Structure-Function Analysis of the Phosphoesterase Component of the Nucleic Acid End-Healing Enzyme Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk.
ABSTRACT: Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk is the prototype of a family of dual 5' and 3' nucleic acid end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5'-OH termini and dephosphorylate 2',3'-cyclic-PO4, 3'-PO4, and 2'-PO4 ends. HD-Pnk is composed of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module and a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Here, we probed the phosphoesterase activity of HD-Pnk by querying its ability to hydrolyze non-nucleic acid phosphoester substrates and by conducting a mutational analysis of conserved amino acid constituents of the HD domain. We report that HD-Pnk catalyzes vigorous hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (Km = 3.13?mM; k cat = 27.8?s-1) using copper as its metal cofactor. Mutagenesis identified Gln28, His33, His73, Asp74, Lys77, His94, His127, Asp162, and Arg166 as essential for p-nitrophenylphosphatase and DNA 3' phosphatase activities. Structural modeling places these residues at the active site, wherein His33, His73, Asp74, His94, and His127 are predicted to coordinate a binuclear metal complex and Lys77 and Arg166 engage the scissile phosphate. HD-Pnk homologs are distributed broadly (and exclusively) in bacteria, usually in a two-gene cluster with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase (LIG). We speculate that HD-Pnk and LIG comprise the end-healing and end-sealing components of a bacterial nucleic acid repair pathway.IMPORTANCE 5'-end healing and 3'-end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5'-OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase, and 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate 5'-PO4 and 3'-OH termini needed for joining by DNA and RNA ligases. This study interrogates, biochemically and via mutagenesis, the phosphoesterase activity of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a bifunctional bacterial 5'- and 3'-end-healing enzyme composed of HD phosphoesterase and P-loop kinase modules. HD-Pnk homologs are found in 129 bacterial genera from 11 phyla. In 123/129 instances, HD-Pnk is encoded in an operon-like gene cluster with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase (LIG), suggesting that HD-Pnk and LIG are agents of a conserved bacterial nucleic acid repair pathway.
Project description:5'- and 3'-end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5'-OH and 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 ends are converted to 5'-PO4 and 3'-OH termini suitable for sealing by polynucleotide ligases. Here, we characterize Deinococcus radiodurans HD-Pnk as a bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of N-terminal HD (histidine-aspartate) phosphoesterase and C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) domains. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5'-OH DNA in the presence of ATP and magnesium. HD-Pnk has 3'-phosphatase and 2',3'-cyclic-phosphodiesterase activity in the presence of transition metals, optimally cobalt or copper, and catalyzes copper-dependent hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate. HD-Pnk is encoded by the LIG-PARG-HD-Pnk three-gene operon, which includes polynucleotide ligase and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase genes. We show that whereas HD-Pnk is inessential for Deinococcus growth, its absence sensitizes by 80-fold bacteria to killing by 9 kGy of ionizing radiation (IR). HD-Pnk protein is depleted during early stages of post-IR recovery and then replenished at 15 h, after reassembly of the genome from shattered fragments. ?HD-Pnk mutant cells are competent for genome reassembly, as gauged by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our findings suggest a role for HD-Pnk in repairing residual single-strand gaps or nicks in the reassembled genome. HD-Pnk-Ala mutations that ablate kinase or phosphoesterase activity sensitize Deinococcus to killing by mitomycin C.IMPORTANCE End healing is a process whereby nucleic acid breaks with "dirty" 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH ends are converted to 3'-OH and 5'-PO4 termini that are amenable to downstream repair reactions. Deinococcus radiodurans is resistant to massive doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that generate hundreds of dirty DNA double-strand breaks and thousands of single-strand breaks. This study highlights Deinococcus HD-Pnk as a bifunctional 3'- and 5'-end-healing enzyme that helps protect against killing by IR. HD-Pnk appears to act late in the process of post-IR recovery, subsequent to genome reassembly from shattered fragments. HD-Pnk also contributes to resistance to killing by mitomycin C. These findings are significant in that they establish a role for end-healing enzymes in bacterial DNA damage repair.
