Characterization of the virome of shallots affected by the shallot mild yellow stripe disease in France.
ABSTRACT: To elucidate the etiology of a new disease of shallot in France, double-stranded RNAs from asymptomatic and symptomatic shallot plants were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Annotation of contigs, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence in symptomatic plants of a virus complex consisting of shallot virus X (ShVX, Allexivirus), shallot latent virus (SLV, Carlavirus) and two novel viruses belonging to the genera Carlavirus and Potyvirus, for which the names of shallot virus S (ShVS) and shallot mild yellow stripe associated virus (SMYSaV), are proposed. Complete or near complete genomic sequences were obtained for all these agents, revealing divergent isolates of ShVX and SLV. Trials to fulfill Koch's postulates were pursued but failed to reproduce the symptoms on inoculated shallots, even though the plants were proved to be infected by the four viruses detected by HTS. Replanting of bulbs from SMYSaV-inoculated shallot plants resulted in infected plants, showing that the virus can perpetuate the infection over seasons. A survey analyzing 351 shallot samples over a four years period strongly suggests an association of SMYSaV with the disease symptoms. An analysis of SMYSaV diversity indicates the existence of two clusters of isolates, one of which is largely predominant in the field over years.
Project description:Shallot virus X (ShVX), a type species in the genus Allexivirus of the family Alfaflexiviridae has been associated with shallot plants in India and other shallot growing countries like Russia, Germany, Netherland, and New Zealand. Coat protein (CP) and nucleic acid binding protein (NB) region of the virus was obtained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from scales leaves of shallot bulbs. The partial cDNA contained two open reading frames encoding proteins of molecular weights of 28.66 and 14.18 kDa belonging to Flexi_CP super-family and viral NB super-family, respectively. The percent identity and phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of CP and NB region of the virus associated with shallot indicated that it was a distinct isolate of ShVX.
Project description:A wild Japanese garlic plant (Allium macrostemon Bunge, wild onion) with leaves showing chlorotic stripes was collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Genome sequencing showed that it was infected with shallot latent carlavirus. The genomic sequence of this virus is reported for the first time from wild onion.
Project description:Shallots are an edible <i>Alliaceous</i> crop representing a group of genetically and morphologically different species. Shallot species determination is rather complex due to the high variability in phenotypes within a single species. Flower morphology has been successfully employed in shallot species determination; however, shallot florogenesis depends upon many genetic and environmental factors. There is a need for more accessible morphological descriptors used in shallot species determination, since flowering in shallot may not be consistent. In this study, we investigated the discriminating power of shallot vegetative and bulb morphology descriptors. European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources morphology descriptors were used for describing 35 Croatian shallot accessions. The proposed methodology based on vegetative and bulb morphological descriptors could be used for shallot species discrimination. Additionally, two subtypes of <i>A. cepa</i> Aggregatum group were identified in this study: the first being the shallot type (1) and a potato onion type (2), which differed based on bulb morphology descriptors (bulb shape, bulb skin color, and a number of bulblets).
Project description:Shallots are a valuable minor Allium crop, and are propagated vegetatively and maintained in home gardens across generations along the Croatian coast and island areas. Shallot landraces growing along the Croatian coast fall into three genotypes: Allium cepa Aggregatum group (2n = 2x = 16), A. × proliferum (Moench) Schard. (2n = 2x = 16), and A. × cornutum Clementi ex Vis. (2n = 3x = 24), among which A. × cornutum is the most widespread. The aim of this study was to differentiate shallot accessions collected from local farmers using morphological markers. Also, the chemical composition including phenolic content, phenolic profile, total antioxidant capacity, and mineral composition, of shallot accessions was compared with that of the local landraces of common onion, and with market available shallot and common onion cultivars. Based on morphological observations and using multivariate classification, shallot landraces were classified into three distinct groups. Properties, based on which A. × cornutum can be differentiated from A. cepa Aggregatum and A. × proliferum, are stamen morphology, stamen length, leaf and scape vegetative properties, number of bulbs in cluster, cluster mass, and bulb diameter. Flower diameter and flower pedicel length differentiate A. × cornutum and A. × proliferum from A. cepa Aggregatum. Significant variability was observed in the biochemical profiles across tested accessions. Compared with the commercial common onion cultivars, local shallot accessions have higher bulb N, P, and K content. The major phenolic compounds identified in shallots were quercetin-4′-glucoside and quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside. Additionally, several other minor phenolic compounds were also identified. Morphological and biochemical profiles were evaluated using Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis. Specific morphological traits and biochemical markers for possible species identification are proposed.
Project description:Plant vegetative propagation strategies for agricultural crops cause the accumulation of viruses, resulting in the formation of virus complexes or communities. The cultivation of garlic is based on vegetative propagation and more than 13 virus species from the genera Potyvirus, Allexivirus and Carlavirus have been reported. Aiming for an unbiased identification of viruses from a garlic germplasm collection in Brazil, total RNA from eight garlic cultivars was sequenced by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology. Although most viruses found in this study were previously reported, one of them did not belong to any known genera. This putative new virus was found in seven out of eight garlic cultivars and phylogenetic data positioned it as representative of an independent evolutionary lineage within family Betaflexiviridae. This virus has been tentatively named garlic yellow mosaic-associated virus (GYMaV), sharing highest nucleotide identities with African oil palm ringspot virus (genus Robigovirus) and potato virus T (genus Tepovirus) for the replicase gene, and with viruses classified within genus Foveavirus for the coat protein gene. Due to its high frequency in garlic cultivars, GYMaV should be considered in upcoming surveys of pathogens in this crop and in the development of virus-free garlic plants.
