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Structure-Function Analysis of the Phosphoesterase Component of the Nucleic Acid End-Healing Enzyme Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk.

ABSTRACT: Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk is the prototype of a family of dual 5' and 3' nucleic acid end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5'-OH termini and dephosphorylate 2',3'-cyclic-PO4, 3'-PO4, and 2'-PO4 ends. HD-Pnk is composed of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module and a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Here, we probed the phosphoesterase activity of HD-Pnk by querying its ability to hydrolyze non-nucleic acid phosphoester substrates and by conducting a mutational analysis of conserved amino acid constituents of the HD domain. We report that HD-Pnk catalyzes vigorous hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (Km = 3.13?mM; k cat = 27.8?s-1) using copper as its metal cofactor. Mutagenesis identified Gln28, His33, His73, Asp74, Lys77, His94, His127, Asp162, and Arg166 as essential for p-nitrophenylphosphatase and DNA 3' phosphatase activities. Structural modeling places these residues at the active site, wherein His33, His73, Asp74, His94, and His127 are predicted to coordinate a binuclear metal complex and Lys77 and Arg166 engage the scissile phosphate. HD-Pnk homologs are distributed broadly (and exclusively) in bacteria, usually in a two-gene cluster with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase (LIG). We speculate that HD-Pnk and LIG comprise the end-healing and end-sealing components of a bacterial nucleic acid repair pathway.IMPORTANCE 5'-end healing and 3'-end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5'-OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase, and 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate 5'-PO4 and 3'-OH termini needed for joining by DNA and RNA ligases. This study interrogates, biochemically and via mutagenesis, the phosphoesterase activity of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a bifunctional bacterial 5'- and 3'-end-healing enzyme composed of HD phosphoesterase and P-loop kinase modules. HD-Pnk homologs are found in 129 bacterial genera from 11 phyla. In 123/129 instances, HD-Pnk is encoded in an operon-like gene cluster with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase (LIG), suggesting that HD-Pnk and LIG are agents of a conserved bacterial nucleic acid repair pathway.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6657592 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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