Project description:5'- and 3'-end-healing reactions are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5'-OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) and 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5'-PO4 and 3'-OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End-healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3'-phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5'-OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5'-OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any nucleoside triphosphate donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate, RNA 3'-phosphate, RNA 2'-phosphate, and DNA 3'-phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper, or cobalt. HD-Pnk homologs are present in genera from 11 bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. IMPORTANCE The present study provides insights regarding the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5'- and 3'-end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5'-OH termini and dephosphorylate 2',3'-cyclic-PO4, 3'-PO4, and 2'-PO4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition, i.e., a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module and a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, same domain order, and similar polypeptide sizes are distributed widely among genera from 11 bacterial phyla.
Project description:Eukaryotic tRNA splicing is an essential process in the transformation of a primary tRNA transcript into a mature functional tRNA molecule. 5'-phosphate ligation involves two steps: a healing reaction catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK) in association with cyclic phosphodiesterase (CPDase), and a sealing reaction catalyzed by an RNA ligase. The enzymes that catalyze tRNA healing in yeast and higher eukaryotes are homologous to the members of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily, in particular to the vertebrate myelin enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase).We employed different biophysical and biochemical methods to elucidate the overall structural and functional features of the tRNA healing enzymes yeast Trl1 PNK/CPDase and lancelet PNK/CPDase and compared them with vertebrate CNPase. The yeast and the lancelet enzymes have cyclic phosphodiesterase and polynucleotide kinase activity, while vertebrate CNPase lacks PNK activity. In addition, we also show that the healing enzymes are structurally similar to the vertebrate CNPase by applying synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering.We provide a structural analysis of the tRNA healing enzyme PNK and CPDase domains together. Our results support evolution of vertebrate CNPase from tRNA healing enzymes with a loss of function at its N-terminal PNK-like domain.
Project description:Fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) is an essential enzyme that repairs RNA breaks with 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH ends inflicted during tRNA splicing and non-canonical mRNA splicing in the fungal unfolded protein response. Trl1 is composed of C-terminal cyclic phosphodiesterase (CPD) and central GTP-dependent polynucleotide kinase (KIN) domains that heal the broken ends to generate the 3'-OH,2'-PO4 and 5'-PO4 termini required for sealing by an N-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain (LIG). Here we report crystal structures of the Trl1-LIG domain from Chaetomium thermophilum at two discrete steps along the reaction pathway: the covalent LIG-(lysyl-N?)-AMP•Mn2+ intermediate and a LIG•ATP•(Mn2+)2 Michaelis complex. The structures highlight a two-metal mechanism whereby a penta-hydrated metal complex stabilizes the transition state of the ATP ? phosphate and a second metal bridges the ? and ? phosphates to help orient the pyrophosphate leaving group. A LIG-bound sulfate anion is a plausible mimetic of the essential RNA terminal 2'-PO4. Trl1-LIG has a distinctive C-terminal domain that instates fungal Trl1 as the founder of an Rnl6 clade of ATP-dependent RNA ligase. We discuss how the Trl1-LIG structure rationalizes the large body of in vivo structure-function data for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trl1.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum polynucleotide kinase (CthPnk), the 5' end-healing module of a bacterial RNA repair system, catalyzes reversible phosphoryl transfer from an NTP donor to a 5'-OH polynucleotide acceptor. Here we report the crystal structures of CthPnk-D38N in a Michaelis complex with GTP•Mg(2+) and a 5'-OH oligonucleotide and a product complex with GDP•Mg(2+) and a 5'-PO4 oligonucleotide. The O5' nucleophile is situated 3.0 Å from the GTP ? phosphorus in the Michaelis complex, where it is coordinated by Asn38 and is apical to the bridging ? phosphate oxygen of the GDP leaving group. In the product complex, the transferred phosphate has undergone stereochemical inversion and Asn38 coordinates the 5'-bridging phosphate oxygen of the oligonucleotide. The D38N enzyme is poised for catalysis, but cannot execute because it lacks Asp38-hereby implicated as the essential general base catalyst that abstracts a proton from the 5'-OH during the kinase reaction. Asp38 serves as a general acid catalyst during the 'reverse kinase' reaction by donating a proton to the O5' leaving group of the 5'-PO4 strand. The acceptor strand binding mode of CthPnk is distinct from that of bacteriophage T4 Pnk.