Project description:To unravel the virome in birch trees of German and Finnish origin exhibiting symptoms of birch leaf-roll disease (BRLD), high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was employed. In total five viruses, among which three were so far unknown, were detected by RNAseq. One to five virus variants were identified in the transcriptome of individual trees. The novel viruses were genetically-fully or partially-characterized, belonging to the genera Carlavirus, Idaeovirus and Capillovirus and are tentatively named birch carlavirus, birch idaeovirus, and birch capillovirus, respectively. The recently discovered birch leafroll-associated virus was systematically detected by HTS in symptomatic seedlings but not in symptomless ones. The new carlavirus was detected only in one of the three symptomatic seedlings. The novel putative Capillovirus was detected in all seedlings-irrespective of their BLRD status-while the Idaeovirus was identified in a plant without leaf symptoms at the time of sampling. Further efforts are needed to complete Koch's postulates and to clarify the possible association of the detected viruses with the BLR disease. Our study elucidates the viral population in single birch seedlings and provides a comprehensive overview for the diversities of the viral communities they harbor, to date.
Project description:A new species of the family Alphaflexiviridae provisionally named alfalfa virus S (AVS) was discovered in alfalfa samples originating from Sudan. A complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome consisting of 8,349 nucleotides excluding the 3' poly(A) tail was determined by high throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Illumina platform. NCBI BLAST searches revealed that the virus shares the greatest degree of sequence identity with members of the family Alphaflexiviridae, genus Allexivirus. The AVS genome contains six computationally-predicted open reading frames (ORF) encoding viral replication protein, triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1), TGB2, TGB3-like protein, unknown 38.4 kDa protein resembling serine-rich 40 kDa protein characteristic for allexiviruses, and coat protein (CP). AVS lacks a clear 3' proximal ORF that encodes a nucleic acid-binding protein typical for allexiviruses. The identity of the virus was confirmed by RT-PCR with primers derived from the HTS-generated sequence, dot blot hybridization with DIG-labeled virus-specific RNA probes, and Western blot analysis with antibodies produced against a peptide derived from the CP sequence. Transmission electron microscopic observations of the infected tissues showed the presence of filamentous particles similar to allexiviruses in their length and appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of a putative allexivirus in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The genome sequence of AVS has been deposited in NCBI GenBank on 03/02/2016 as accession ? KY696659.
Project description:Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed. To effectively detect the twelve different types of garlic viruses, primer mixtures were tested and divided into two independent sets for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The multiplex PCR assays were able to detect specific targets up to the similar dilution series with monoplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Seventy-two field samples collected by the Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. All seventy two samples were infected with at least one virus, and the coinfection rate was 78%. We conclude that the simultaneous detection system developed in this study can effectively detect and differentiate mixed viral infections in garlic.
Project description:Plant viruses in the genus Carlavirus include more than 65 members. Plants infected with carlaviruses exhibit various symptoms, including leaf malformation and plant stunting. Cysteine-rich protein (CRP) encoded by carlaviruses has been reported to be a pathogenicity determinant. Carlavirus CRPs contain two motifs in their central part: a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a zinc finger motif (ZF). In addition to these two conserved motifs, carlavirus CRPs possess highly divergent, N-terminal, 34 amino acid residues with unknown function. In this study, to analyse the role of these distinct domains, we tested six carlavirus CRPs for their RNA silencing suppressor activity, ability to enhance the pathogenicity of a heterologous virus and effects on virus accumulation levels. Although all six tested carlavirus CRPs showed RNA silencing suppressor activity at similar levels, symptoms induced by the Potato virus X (PVX) heterogeneous system exhibited two different patterns: leaf malformation and whole-plant stunting. The expression of each carlavirus CRP enhanced PVX accumulation levels, which were not correlated with symptom patterns. PVX-expressing CRP with mutations in either NLS or ZF did not induce symptoms, suggesting that both motifs play critical roles in symptom expression. Further analysis using chimeric CRPs, in which the N-terminal region was replaced with the corresponding region of another CRP, suggested that the N-terminal region of carlavirus CRPs determined the exhibited symptom types. The up-regulation of a plant gene upp-L, which has been reported in a previous study, was also observed in this study; however, the expression level was not responsible for symptom types.
Project description:Reduced seed production in onion is associated with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), a filamentous Potyvirus. Onion is also infected with other filamentous virus particles suspected to be Allexivirus. RT-PCR was used to detect mixed infection of both the viruses in leaves and bulbs. A duplex RT-PCR was developed, which simultaneously detected the presence of these two viruses in winter (Rabi) onion bulb. In summer (Kharif) onion bulbs only Allexivirus was detected. The absence of OYDV in summer crop is discussed. The sequencing of RT-PCR amplified products confirmed the identity of OYDV and Allexivirus, the latter showing closer identity to Garlic virus C (GVC)/Garlic mite-borne mosaic virus. This makes the first detection of an Allexivirus in onion crop in India. The duplex RT-PCR to detect these viruses (OYDV and Allexivirus) would be an improvement for indexing of viruses in onion bulbs for seed production.