Imprecise Kidney Function Thresholds in Cancer Clinical Trials and the Potential for Harm.
ABSTRACT: Current guidance for evaluation of kidney function and drug dosing emphasize using measured or estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) rather than measured or estimated creatinine clearance or serum creatinine (Scr) alone. We assessed the definitions of kidney function thresholds for eligibility in cancer clinical trials. A random sample of active Phase I-III trials with cisplatin (n = 465) and studies in cancer with decreased kidney function (n = 74) were identified from clinicaltrials.gov. Among cisplatin trials, kidney function thresholds were defined by Scr alone or a composite of Scr or creatinine clearance in 46% (212/465) of studies. Only 2% (n = 11) used GFR. Among trials in participants with decreased kidney function, the proportion utilizing GFR (14%, 10/74) was modestly higher. Imprecise and logically inconsistent kidney function thresholds are in frequent use in clinical trials in cancer and may cause harm from either toxicity or impaired efficacy. We recommend the adoption and harmonization of recommended standards.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs) can protect against mineral bone disease, but they are reported to elevate serum creatinine (SCr) and may also reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR). METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of VDRAs on kidney function and adverse events. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for RCTs that evaluate vitamin D receptor activators (alfacalcidol, calcitriol, doxercalciferol, falecalcitriol, maxacalcitol and paricalcitol) up to March 2015. RESULTS:We included 31 studies, all of which were performed between 1976 and 2015, which enrolled 2621 patients. Patients receiving VDRAs had lower eGFR (weighted mean difference WMD -1.29 mL/min /1.73 m2, 95% CI -2.42 to -0.17) and elevated serum creatinine (WMD 7.03 ?mol/L, 95% CI 0.61 to 13.46) in sensitivity analysis excluding studies with dropout rate more than 30%. Subgroup analysis of the 5 studies that not use SCr-based measures did not indicated lower GFR in the VDRAs group(WMD -0.97 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI -4.85 to 2.92). Compared with control groups, there was no difference in all-cause mortality (relative risk RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.80), cardiovascular disease (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.71), and severe adverse events (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.77) for the VDRAs groups. Episodes of hypercalcemia (RR 3.29, 95% CI 2.02 to 5.38) were more common in the VDRAs group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:Administration of VDRAs increased serum creatinine levels. Subgroup analysis of studies that did not use SCr-based measures did not indicate a lower GFR in the VDRA group. Future studies with non-SCr-based measures are needed to assess whether the mild elevations of serum creatinine are of clinical significance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Serum biomarkers, such as serum creatinine (SCr) and serum cystatin C (SCysC), have been widely used to evaluate renal function in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD).<h4>Objective</h4>This article aims to assess the value of determining SCr and SCysC levels in patients that have long-term kidney disease. Approaches: MEDLINE, EmBase, the Cochrane Library and other databases were searched using both MeSH terms and text words to collect research that assessed the diagnostic value of using SCr and SCysC to evaluate Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in patients with CKD. Data were converted into fourfold tables. Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves and meta-analyses were accomplished via Meta-Disc version 1.4.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 21 relevant articles involving 3112 study subjects were included in our review. Results showed that the collective sensitivity for SCr and SCysC was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.69-0.84) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.91), respectively. The pooled specificity for SCr and SCysC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.91), respectively. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that when GFR cut-off values are set to 60 (ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>), the pooled sensitivity is 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90-0.96) for SCysC and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82) for SCr.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The diagnostical accuracy for impaired kidney function favors SCysC. Confidence intervals for the pooled sensitivity and specificity for SCr and SCysC overlap. However, SCysC is more sensitive for estimating GFR than SCr when GFR cut-off values are set to 60 (ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>).
