Normalization of glycosaminoglycan-derived disaccharides detected by tandem mass spectrometry assay for the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis.
ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is caused by the deficiency of a specific hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the step-wise degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we propose an empirical method to calculate levels of GAG-derived disaccharides based on the quantity (peak areas) of chondroitin sulfate (CS) with the aim of making a diagnosis of MPS more accurate and reducing the occurrence of false positive and false negative results. In this study, levels of urinary GAG-derived disaccharides were measured in 67 patients with different types of MPS and 165 controls without MPS using a tandem mass spectrometry assay. Two different methods of reporting GAG-derived disaccharides were assessed; normalization to urinary CS (in ?g/mL), and normalization to ?g/mg creatinine. CS-normalization yielded more consistent values than creatinine-normalization. In particular, levels of urinary dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) significantly varied because of changes in urine creatinine levels, which were proportional to age but inversely proportional to DS, HS, and KS measurements. Using CS-normalization revealed the actual status of DS, HS, and KS without the influence of factors such as age, urine creatinine, and other physiological conditions. It could discriminate between the patients with MPS and controls without MPS, and also to evaluate changes in GAG levels pre- and post-enzyme replacement therapy.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC6656773 | BioStudies |