Phosphatidylcholine Extends Lifespan via DAF-16 and Reduces Amyloid-Beta-Induced Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylcholine is one of the major phospholipids comprising cellular membrane and is known to have several health-promoting activities, including the improvement of brain function and liver repair. In this paper, we examine the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with phosphatidylcholine on the response to environmental stressors and aging in C. elegans. Treatment with phosphatidylcholine significantly increased the survival of worms under oxidative stress conditions. However, there was no significant difference in response to stresses caused by heat shock or ultraviolet irradiation. Oxidative stress is believed to be one of the major causal factors of aging. Then, we examined the effect of phosphatidylcholine on lifespan and age-related physiological changes. Phosphatidylcholine showed a lifespan-extending effect and a reduction in fertility, possibly as a tradeoff for long lifespan. Age-related decline of motility was also significantly delayed by supplementation with phosphatidylcholine. Interestingly, the expressions of well-known longevity-assuring genes, hsp-16.2 and sod-3, were significantly upregulated by dietary intervention with phosphatidylcholine. DAF-16, a transcription factor modulating stress response genes, was accumulated in the nucleus by phosphatidylcholine treatment. Increase of the ROS level with phosphatidylcholine suggests that the antioxidant and lifespan-extending effects are due to the hormetic effect of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine also showed a protective effect against amyloid beta-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease model animals. Experiments with long-lived mutants revealed that the lifespan-extending effect of phosphatidylcholine specifically overlapped with that of reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and required DAF-16. These findings showed the antioxidant and antiaging activities of phosphatidylcholine for the first time in vivo. Further studies focusing on the identification of underlying cellular mechanisms involved in the antiaging effect will increase the possibility of using phosphatidylcholine for the development of antiaging therapeutics.
Project description:Broad aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans life history, including larval developmental timing, arrest at the dauer diapause, and longevity, are regulated by the nuclear receptor DAF-12. Endogenous DAF-12 ligands are 3-keto bile acid-like steroids, called dafachronic acids, which rescue larval defects of hormone-deficient mutants, such as daf-9/cytochrome P450 and daf-36/Rieske oxygenase, and activate DAF-12. Here we examined the effect of dafachronic acid on pathways controlling lifespan. Dafachronic acid supplementation shortened the lifespan of long-lived daf-9 mutants and abolished their stress resistance, indicating that the ligand is "proaging" in response to signals from the dauer pathways. However, the ligand extended the lifespan of germ-line ablated daf-9 and daf-36 mutants, showing that it is "antiaging" in the germ-line longevity pathway. Thus, dafachronic acid regulates C. elegans lifespan according to signaling state. These studies provide key evidence that bile acid-like steroids modulate aging in animals.
Project description:Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a phytoestrogen and rich in food flaxseed, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds. Among the beneficial pharmacological activities of SDG on health, many are age related, such as anticancer, antidiabetes, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Thus, we investigated if SDG had an effect on antiaging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that SDG could extend the lifespan of C. elegans by up to 22.0%, delay age-related decline of body movement, reduce the lethality of heat and oxidative stress, alleviate dopamine neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and decrease the toxicity of A? protein in C. elegans. SDG could increase the expression of the downstream genes of DAF-16, DAF-12, NHR-80, and HSF-1 at mRNA level. SDG could not extend the lifespan of mutants from genes daf-16, hsf-1, nhr-80, daf-12, glp-1, eat-2, and aak-2. The above results suggested that SDG might enhance the stress resistance, delay the progression of aging-related diseases, and extend the lifespan of C. elegans via DAF-16 and HSF-1.