Project description:Importance:Few multicenter pediatric studies have comprehensively described the epidemiologic characteristics of cisplatin-associated acute kidney injury using standardized definitions. Objective:To examine the rate of and risk factors associated with acute kidney injury among children receiving cisplatin infusions. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study examined children (aged <18 years) recruited from May 23, 2013, to March 31, 2017, at 12 Canadian pediatric academic health centers who were receiving 1 or more cisplatin infusion. Children whose estimated or measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or who had received a kidney transplant were excluded. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2018, to September 20, 2019. Exposures:Cisplatin infusions. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was acute kidney injury during cisplatin infusion, defined using a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria-based definition (stage 1 or higher). The secondary outcome was acute kidney injury defined by electrolyte criteria from the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (grade 1 or higher). Assessments occurred at early (first or second cycle) and late (last or second to last cycle) cisplatin infusions. Results:A total of 159 children (mean [SD] age at early cisplatin infusion, 7.2 [5.3] years; 80 [50%] male) participated. The most common diagnoses were central nervous system tumors (58 [36%]), neuroblastoma (43 [27%]), and osteosarcoma (33 [21%]). Acute kidney injury (by serum creatinine level increase) occurred in 48 of 159 patients (30%) at early cisplatin infusions and 23 of 143 patients (16%) at late cisplatin infusions. Acute kidney injury (by electrolyte abnormalities) occurred in 106 of 159 patients (67%) at early cisplatin infusion and 100 of 143 patients (70%) at late cisplatin infusions. Neuroblastoma diagnosis and higher precisplatin GFR were independently associated with acute kidney injury (serum creatinine level increase) at early cisplatin infusions (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for neuroblastoma vs other, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.18-8.95; aOR for GFR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) and late cisplatin infusions (aOR for neuroblastoma vs other, 6.85; 95% CI, 1.23-38.0; aOR for GFR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03). Higher cisplatin infusion dose was also independently associated with acute kidney injury (serum creatinine level increase) at later cisplatin infusions (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10). Conclusions and Relevance:The findings suggest that acute kidney injury is common among children receiving cisplatin infusions and that rate and risk factors differ at earlier vs later infusions. These results may help with risk stratification with a goal of risk reduction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The early prediction of delayed graft function (DGF) would facilitate patient management after kidney transplantation. METHODS:In a single-centre retrospective analysis, we investigated kinetic estimated GFR under non-steady-state conditions, KeGFR, in prediction of DGF. KeGFR(sCr) was calculated at 4h, 8h and 12h in 56 recipients of deceased donor kidneys from initial serum creatinine (sCr) concentrations, estimated creatinine production rate, volume of distribution, and the difference between consecutive sCr values. The utility of KeGFR(sCr) for DGF prediction was compared with, sCr, plasma cystatin C (pCysC), and KeGFR(pCysC) similarly derived from pCysC concentrations. RESULTS:At 4h, the KeGFR(sCr) area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for DGF prediction was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.83), while sCr was not useful (AUC 0.56, (CI: 0.41-0.72). Integrated discrimination improvement analysis showed that the KeGFR(sCr) improved a validated clinical prediction model at 4h, 8h, and 12h, increasing the AUC from 0.68 (0.52-0.83) to 0.88 (0.78-0.99) at 12h (p = 0.01). KeGFR(pCysC) also improved DGF prediction. In contrast, sCr provided no improvement at any time point. CONCLUSIONS:Calculation of KeGFR from sCr facilitates early prediction of DGF within 4 hours of renal transplantation.
Project description:Background:Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug whose nephrotoxic effect is a major complication and a dose-limiting factor for antitumoral therapy. There is much evidence that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase-I inhibitor, has protective effects in vitro and in vivo against cisplatin-induced renal damage by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidation. Here, we investigated the potential use of cilastatin to protect against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and inflammation in rats. Methods:Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, cilastatin-control, cisplatin and cilastatin-cisplatin. Nephrotoxicity was assessed 5 days after administration of cisplatin based on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and renal morphology. Inflammation was measured using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, immunohistochemical studies and evaluation of inflammatory mediators. Results:Compared with the control rats, cisplatin-administered rats were affected by significant proximal tubule damage, decreased GFR, increased production of inflammatory mediators and elevations in urea, creatinine and tissue KIM-1 levels. Cilastatin prevented these changes in renal function and ameliorated histological damage in cisplatin-administered animals. Cilastatin also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, activation of nuclear factor-?B and CD68-positive cell concentrations. Conclusions:Cilastatin reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which is associated with decreased inflammation in vivo. Although the exact role of decreased inflammation in nephroprotection has not been fully elucidated, treatment with cilastatin could be a novel strategy for the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.