Project description:T4 polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) is a bifunctional 5'-kinase/3'-phosphatase that aids in the repair of broken termini in RNA by converting 3'-PO4/5'-OH ends into 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ends, which are then sealed by RNA ligase. Here we have employed site-directed mutagenesis (introducing 31 mutations at 16 positions) to locate candidate catalytic residues within the 301 amino acid Pnk polypeptide. We found that alanine substitutions for Arg38 and Arg126 inactivated the 5'-kinase, but spared the 3'-phosphatase activity. Conservative substitutions of lysine or glutamine for Arg38 and Arg126 did not restore 5'-kinase activity. These results, together with previous mutational studies, highlight a constellation of five amino acids (Lys15, Ser16, Asp35, Arg38 and Arg126) that likely comprise the 5'-kinase active site. Four of these residues are conserved at the active sites of adenylate kinases (Adk), suggesting that Pnk and Adk are structurally and mechanistically related. We found that alanine substitutions for Asp165, Asp167, Arg176, Arg213, Asp254 and Asp278 inactivated the 3'-phosphatase, but spared the 5'-kinase. Conservative substitutions of asparagine or glutamate for Asp165, Asp167 and Asp254 did not revive the 3'-phosphatase activity, nor did lysine substitutions for Arg176 and Arg213. Glutamate in lieu of Asp278 partially restored activity, whereas asparagine had no salutary effect. Alanine substitutions for Arg246 and Arg279 partially inactivated the 3'-phosphatase; the conservative R246K change restored activity, whereas R279K had no benefit. The essential phosphatase residues Asp165 and Asp167 are located within a 165DxDxT169 motif that defines a superfamily of phosphotransferases. Our data suggest that the 3'-phosphatase active site incorporates multiple additional functional groups.
Project description:Fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) rectifies RNA breaks with 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH termini. Trl1 consists of three catalytic modules: an N-terminal ligase (LIG) domain; a central polynucleotide kinase (KIN) domain; and a C-terminal cyclic phosphodiesterase (CPD) domain. Trl1 enzymes found in all human fungal pathogens are untapped targets for antifungal drug discovery. Here we report a 1.9 Å crystal structure of Trl1 KIN-CPD from the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, which adopts an extended conformation in which separate KIN and CPD domains are connected by an unstructured linker. CPD belongs to the 2H phosphotransferase superfamily by dint of its conserved central concave ? sheet and interactions of its dual HxT motif histidines and threonines with phosphate in the active site. Additional active site motifs conserved among the fungal CPD clade of 2H enzymes are identified. We present structures of the Candida Trl1 KIN domain at 1.5 to 2.0 Å resolution-as apoenzyme and in complexes with GTP•Mg2+, IDP•PO4, and dGDP•PO4-that highlight conformational switches in the G-loop (which recognizes the guanine base) and lid-loop (poised over the nucleotide phosphates) that accompany nucleotide binding.