Project description:Carnosol, a phenolic diterpene, is one of the main constituents of Rosmarinus. It is known to possess a range of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, the antiaging effects of carnosol have received little attention. This study first indicated that carnosol increased the healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). First, compared with the control condition, carnosol treatment effectively decreased ROS accumulation under normal or oxidative stress condition, significantly increased several key antioxidant enzyme activities, and significantly decreased MDA content. Second, carnosol effectively prolonged lifespan under normal and stress conditions and slowed aging-related declines, including mobility, age pigmentation, and neurodegenerative disease, but had no effect on fertility and fat deposition. Finally, carnosol-mediated longevity required the upregulated expression of sod-3, sod-5, hsf-1, hsp-16.1, and hsp-16.2 and was dependent on the hsf-1 gene. Increased DAF-16 translocation was observed, but daf-16 was independent of the effects on lifespan induced by carnosol. These results suggested that carnosol might serve as a good source of natural antioxidants, and in particular, carnosol could be explored as a potential dietary supplement to slow aging.
Project description:Aging and healthspan are determined by both environmental and genetic factors. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) pathway is a key mediator of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals. Specifically, DAF-2 signaling, an ortholog of human IGF, controls DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, a master regulator of metabolism and longevity. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are both linked to aging. We propose that daily supplementation of tart cherry extract (TCE), rich in anthocyanins with antioxidant properties may exert dual benefits for mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, resulting in beneficial effects on aging in C. elegans. We found that TCE supplementation at 6 ?g or 12 ?g/mL, increased (p < 0.05) the mean lifespan of wild type N2 worms, respectively, when compared to untreated control worms. Consistent with these findings, TCE upregulated (p < 0.05) expression of longevity-related genes such as daf-16 and aak-2 (but not daf-2 or akt-1 genes) and genes related to oxidative stress such as sod-2. Further, we showed that TCE supplementation increased spare respiration in N2 worms. However, TCE did not change the mean lifespan of daf-16 and aak-2 mutant worms. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TCE confers healthspan benefits in C. elegans through enhanced mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress, mainly via the DAF-16 pathway.
Project description:Medicinal berries are appreciated for their health benefits, in traditional ecological knowledge and nutrition science. Determining the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of berry supplementation may contribute to our understanding of aging. Here, we report that lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) treatment causes marked nuclear localization of the central aging-related transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged Caenorhabditis elegans. Further, functional DAF-16 is required for the lifespan extension, improved mechanosensation, and posterior touch receptor neuron morphological changes induced by lowbush cranberry treatments. DAF-16 is not observed in nuceli nor required for lifespan extension in lifespan-extending Alaskan blueberry treatments and, while DAF-16 is not visibly induced into the nucleus in lifespan-extending Alaskan chaga treatments, it is required for chaga-induced lifespan extension. These findings underscore the importance of DAF-16 in the aging of whole organisms and touch receptor neurons and also, importantly, indicate that this critical pathway is not always activated upon consumption of functional foods that impact aging.
Project description:Most age-related diseases and aging itself are associated with chronic inflammation. Thus pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory processes may be effective antiaging strategy. In this study we demonstrated that treatment of Drosophila melanogaster with 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: CAY10404, aspirin, APHS, SC-560, NS-398, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, licofelone) leads to extension of lifespan, delays age-dependent decline of locomotor activity and increases stress resistance. The effect of the lifespan increase was associated with decrease of fecundity. Depending on the concentration, NSAIDs demonstrated both anti- and pro-oxidant properties in Drosophila tissues. However, we failed to identify clear correlation between antioxidant properties of NSAIDs and their pro-longevity effects. The lifespan extending effects of APHS, SC-58125, valeroyl salicylate, trans-resveratrol, valdecoxib, and licofelone were more pronounced in males, valdecoxib and aspirin - in females. We demonstrated that lifespan extension effect of NSAIDs was abolished in flies with defective genes involved in Pkh2-ypk1-lem3-tat2 pathway.