Project description:Pharmacists are at the forefront of dosing and monitoring medications eliminated by or toxic to the kidney. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of these medications, accurate measurement of kidney function is paramount. The mainstay of kidney assessment for drug dosing and monitoring is serum creatinine (SCr)-based estimation equations. Yet, SCr has known limitations including its insensitivity to underlying changes in kidney function and the numerous non-kidney factors that are incompletely accounted for in equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Serum cystatin C (cysC) is a biomarker that can serve as an adjunct or alternative to SCr to evaluate kidney function for drug dosing. Pharmacists must be educated about the strengths and limitations of cysC prior to applying it to medication management. Not all patient populations have been studied and some evaluations demonstrated large variations in the relationship between cysC and GFR. Use of eGFR equations incorporating cysC should be reserved for drug management in scenarios with demonstrated outcomes, including to improve pharmacodynamic target attainment for antibiotics or reduce drug toxicity. This article provides an overview of cysC, discusses evidence around its use in medication dosing and in special populations, and describes practical considerations for application and implementation.
Project description:Early detection of obesity-related glomerulopathy in humans is challenging as it might not be detected by routine biomarkers of kidney function. This study's aim was to use novel kidney biomarkers and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to evaluate the effect of obesity development and weight-loss on kidney function, perfusion, and injury in dogs. Sixteen healthy lean adult beagles were assigned randomly but age-matched to a control group (CG) (n = 8) fed to maintain a lean body weight (BW) for 83 weeks; or to a weight-change group (WCG) (n = 8) fed the same diet to induce obesity (week 0-47), to maintain stable obese weight (week 47-56) and to lose BW (week 56-83). At 8 time points, values of systolic blood pressure (sBP); serum creatinine (sCr); blood urea nitrogen (BUN); serum cystatin C (sCysC); urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC); and urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular injury were measured. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal perfusion using CEUS were assayed (except for week 68). For CEUS, intensity- and time-related parameters representing blood volume and velocity were derived from imaging data, respectively. At 12-22% weight-gain, cortical time-to-peak, representing blood velocity, was shorter in the WCG vs. the CG. After 37% weight-gain, sCysC, UPC, glomerular and tubular biomarkers of injury, urinary immunoglobulin G and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, respectively, were higher in the WCG. sBP, sCr, BUN and GFR were not significantly different. After 23% weight-loss, all alterations were attenuated. Early weight-gain in dogs induced renal perfusion changes measured with CEUS, without hyperfiltration, preceding increased urinary protein excretion with potential glomerular and tubular injury. The combined use of routine biomarkers of kidney function, CEUS and site-specific urinary biomarkers might be valuable in assessing kidney health of individuals at risk for obesity-related glomerulopathy in a non-invasive manner.
