Application of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP) and Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (mag-MIP) to Selective Analysis of Quercetin in Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow Mass Spectrometry (FAPA-MS) and in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS).
ABSTRACT: Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) for solid extraction and pre-concentration of quercetin have been successfully prepared by thermal polymerization method using quercetin (Q) as a template, acrylamide (AA) as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linking agent. The MIP and mag-MIP were successfully applied in analysis of quercetin by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. To perform ambient plasma ionization experiments, a setup consisting of the heated crucible, a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) plasma ion source, and amaZon SL ion trap (Bruker, Bremen, Germany) was used. The heated crucible with programmable temperature allowed desorption of the analytes from MIPs structure which resulted in their direct introduction into the ion stream. The results of Q-MIP/Q-mag-MIP and FAPA-MS measurements were compared with those of the analysis of quercetin by the ESI-MS method without extractions and pre-concentration of analytes on polymers. Limits of detection (LOD) for quercetin solutions in both positive and negative ESI-MS were established at 10-8 M and 10-7 M, respectively. The linearity (R2 = 0.9999) of the proposed analytical procedure for quercetin determination in positive ions was provided in the range between 10-4 M and 10-7 M. Moreover, the same parameters were established for FAPA-MS in positive ions, reaching LOD at 0.005 mg/gMIP and the linearity of the method in the range of 0.015-0.075 mg/gMIP with the correlation coefficient value R2 = 0.9850.
Project description:Qualitative and quantitative analysis of estrogens content in natural water is a difficult task. An important problem in the analysis of hormones in water is the quantitative determination of their individual species. Low detection limits and instability of estrogen derivatives are the main challenges. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs) in combination with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow Mass Spectrometry (FAPA-MS) were successfully used for analysis of estrogen hormones in water samples. The aim of the study was to obtain mag-MIPs selective to estrone (E1) and ?-estradiol (E2) for solid phase extraction and pre-concentration of estrogens. Due to their superior analyte binding properties at low concentrations (0.03 g in 1 g of polymer structure) and possibility of magnetic separation, mag-MIPs were proven to be very convenient and efficient adsorbent materials. In addition, MS analyses were performed using two ionization sources: ESI- and FAPA-MS. For both estrogens, LOD was significantly lower for FAPA-MS analysis (0.135 ?gL-1 for E1 and E2) than for ESI-MS analysis (27 ?gL-1 for E1 and 13.6 ?gL-1 for E2). The total estrogen concentration in the environmental water sample was determined as: cE1 = 0.271 ?gL-1 and cE2 = 0.275 ?gL-1.
Project description:Amygdalin is a natural cyanogenic compound that plants produce in the fight against insects and herbivores. Excessive amounts of amygdalin by animals and humans can potentially lead to fatal intoxication. However, studies confirm that amygdalin has antitumor properties, including the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to induce their apoptosis. The analysis of amygdalin in various matrices is an important analytical problem today. The publication presents the methodology of direct determination of amygdalin in water, sewage, and biological materials using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and a new analytical method using flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS). The methods of analyte pre-concentration using a magnetic, molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) and the influence of interferents on the recorded spectra were discussed. Analytical parameters in ESI-MS and FAPA-MS methods were established. The linearity range was 4.5 µg L-1-45 mg L-1 in positive mode ESI-MS and FAPA-MS. The limit of detection (LOD) for ESI-MS was 0.101 ± 0.003 µg L-1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.303 ± 0.009 µg L-1. In FAPA-MS, the LOD was 0.050 ± 0.002 µg L-1 and the LOQ was 0.150 ± 0.006 µg L-1. The content of amygdalin in various matrices was determined.
Project description:The application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as molecular scavengers for ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry has been reported for the first time. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer; nicotine, propyphenazone, or methylparaben as templates; ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker; and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as polymerization initiator. To perform ambient plasma ionization experiments, a setup consisting of the heated crucible, a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) plasma ion source, and a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer has been used. The heated crucible with programmable temperature allows for desorption of the analytes from MIPs structure which results in their direct introduction into the ion stream. Limits of detection, linearity of the proposed analytical procedure, and selectivities have been determined for three analytes: nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben. The analytes used were chosen from various classes of organic compounds to show the feasibility of the analytical procedure. The limits of detections (LODs) were 10 nM, 10, and 0.5 ?M for nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben, respectively. In comparison with the measurements performed for the non-imprinted polymers, the values of LODs were improved for at least one order of magnitude due to preconcentration of the sample and reduction of background noise, contributing to signal suppression. The described procedure has shown linearity in a broad range of concentrations. The overall time of single analysis is short and requires ca. 5 min. The developed technique was applied for the determination of nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben in spiked real-life samples, with recovery of 94.6-98.4%. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive, and accurate which provides a new option for the detection of small organic compounds in various samples. Graphical abstract The experimental setup used for analysis.
Project description:We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, "ready for use" MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and ?-amylase in only 4 hours.