Project description:At present, a large number of studies have reported that hydrogen has antioxidant functions and prevents oxidative stress damage. However, it is not clear whether hydrogen can prolong longevity based on these effects. Therefore, we studied and explored the antiaging potential of exogenous hydrogen and its ability to extend longevity using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an animal model. Our results showed that the lifespans of the N2, sod-3 and sod-5 mutant strains were extended by approximately 22.7%, 9.5%, and 8.7%, respectively, after hydrogen treatment, but hydrogen had no effect on the lifespans of the daf-2 and daf-16 mutant strains. Meanwhile, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hydrogen treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group. At the transcript level, the expression of age-1 and let-363 was obviously decreased, while the expression of ins-18 was increased at the same time point (14 d). Compared with the control group, paraquat (PQ) could reduce the lifespan of the N2 and sod-5 mutant strains. Importantly, the longevity of these mutant strains recovered to normal levels when the animals were treated with exogenous hydrogen. According to these results, the lifespan of C. elegans is closely related to oxidative stress and can be significantly prolonged by reducing oxidative stress damage. Taken together, our data showed that hydrogen is a valuable antioxidant that can significantly reduce the body's ROS levels and extend the lifespan of C. elegans. This study also laid a foundation for the subsequent application of hydrogen in antiaging studies.
Project description:Extending healthy lifespan is an emerging issue in an aging society. This study was designed to identify a dietary method of extending lifespan, promoting renoprotection, and preventing muscle weakness in aged mice, with a focus on the importance of the balance between dietary essential (EAAs) and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) on the dietary restriction (DR)-induced antiaging effect. Groups of aged mice were fed ad libitum, a simple DR, or a DR with recovering NEAAs or EAAs. Simple DR significantly extended lifespan and ameliorated age-related kidney injury; however, the beneficial effects of DR were canceled by recovering dietary EAA but not NEAA. Simple DR prevented the age-dependent decrease in slow-twitch muscle fiber function but reduced absolute fast-twitch muscle fiber function. DR-induced fast-twitch muscle fiber dysfunction was improved by recovering either dietary NEAAs or EAAs. In the ad libitum-fed and the DR plus EAA groups, the renal content of methionine, an EAA, was significantly higher, accompanied by lower renal production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an endogenous antioxidant. Finally, removal of methionine from the dietary EAA supplement diminished the adverse effects of dietary EAA on lifespan and kidney injury in the diet-restricted aged mice, which were accompanied by a recovery in H2 S production capacity and lower oxidative stress. These data imply that a dietary approach could combat kidney aging and prolong lifespan, while preventing muscle weakness, and suggest that renal methionine metabolism and the trans-sulfuration pathway could be therapeutic targets for preventing kidney aging and subsequently promoting healthy aging.
Project description:The effects of antioxidants on lifespan have been widely studied. Our previous study showed supplementation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we aimed to determine the lifespan-extending mechanism involved with NAC and the effect of NAC on Alzheimer's disease (AD). NAC further increased the lifespan of age-1 and clk-1 mutants, which have increased lifespan owing to reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and mitochondrial function, respectively. There was no additional lifespan extension in eat-2 background, a genetic model of dietary restriction (DR), by NAC. Gene knockdown experiments revealed that the effect of NAC is not dependent on SKN-1, a protein-sensing DR status, whereas DAF-16, a transcription factor regulating stress-responsive genes, is required for lifespan extension by NAC. NAC delayed paralysis caused by amyloid beta. Our results show that NAC mimics the effect of DR on lifespan, possibly through the induction of DAF-16 nuclear localization and may retard the incidence of AD.
Project description:Anacardium occidentale (AO) contains a number of polyphenolic secondary metabolites with antioxidant activity. The objectives of this study were aimed at investigating the roles of AO leaf extracts in antioxidative stress and longevity, as well as their underlying mechanisms, in the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. AO extracts mediated the survival rate of nematodes under oxidative stress by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the DAF-16/FoxO and SKN-1/Nrf-2 signaling pathways. AO extracts stimulated the expression of stress response genes including SOD-3 and GST-4. Moreover, AO extracts exhibited antiaging activities and enhanced longevity. We observed improved pharyngeal pumping function, attenuation of pigment accumulation (lipofuscin), and an increased lifespan of the worms. Collectively, our results demonstrated that AO extracts exerted both oxidative stress resistance and antiaging properties in the C. elegans model and may lead to new agents to benefit humans in the near future.