Project description:To accelerate previous RNA structure probing approaches, which focus on analyzing one RNA sequence at a time, we have developed FragSeq, a high-throughput RNA structure probing method that uses high-throughput RNA sequencing to identify single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) regions from fragments generated by nuclease P1, which is specific for single-stranded nucleic acids. In the accompanying study, we show that we can accurately and simultaneously map ssRNA regions in multiple non-coding RNAs with known structure in experiments probing the entire mouse nuclear transcriptome. We carried out probing in two cell types to assess reproducibility. We also identified and experimentally validated structured regions in ncRNAs never previously probed. We examined mouse nuclear RNA from two cell types: undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (UNDIFF) and cells differentiated into neural precursors (D5NP). For each cell type, nuclear RNA was purified and deproteinized, denatured, and refolded in vitro, from which we prepared three barcoded samples: "nuclease" (RNA partially digested with P1 ssRNA-specific nuclease, yielding 5'-PO4/3'-OH end chemistry at each cleavage site), "control" (control for "nuclease" sample to idenfity endogenous 5'-PO4/3'-OH), and "PNK" (same as "control" but followed by a polynucleotide kinase treatment to convert 5'-OH/3'-cyclic-phosphate ends to clonable 5'-PO4/3'-OH ends). Resulting RNA fragments were cloned using the SOLiD Small RNA Expression Kit (SREK) protocol, which ligates linkers only to 5'-PO4/3'-OH containing RNA, enriching for clones of products resulting from P1 cleavage in "nuclease" sample and selecting against random degradation. Two cell types, three treatments each, thus resulted in six barcoded samples total (barcodes 01, 02, 04, 05, 07, 08). Four other barcoded samples were prepared for separate experiments not used in our study (barcodes 03, 06, 09, 10), so their preparation is not described here. The total run of ten barcodes was done on the ABI SOLiD3 platform and a custom algorithm (FragSeq v0.0.1) was used to compute "cutting scores" (as described in our paper) that show ssRNA regions in hundreds of ncRNAs.
Project description:Phosphorylation of nucleic acids is an indispensable process to repair strand interruption of nucleic acids. We have studied the process of phosphorylation using molecular beacon (MB) DNA probes in real-time and with high selectivity. The MB employed in this method is devised to sense the product of a 'phosphorylation-ligation' coupled enzyme reaction. Compared with the current assays, this novel method is convenient, fast, selective, highly sensitive and capable of real-time monitoring in a homogenous solution. The preference of T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) has been investigated using this approach. The results revealed that a single-stranded oligonucleotide containing guanine at the 5' termini is most preferred, while those utilizing cytosine in this location are least preferred. The preference of (T)9 was reduced greatly when phosphoryl was modified at the 5' end, implying that T4 PNK could discern the phosphorylated/unphosphorylated oligonucleotides. The increase of oligonucleotide DNA length leads to an enhancement in preference. A fast and accurate method for assaying the kinase activity of T4 PNK has been developed with a wide linear detection range from 0.002 to 4.0 U/ml in 3 min. The effects of certain factors, such as NTP, ADP, (NH4)2SO4 and Na2HPO4, on phosphorylation have been investigated. This novel approach enables us to investigate the interactions between proteins and nucleic acids in a homogenous solution, such as those found in DNA repair or in drug development.
Project description:We identify and characterize an end-healing enzyme, CthPnkp, from Clostridium thermocellum that catalyzes the phosphorylation of 5'-OH termini of DNA or RNA polynucleotides and the dephosphorylation of 2',3' cyclic phosphate, 2'-phosphate, and 3'-phosphate ribonucleotides. CthPnkp also catalyzes an autoadenylylation reaction via a polynucleotide ligase-type mechanism. These characteristics are consistent with a role in end-healing during RNA or DNA repair. CthPnkp is a homodimer of an 870-amino-acid polypeptide composed of three catalytic domains: an N-terminal module that resembles the polynucleotide kinase domain of bacteriophage T4 Pnkp, a central metal-dependent phosphoesterase module, and a C-terminal module that resembles the nucleotidyl transferase domain of polynucleotide ligases. The distinctive feature of CthPnkp vis-à-vis known RNA repair enzymes is that its 3' end modification component belongs to the calcineurin-type phosphatase superfamily. It contains putative counterparts of the amino acids that form the dinuclear metal-binding site and the phosphate-binding site of bacteriophage lambda phosphatase. As with lambda phosphatase, the 2',3' cAMP phosphatase activity of CthPnkp is specifically dependent on nickel or manganese. We identify homologs of CthPnkp in other bacterial proteomes.