Project description:BACKGROUND: SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel digestion (IGD) is a popular workflow in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In GeLC-MS/MS, a protein lysate of a biological sample is separated by SDS-PAGE and each gel lane is sliced in 5-20 slices which, after IGD, are analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The database search results for all slices of a biological sample are combined yielding global protein identification and quantification for each sample. In large scale GeLC-MS/MS experiments the manual processing steps including washing, reduction and alkylation become a bottleneck. Here we introduce the whole gel (WG) procedure where, prior to gel slice cutting, the processing steps are carried out on the whole gel. RESULTS: In two independent experiments human HCT116 cell lysate and mouse tumor tissue lysate were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. In a back to back comparison of the IGD procedure and the WG procedure, both protein identification (>80% overlap) and label-free protein quantitation (R2=0.94) are highly similar between procedures. Triplicate analysis of the WG procedure of both HCT116 cell lysate and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue showed identification reproducibility of >88% with a CV<20% on protein quantitation. CONCLUSIONS: The whole gel procedure allows for reproducible large-scale differential GeLC-MS/MS experiments, without a prohibitive amount of manual processing and with similar performance as conventional in-gel digestion. This procedure will especially enable clinical proteomics for which GeLC-MS/MS is a popular workflow and sample numbers are relatively high.
Project description:Identification of cancer and other disease biomarkers in human plasma has been exceptionally challenging due to the complex nature of plasma and the presence of a moderate number of high- and medium-abundance proteins which mask low-abundance proteins of interest. As a result, immunoaffinity depletion formats combining multiple antibodies to target the most abundant plasma proteins have become the first stage in most plasma proteome discovery schemes. This protocol describes the use of tandem IgY 14 and SuperMix immunoaffinity depletion to reproducibly remove >99% of total plasma protein. This greatly increases the depth of analysis of human plasma proteomes. Depleted plasma samples can then be analyzed in a single high-resolution LC-MS/MS run on a Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer, followed by label-free quantitation. If greater depth of analysis is desired, the depleted plasma can be further fractionated by separating the sample for a short distance on a 1D SDS gel and cutting the gel into uniform slices prior to trypsin digestion. Alternatively, the depleted plasma can be reduced, alkylated, and digested with trypsin followed by high-pH reversed-phase HPLC separation.
Project description:The in-depth analysis of complex proteome samples requires fractionation of the sample into subsamples prior to LC-MS/MS in shotgun proteomics experiments. We have established a 3D workflow for shotgun proteomics that relies on protein separation by 1D PAGE, gel fractionation, trypsin digestion, and peptide separation by in-gel IEF, prior to RP-HPLC-MS/MS. Our results show that applying peptide IEF can significantly increase the number of proteins identified from PAGE subfractionation. This method delivers deeper proteome coverage and provides a large degree of flexibility in experimentally approaching highly complex mixtures by still relying on protein separation according to molecular weight in the first dimension.
Project description:We produced a tear proteome of the genome mouse, C57BL/6, that contained 139 different protein identifications: 110 from a two-dimensional (2D) gel with subsequent trypsin digestion, 19 from a one-dimensional (1D) gel with subsequent trypsin digestion and ten from a 1D gel with subsequent Asp-N digestion. We compared this tear proteome with a C57BL/6 mouse saliva proteome produced previously. Sixteen of the 139 tear proteins are shared between the two proteomes, including six proteins that combat microbial growth. Among the 123 other tear proteins, were members of four large protein families that have no counterparts in humans: Androgen-binding proteins (ABPs) with different members expressed in the two proteomes, Exocrine secreted peptides (ESPs) expressed exclusively in the tear proteome, major urinary proteins (MUPs) expressed in one or both proteomes and the mouse-specific Kallikreins (subfamily b KLKs) expressed exclusively in the saliva proteome. All four families have members with suggested roles in mouse communication, which may influence some aspect of reproductive behavior. We discuss this in the context of functional adaptation involving tear and saliva proteins in the secretions of mouse lacrimal and salivary glands, respectively.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although prior studies have demonstrated a smoking-induced field of molecular injury throughout the lung and airway, the impact of smoking on the airway epithelial proteome and its relationship to smoking-related changes in the airway transcriptome are unclear.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Airway epithelial cells were obtained from never (n = 5) and current (n = 5) smokers by brushing the mainstem bronchus. Proteins were separated by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE). After in-gel digestion, tryptic peptides were processed via liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and proteins identified. RNA from the same samples was hybridized to HG-U133A microarrays. Protein detection was compared to RNA expression in the current study and a previously published airway dataset. The functional properties of many of the 197 proteins detected in a majority of never smokers were similar to those observed in the never smoker airway transcriptome. LC-MS/MS identified 23 proteins that differed between never and current smokers. Western blotting confirmed the smoking-related changes of PLUNC, P4HB1, and uteroglobin protein levels. Many of the proteins differentially detected between never and current smokers were also altered at the level of gene expression in this cohort and the prior airway transcriptome study. There was a strong association between protein detection and expression of its corresponding transcript within the same sample, with 86% of the proteins detected by LC-MS/MS having a detectable corresponding probeset by microarray in the same sample. Forty-one proteins identified by LC-MS/MS lacked detectable expression of a corresponding transcript and were detected in <or=5% of airway samples from a previously published dataset.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>1D-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS effectively profiled the airway epithelium proteome and identified proteins expressed at different levels as a result of cigarette smoke exposure. While there was a strong correlation between protein and transcript detection within the same sample, we also identified proteins whose corresponding transcripts were not detected by microarray. This noninvasive approach to proteomic profiling of airway epithelium may provide additional insights into the field of injury induced by tobacco exposure.