Project description:A novel procedure is developed for producing bulk modified Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), which involves the direct mixing of the polymer particles within the screen-printed ink. This allowed reduction of the sample preparation time from 45 min to 1 min, and resulted in higher reproducibility of the electrodes. The samples are measured with a novel detection method, namely, thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA), relying on the analysis of thermal waves through a functional interface. As a first proof-of-principle, MIPs for dopamine are developed and successfully incorporated within a bulk modified MIP SPE. The detection limits of dopamine within buffer solutions for the MIP SPEs are determined via three independent techniques. With cyclic voltammetry this was determined to be 4.7 × 10(-6) M, whereas by using the heat-transfer method (HTM) 0.35 × 10(-6) M was obtained, and with the novel TWTA concept 0.26 × 10(-6) M is possible. This TWTA technique is measured simultaneously with HTM and has the benefits of reducing measurement time to less than 5 min and increasing effect size by nearly a factor of two. The two thermal methods are able to enhance dopamine detection by one order of magnitude compared to the electrochemical method. In previous research, it was not possible to measure neurotransmitters in complex samples with HTM, but with the improved signal-to-noise of TWTA for the first time, spiked dopamine concentrations were determined in a relevant food sample. In summary, novel concepts are presented for both the sensor functionalization side by employing screen-printing technology, and on the sensing side, the novel TWTA thermal technique is reported. The developed bio-sensing platform is cost-effective and suitable for mass-production due to the nature of screen-printing technology, which makes it very interesting for neurotransmitter detection in clinical diagnostic applications.
Project description:Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven to be particularly effective chemical probes for the molecular recognition of proteins, DNA, and viruses. Here, we started from a filamentous bacteriophage to synthesize a multi-functionalized MIP for detecting the acidic pharmaceutic clofibric acid (CA) as a chemical pollutant. Adsorption and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring experiments showed that the phage-functionalized MIP had a good binding affinity for CA, compared with the non-imprinted polymer and MIP. In addition, the reusability of the phage-functionalized MIP was demonstrated for at least five repeated cycles, without significant loss in the binding activity. The results indicate that the exposed amino acids of the phage, together with the polymer matrix, create functional binding cavities that provide higher affinity to acidic pharmaceutical compounds.
Project description:A novel clenbuterol molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated stir bar was prepared and applied to the determination of six ?-agonists in animal-derived food. Characterization and various parameters affecting adsorption and desorption behaviours were investigated. The extraction capacities of clenbuterol, salbutamol, ractopamine, mabuterol, brombuterol, and terbutaline for MIP coating were 3.8, 2.9, 3.1, 3.5, 3.2, and 3.3 times higher, respectively, than those of the NIP coating, respectively. The method of MIP-coated SBSE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was developed. The recoveries in pork and liver samples were 75.8-97.9% with RSD from 2.6 to 5.3%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.05-0.15??g/kg and 0.10-0.30??g/kg, respectively. Good linearities were obtained for six ?-agonists with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.994. These results indicated the superiority of the proposed method in the analysis of ?-agonists in a complex matrix.
Project description:A novel molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) was prepared by bulk polymerization using sulpiride as the template molecule, itaconic acid (ITA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker. The formation of the MIP was determined as the molar ratio of sulpiride-ITA-EGDMA of 1:4:15 by single-factor experiments. The MIP showed good adsorption property with imprinting factor α of 5.36 and maximum adsorption capacity of 61.13 μmol/g, and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and surface area analysis. With the structural analogs (amisulpride, tiapride, lidocaine and cisapride) and small molecules containing a mono-functional group (p-toluenesulfonamide, formamide and 1-methylpyrrolidine) as substrates, static adsorption, kinetic adsorption, and rebinding experiments were also performed to investigate the selective adsorption ability, kinetic characteristic, and recognition mechanism of the MIP. A serial study suggested that the highly selective recognition ability of the MIP mainly depended on binding sites provided by N-functional groups of amide and amine. Moreover, the MIP as solid-phase extractant was successfully applied to extraction of sulpiride from the mixed solution (consisted of p-toluenesulfonamide, sulfamethoxazole, sulfanilamide, p-nitroaniline, acetanilide and trimethoprim) and serum sample, and extraction recoveries ranged from 81.57% to 86.63%. The tentative tests of drug release in stimulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) demonstrated that the tablet with the MIP-sulpiride could obviously inhibit sulpiride release rate. Thus, ITA-based MIP is an efficient and promising alternative to solid-phase adsorbent for extraction of sulpiride and removal of interferences in biosample analysis, and could be used as a potential carrier for controlled drug release.
Project description:Electrochemical nanosensors based on nanoporous gold leaf (NPGL) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) are developed for pharmaceutical analysis by using metronidazole (MNZ) as a model analyte. NPGL, serving as the loading platform for MIP immobilization, possesses large accessible surface area with superb electric conductivity, while electrochemically synthesized MIP thin layer affords selectivity for specific recognition of MNZ molecules. For MNZ determination, the hybrid electrode shows two dynamic linear range of 5 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) and 1 × 10(-9) to 1.4 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) with a remarkably low detection limit of 1.8 × 10(-11) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity and selectivity towards MNZ with excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, the reliability of MIP-NPGL for MNZ detection is proved in real fish tissue samples, demonstrating the potential for the proposed electrochemical sensors in monitoring drug and biological samples.
Project description:In this study, a new electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of cefalexin (CFX), based on the use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) obtained by electro‒polymerization in an aqueous medium of indole-3-acetic acid (I3AA) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and on boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE). The two different electrodes were used in order to assess how their structural differences and the difference in the potential applied during electrogeneration of the MIP translate to the performances of the MIP sensor. The quantification of CFX was performed by using the electrochemical signal of a redox probe before and after the rebinding of the template. The modified electrode was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The influence of different parameters on the fabrication of the sensor was tested, and the optimized method presented high selectivity and sensitivity. The MIP-based electrode presented a linear response for CFX concentration range of 10 to 1000 nM, and a limit of detection of 3.2 nM and 4.9 nM was obtained for the BDDE and the GCE, respectively. The activity of the sensor was successfully tested in the presence of some other cephalosporins and of other pharmaceutical compounds. The developed method was successfully applied to the detection of cefalexin from real environmental and pharmaceutical samples.