Project description:Objectives:This study was to assess the feasibility of a modified multiphasic CT scan protocol combined with homemade software measurements of glomerular filtration rate (CT-GFR) and explore the effect of renal tumor volume on the calculation of CT-GFR. Materials and Methods:Prospective observational study comparing three methods of GFR measurement from February 2017 to December 2017, 91 patients with unilateral renal tumor underwent both a modified multiphasic CT scans of kidney and serum creatinine (Scr) tests preoperatively, of which 15 cases underwent additional radionuclide examination. Total and split CT-GFR, with or without renal tumor, were quantified by the homemade software in early and late renal parenchymal phases, respectively. The volume of renal tumor was quantified by the homemade software. Correlation and difference between CT-GFR and traditional methods of GFR measurement, including estimated GFR (eGFR) from Scr concentration and split GFR using of radionuclide examination (R-GFR), were performed. Results:There is a strong correlation between CT-GFR with renal tumor and eGFR (r = 0.90, p < 0.001) in early renal parenchymal phase. The relative CT-GFR in early renal parenchymal phase was highly correlated with the relative R-GFR (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Renal tumor volume significantly correlated with the value of CT-GFR that determined by subtracting the CT-GFR measurement without renal tumor from CT-GFR measurement with renal tumor (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Conclusion:A modified multiphasic CT scan protocol combined with homemade software might be an alternative technique for the evaluation of renal function for the patients with unilateral renal tumor.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is accepted as the best indicator of kidney function and is commonly estimated from serum creatinine (SCr)-based equations. Separate equations have been developed for children (Schwartz equation), younger and middle-age adults [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation] and older adults [Berlin Initiative Study 1 (BIS1) equation], and these equations lack continuity with ageing. We developed and validated an equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate that can be used across the full age spectrum (FAS).<h4>Methods</h4>The new FAS equation is based on normalized serum creatinine (SCr/Q), where Q is the median SCr from healthy populations to account for age and sex. Coefficients for the equation are mathematically obtained by requiring continuity during the paediatric-adult and adult-elderly transition. Research studies containing a total of 6870 healthy and kidney-diseased white individuals, including 735 children, <18 years of age, 4371 adults, between 18 and 70 years of age, and 1764 older adults, ?70 years of age with measured GFR (inulin, iohexol and iothalamate clearance) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry-equivalent SCr, were used for the validation. Bias, precision and accuracy (P30) were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>The FAS equation was less biased [-1.7 (95% CI -3.4, -0.2) versus 6.0 (4.5, 7.5)] and more accurate [87.5% (85.1, 89.9) versus 83.8% (81.1, 86.5)] than the Schwartz equation for children and adolescents; less biased [5.0 (4.5, 5.5) versus 6.3 (5.9, 6.8)] and as accurate [81.6% (80.4, 82.7) versus 81.9% (80.7, 83.0)] as the CKD-EPI equation for young and middle-age adults; and less biased [-1.1 (-1.6, -0.6) versus 5.6 (5.1, 6.2)] and more accurate [86.1% (84.4, 87.7) versus 81.8% (79.7, 84.0)] than CKD-EPI for older adults.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The FAS equation has improved validity and continuity across the full age-spectrum and overcomes the problem of implausible eGFR changes in patients which would otherwise occur when switching between more age-specific equations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: High serum creatinine is considered an independent risk factor for poor outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of occult renal impairment (ORI), defined as an impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with a normal serum creatinine (SCr) level, remains unclear. Thus, we sought to investigate the impact of ORI on outcomes after CABG. METHODS: Among patients undergoing their first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI and CABG patients in Japan), 1842 patients with normal SCr levels undergoing CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative estimated GFR calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation: 1339 patients with estimated GFR of ? 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (normal group) and 503 with estimated GFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (ORI group). RESULTS: Preoperative estimated GFR differed between the groups (51.3 ± 6.6 vs 85.8 ± 23.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P < 0.01). ORI was associated with high in-hospital mortality (3.2 vs 1.0%, P < 0.01) and need for dialysis (2.0 vs 0.2%, P < 0.01). In terms of long-term outcomes, ORI was associated with high mortality compared with the normal (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.72 [1.16-2.54], P < 0.01) and high incidence of composite cardiovascular events (death, stroke or myocardial infarction: 1.53 [1.16-2.02], P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ORI was an independent risk factor for early and late death as well as cardiovascular events in patients undergoing CABG with normal SCr levels. A more accurate evaluation of renal function through a combination of SCr and estimated GFR is needed in patients with normal SCr levels.