Project description:Sample preparation for protein quantification by mass spectrometry requires multiple processing steps including denaturation, reduction, alkylation, protease digestion, and peptide cleanup. Scaling these procedures for the analysis of numerous complex biological samples can be tedious and time-consuming, as there are many liquid transfer steps and timed reactions where technical variations can be introduced and propagated. We established an automated sample preparation workflow with a total processing time for 96 samples of 5 h, including a 2 h incubation with trypsin. Peptide cleanup is accomplished by online diversion during the LC/MS/MS analysis. In a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay targeting 6 plasma biomarkers and spiked ?-galactosidase, mean intraday and interday cyclic voltammograms (CVs) for 5 serum and 5 plasma samples over 5 days were <20%. In a highly multiplexed SRM assay targeting more than 70 proteins, 90% of the transitions from 6 plasma samples repeated on 3 separate days had total CVs below 20%. Similar results were obtained when the workflow was transferred to a second site: 93% of peptides had CVs below 20%. An automated trypsin digestion workflow yields uniformly processed samples in less than 5 h. Reproducible quantification of peptides was observed across replicates, days, instruments, and laboratory sites, demonstrating the broad applicability of this approach.
Project description:This study describes a new protein digestion protocol in which a variety of detergents can be used to solubilize membrane proteins and facilitate trypsin digestion with higher efficiency. In this protocol, proteins are dissolved in solutions containing various detergents and directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. Detergents are subsequently eliminated from the gel matrix while proteins are still immobilized in the gel matrix. After in-gel digestion of proteins, LC-MS/MS is used to analyze the extracted peptides for protein identification. The uniqueness of the protocol is that it allows usage of a variety of detergents in the starting solution without interfering with LC-MS/MS analysis. We hereby demonstrate that different detergents, including ionic SDS, non-ionic Triton X-100 and n-octyl beta-d-glucopyranoside, and zwitterionic CHAPS, can be used to achieve maximum solubilization of membrane proteins with minimal interference with LC-MS/MS analysis. Enhanced digestions, i.e. improved number and intensity of detected peptides, are also demonstrated for digestion-resistant proteins such as myoglobin, ubiquitin, and bacteriorhodopsin. An additional advantage of the Tube-Gel digestion protocol is that, even without electrophoresis separation, it allows high throughput analysis of complex protein mixtures when coupled with LC-MS/MS. The protocol was used to analyze a complex membrane protein mixture prepared from prostate cancer cells. The protocol involves only a single digestion and 2.5 h of LC-MS/MS analysis and identified 178 membrane proteins. In comparison, the same membrane fraction was resolved by SDS-PAGE, and 20 gel slices were excised and individually digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The more elaborate effort demanded more than 50 h of LC-MS/MS analysis and identified 268 proteins. The new Tube-Gel digestion protocol is an alternative method for high throughput analysis of membrane proteins.
