Quasiparticle GW Calculations on Lead-Free Hybrid Germanium Iodide Perovskite CH3NH3GeI3 for Photovoltaic Applications.
ABSTRACT: Lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskites have gained much attention as nontoxic alternatives to CH3NH3PbI3 in next-generation solar cells. In this study, we have examined the geometric and electronic properties of methylammonium germanium iodide CH3NH3GeI3 using density functional theory. Identifying a suitable functional to accurately model the germanium halide perovskites is crucial to allow the theoretical investigation for tuning the optoelectronic properties. The performance of various functionals (PBE, PBE+D3, PBEsol, PBEsol+D3, HSE06, and HSE06+D3) has been evaluated for modelling the structure and properties. The calculation of electronic properties was further refined by using the quasiparticle GW method on the optimized geometries, and that has an excellent agreement with the experiment. We report from our GW calculations that the characteristic of the density of states for CH3NH3GeI3 resembles the density of states for CH3NH3PbI3 and the effective masses of the charge carriers of CH3NH3GeI3 are comparable to the effective masses of CH3NH3PbI3 as well as silicon used in commercially available solar cells.
Project description:Hybrid AMX3 perovskites (A = Cs, CH3NH3; M = Sn, Pb; X = halide) have revolutionized the scenario of emerging photovoltaic technologies, with very recent results demonstrating 15% efficient solar cells. The CH3NH3PbI3/MAPb(I(1-x)Cl(x))3 perovskites have dominated the field, while the similar CH3NH3SnI3 has not been exploited for photovoltaic applications. Replacement of Pb by Sn would facilitate the large uptake of perovskite-based photovoltaics. Despite the extremely fast progress, the materials electronic properties which are key to the photovoltaic performance are relatively little understood. Density Functional Theory electronic structure methods have so far delivered an unbalanced description of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites. Here we develop an effective GW method incorporating spin-orbit coupling which allows us to accurately model the electronic, optical and transport properties of CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3, opening the way to new materials design. The different CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3 electronic properties are discussed in light of their exploitation for solar cells, and found to be dominantly due to relativistic effects. These effects stabilize the CH3NH3PbI3 material towards oxidation, by inducing a deeper valence band edge. Relativistic effects, however, also increase the material band-gap compared to CH3NH3SnI3, due to the valence band energy downshift (~0.7?eV) being only partly compensated by the conduction band downshift (~0.2?eV).
Project description:The accurate determination of structural parameters is necessary to understand the electronic and magnetic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and is a first step toward accurate calculations of electronic structure and function for separations and catalysis. Theoretical structural determination of metal-organic frameworks is particularly challenging because they involve ionic, covalent, and noncovalent interactions, which must be treated in a balanced fashion. Here, we apply a diverse group of local exchange-correlation functionals (PBE, PBEsol, PBE-D2, PBE-D3, vdW-DF2, SOGGA, MN15-L, revM06-L, SCAN, and revTPSS) to a broad test set of MOFs to seek the most accurate functionals to study various structural aspects of porous solids, in particular to study lattice constants, unit cell volume, two types of pore size characteristics, bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles). The recently developed meta functionals revM06-L and SCAN, without adding any molecular mechanics terms, are able to predict more accurate structures than previously recommended functionals, both those without molecular mechanics terms (PBE, PBEsol, vdW-DF2, and revTPSS) and those with them (PBE-D2 and PBE-D3). To provide a broader test, these two functionals are also tested for lattice constants and band gaps of unary, binary, and ternary semiconductors.
Project description:The outstanding optoelectronics and photovoltaic properties of metal halide perovskites, including high carrier motilities, low carrier recombination rates, and the tunable spectral absorption range are attributed to the unique electronic properties of these materials. While DFT provides reliable structures and stabilities of perovskites, it performs poorly in electronic structure prediction. The relativistic GW approximation has been demonstrated to be able to capture electronic structure accurately, but at an extremely high computational cost. Here we report efficient and accurate band gap calculations of halide metal perovskites by using the approximate quasiparticle DFT-1/2 method. Using AMX3 (A?=?CH3NH3, CH2NHCH2, Cs; M?=?Pb, Sn, X?=?I, Br, Cl) as demonstration, the influence of the crystal structure (cubic, tetragonal or orthorhombic), variation of ions (different A, M and X) and relativistic effects on the electronic structure are systematically studied and compared with experimental results. Our results show that the DFT-1/2 method yields accurate band gaps with the precision of the GW method with no more computational cost than standard DFT. This opens the possibility of accurate electronic structure prediction of sophisticated halide perovskite structures and new materials design for lead-free materials.
Project description:Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx (x?=?0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br- (0.23?eV) than for I- (0.29-0.30?eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film.
Project description:Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are game-changing semiconductors for solar cells and light-emitting devices owing to their defect tolerance and exceptionally long carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Determining whether the dynamically disordered organic cations with large dipole moment benefit the optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 has been an outstanding challenge. Herein, via transient absorption measurements employing an infrared pump pulse tuned to a methylammonium vibration, we observe slow, nanosecond-long thermal dissipation from the selectively excited organic mode to the inorganic sublattice. The resulting transient electronic signatures, during the period of thermal-nonequilibrium when the induced thermal motions are mostly concentrated on the organic sublattice, reveal that the induced atomic motions of the organic cations do not alter the absorption or the photoluminescence response of CH3NH3PbI3, beyond thermal effects. Our results suggest that the attractive optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 mainly derive from the inorganic lead-halide framework.
