi-metallic NPs exhibited SPR with peak maxima centering at ~400 nm and ~550 nm, whereas the large conjoined nanoparticles exhibited SPR with peak maxima centering at ~400 nm, 550 nm, and 680 nm, characteristic of both gold and silver surface plasmons in solution. The tunability in the SPR and size of the bimetallic NPs were obtained by varying the reaction time and other reaction parameters, resulting in average sizes between 30 and 100 nm. The SPR, size, distribution, and elemental composition of the bi-metallic NPs were characterized using UV-Vis absorption, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) studies.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au-Ag NPs) immobilized on cellulose paper. Ag NPs are known to have strong antibacterial properties, while Au NPs are biocompatible and relatively simple to prepare. We made the Au-Ag NPs using a facile process called Ag enhancement, in which Au NPs serve as the nuclei for precipitation of a Ag coating, the thickness of which can be easily controlled by varying the ratio of the reactants. After synthesis, electron microscopy showed that the Au-Ag NPs displayed a core-shell structure, and that they could be successfully immobilized onto a cellulose membrane by heat treatment. We then investigated the antibacterial properties of this NP-coated cellulose paper against E. coli JM109. The inhibition rate, growth curve, and AATCC 100 activity test showed that cellulose paper coated with 15?nm Au-Ag NPs possessed excellent antibacterial activity against E. coli JM109. These results suggest that Au-Ag NPs immobilized on cellulose paper could be a valuable antibacterial technology for applications such as food packaging, clothing, wound dressings, and other personal care products.
Project description:The unique physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles offer a large potential for biomedical application, however, the serious biotoxicity restricts their usage. Herein, nanogalvanic couple Ag-Fe@Fe3O4 heterostructures (AFHs) are designed to prevent Ag+ release from the cathodic Ag by sacrificial anodic Fe, which can reduce the cytotoxicity of Ag. AFHs are synthesized with modified galvanic displacement strategy in nonaqueous solution. To eliminate the restriction of lattice mismatch between Fe and Ag, amorphous Fe@Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are selected as seeds, meanwhile, reductive Fe can reduce Ag precursor directly even at as low as 20 °C without additional reductant. The thickness of the Fe3O4 shell can influence the amorphous properties of AFHs, and a series of Janus- and satellite-like AFHs are synthesized. A "cut-off thickness" effect is proposed based on the abnormal phenomenon that with the increase of reaction temperature, the diameter of Ag in AFHs decreases. Because of the interphase interaction and the coupling effect of Ag and Fe@Fe3O4, the AFHs exhibit unique optical and magnetic properties. This strategy for synthesis of monodisperse heterostructures can be extended for other metals, such as Au and Cu.
Project description:Conservative remedies have a gray history worldwide and these provide productive and pertinent tools to tackle ailments. Also, the high altitude areas of Indian Himalayas with their wealthy biodiversity anchorage around 2000 plant species. Ensuing study demonstrates the synthesis of Silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) and utilizes one of the medicaments Curcuma longa of Indian Himalayas collected from different altitudes. For the same, turmeric rhizome extracts have been prepared from the aforesaid medicament and its anticancer activity and antimicrobial potential have been evaluated. Formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles was realized via UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed size of the NPs. Antibacterial activity has been checked against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The anticancer prospective has been observed against A549 and PC3 cell lines of both Au and Ag NPs and the cytotoxicity on PC3 and A549 cell lines was assessed using MTT assay. Results revealed higher amount of biochemicals, antibacterial and anticancer activity in Ag and Au NPs synthesized from rhizome extract collected from highest altitude. For the first time impact of altitudinal variations on phytochemicals and nanoparticles has been reported which have significant effect on its antimicrobial and anticancerous activity.
Project description:With the increasing applications of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), the concerns of widespread human exposure as well as subsequent health risks have been continuously growing. The acute and chronic toxicities of Ag NPs in cellular tests and animal tests have been widely investigated. Accumulating evidence shows that Ag NPs can induce inflammation, yet the overall mechanism is incomplete. Herein, using gold nanorod core/silver shell nanostructures (Au@Ag NRs) as a model system, we studied the influence on mice liver and lungs from the viewpoint of metabolism. In agreement with previous studies, Au@Ag NRs' intravenous exposure caused inflammatory reaction, accompanying with metabolic alterations, including energy metabolism, membrane/choline metabolism, redox metabolism, and purine metabolism, the disturbances of which contribute to inflammation. At the same time, dopamine metabolism in liver was also changed. This is the first time to observe the production of dopamine in non-neural tissue after treatment with Ag NPs. As the upregulation of dopamine resists inflammation, it indicates the activation of antioxidant defense systems against oxidative stress induced by Au@Ag NRs. In the end, our findings deepened the understanding of molecular mechanisms of Ag NPs-induced inflammation and provide assistance in the rational design of their biomedical applications.