Project description:SJL mice colonized with RcsX lymphoma cells undergo a rapid inflammatory response associated with biological and physiological effects including increased nitric oxide production and mutations in spleen DNA. By 2 weeks postcolonization, these changes were accompanied by both up- and down-regulation of a number of plasma proteins. In the experiments reported here, plasma from individual SJL mice was analyzed at several time-points over the 2-week period to determine if there were sets of proteins whose expression varied in concert and thus might serve as early biomarkers for inflammation-related disorders. Samples were collected just prior to injection of the RcsX cells and then after 4, 8, and 12 days. Albumin and immunoglobulins were depleted, and the samples were resolved by 1D gel electrophoresis. The gels were cut into 20 slices, and the proteins were digested in-gel with trypsin. The digests were treated with iTRAQ reagents and then analyzed using LC/MS/MS. The resulting data were processed with two software packages, that is, ProQuant and Spectrum Mill, and then subjected to K-means cluster analysis (K = 4). The four clusters revealed a set of highly up-regulated proteins, a set of progressively up-regulated proteins, a set with no major changes, and a set that declined. The first cluster included haptoglobin and serum amyloid A; the second included groups with several functions including protease inhibition, cell motility, and transport. The iTRAQ results for a selection of the up-regulated proteins, including haptoglobin, hemopexin, serum amyloid P component, and ceruloplasmin, were confirmed with Western blots. Prominent down-regulated proteins included esterase-1, paraoxonase, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. Approximately 50% of the up-regulated proteins are canonical acute phase proteins, while the remainder are regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor.
Project description:For label-free expression profiling of tissue proteomes, efficient protein extraction, thorough and quantitative sample cleanup and digestion procedures, as well as sufficient and reproducible chromatographic separation, are highly desirable but remain challenging. However, optimal methodology has remained elusive, especially for proteomes that are rich in membrane proteins, such as the mitochondria. Here, we describe a straightforward and reproducible sample preparation procedure, coupled with a highly selective and sensitive nano-LC/Orbitrap analysis, which enables reliable and comprehensive expression profiling of tissue mitochondria. The mitochondrial proteome of swine heart was selected as a test system. Efficient protein extraction was accomplished using a strong buffer containing both ionic and nonionic detergents. Overnight precipitation was used for cleanup of the extract, and the sample was subjected to an optimized 2-step, on-pellet digestion approach. In the first step, the protein pellet was dissolved via a 4 h tryptic digestion under vigorous agitation, which nano-LC/LTQ/ETD showed to produce large and incompletely cleaved tryptic peptides. The mixture was then reduced, alkylated, and digested into its full complement of tryptic peptides with additional trypsin. This solvent precipitation/on-pellet digestion procedure achieved significantly higher and more reproducible peptide recovery of the mitochondrial preparation than observed using a prevalent alternative procedure for label-free expression profiling, SDS-PAGE/in-gel digestion (87% vs 54%). Furthermore, uneven peptide losses were lower than observed with SDS-PAGE/in-gel digestion. The resulting peptides were sufficiently resolved by a 5 h gradient using a nano-LC configuration that features a low-void-volume, high chromatographic reproducibility, and an LTQ/Orbitrap analyzer for protein identification and quantification. The developed method was employed for label-free comparison of the mitochondrial proteomes of myocardium from healthy animals versus those with hibernating myocardium. Each experimental group consisted of a relatively large number of animals (n = 10), and samples were analyzed in random order to minimize quantitative false-positives. With this approach, 904 proteins were identified and quantified with high confidence, and those mitochondrial proteins that were altered significantly between groups were compared with the results of a parallel 2D-DIGE analysis. The sample preparation and analytical strategy developed here represents an advancement that can be adapted to analyze other tissue proteomes.
Project description:In this study, a commercially available fluorescent dye, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl hydrazine (LRSH), was designed to specifically stain the glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels. Through the periodate/Schiff base mechanism, the fluorescent dye readily attaches to glycoproteins and the fluorescence can be simultaneously observed under either 305 nm or 532 nm excitation therefore, the dye-stained glycoproteins can be detected under a regular UV transilluminator or a more elegant laser-based gel scanner. The specificity and detection limit were examined using a standard protein mixture in polyacrylamide gels in this study. The application of this glycoprotein stain dye was further demonstrated using pregnancy urine samples. The fluorescent spots were further digested in gel and their identities confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. In addition, the N-glycosylation sites of LRSH-labeled uromodulin were readily mapped via in-gel PNGaseF deglycosylation and LC-MS/MS analysis, which indicated that this fluorescent dye labeling does not interfere with enzymatic deglycosylation. Hence, the application of this simple and specific dual-wavelength excitable dye staining in current glycoproteome research is promising.