Project description:A-Site doping with alkali ions, and/or metal substitution at the B and B'-sites, are among the key strategies in the innovative development of A 2BB'X6 halide double perovskite semiconducting materials for application in energy and device technologies. To this end, we have investigated an intriguing series of five halide-based non-toxic systems, A 2AgRhCl6 (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), using density functional theory at the SCAN-rVV10 level. The lattice stability and bonding properties emanating from this study of A 2AgRhCl6 matched well with those that have already been synthesized, characterized and discussed [viz. Cs2AgBiX6 (X = Cl, Br)]. Exploration of traditional and recently proposed tolerance factors has enabled us to identify A 2AgRhCl6 (A = K, Rb and Cs) as stable double perovskites. The band structure and density of states calculations suggested that the electronic transition from the top of the valence band [Cl(3p)+Rh(4d)] to the bottom of the conduction band [(Cl(3p)+Rh(4d)] is inherently direct at the X-point of the first Brillouin zone. The (non-spin polarized) bandgap of these materials was found in the range 0.57-0.65 eV with SCAN-rVV10, which were substantially smaller than those computed with hybrid HSE06 and PBE0, and quasi-particle GW methods. This, together with the appreciable refractive index and high absorption coefficient in the region covering the range 1.0-4.5 eV, enabled us to demonstrate that A 2AgRhCl6 (A = K, Rb, and Cs) are likely candidate materials for photoelectric applications. The results of our phonon calculations at the harmonic level suggested that the Cs2AgRhCl6 is the only system that is dynamically stable (no imaginary frequencies found around the high symmetry lines of the reciprocal lattice), although the elastic moduli properties suggested all five systems examined are mechanically stable.
Project description:Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4-15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410-700 nm. The photoluminescence of CsPbX3 nanocrystals is characterized by narrow emission line-widths of 12-42 nm, wide color gamut covering up to 140% of the NTSC color standard, high quantum yields of up to 90%, and radiative lifetimes in the range of 1-29 ns. The compelling combination of enhanced optical properties and chemical robustness makes CsPbX3 nanocrystals appealing for optoelectronic applications, particularly for blue and green spectral regions (410-530 nm), where typical metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots suffer from photodegradation.
Project description:Lead halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbX3, where X = I, Br) and other metal halide complexes (MX(n), where M = Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Fe, Bi, Sb) have been studied as inorganic capping ligands for colloidal nanocrystals. We present the methodology for the surface functionalization via ligand-exchange reactions and the effect on the optical properties of IV-VI, II-VI, and III-V semiconductor nanocrystals. In particular, we show that the Lewis acid-base properties of the solvents, in addition to the solvent dielectric constant, must be properly adjusted for successful ligand exchange and colloidal stability. High luminescence quantum efficiencies of 20-30% for near-infrared emitting CH3NH3PbI3-functionalized PbS nanocrystals and 50-65% for red-emitting CH3NH3CdBr3- and (NH4)2ZnCl4-capped CdSe/CdS nanocrystals point to highly efficient electronic passivation of the nanocrystal surface.
Project description:Understanding the degradation mechanisms of lead-halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3) under exposure to liquid/aerosol water is an essential problem within the photovoltaic community. Herein we investigate both the static and the dynamic properties of the methylammonuim cation (MA) as it coordinates with invading water molecules (MA.(H2O)n, n?=?1, 2, 3, 4) using both stationary state quantum mechanics and first principle molecular dynamics simulations. Various solvation structures of MA were characterized by their stabilization energies, dipoles, and Maximally-Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) centers. Calculation - and analysis - of vibrational shifts in the IR spectral region were performed for hydrated complexes; the locations of [Formula: see text] stretching vibrations allude to significant hydrogen bonding between MA and the water molecules. Through Fourier analysis of the rotational dynamics on several MA · (H2O)n complexes, we conclude that the water molecules dampen the rotational motion of the MA as the intermolecular bonds formed between the water molecules and the MA act to hinder the rotation of the cation; these findings give explanatory support to earlier computational observations of humidity effects on perovskites (i.e., CH3NH3PbI3) materials. This work is a step toward understanding the water-MA cation interaction in bulk perovskites, thus providing greater understanding of in situ instability/degradation of perovskite bulk materials.
Project description:Lead (Pb) free non-toxic perovskite solar cells have become more important in the commercialization of the photovoltaic devices. In this study the structural, electronic, optical and mechanical properties of Pb-free inorganic metal halide cubic perovskites CsBX3 (B?=?Sn, Ge; X?=?I, Br, Cl) for perovskite solar cells are simulated using first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT). These compounds are semiconductors with direct band gap energy and mechanically stable. Results suggest that the materials have high absorption coefficient, low reflectivity and high optical conductivity with potential application in solar cells and other optoelectronic energy devices. On the basis of the optical properties, one can expect that the Germanium (Ge) would be a better replacement of Pb as Ge containing compounds have higher optical absorption and optical conductivity than that of Pb containing compounds. A combinational analysis of the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of the compounds suggests that CsGeI3 based perovskite is the best Pb-free inorganic metal halide semiconductor for the solar cell application. However, the compound with solid solution of CsGe(I0.7Br0.3)3 is found to be mechanically more ductile than CsGeI3. This study will also guide to obtain Pb-free organic perovskites for optoelectronic devices.