Synthesis of an ?-phosphono-?,?-difluoroacetamide analogue of the diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate 5-InsP7.
ABSTRACT: Diphosphoinositol phosphates (PP-InsPs) are an evolutionarily ancient group of signalling molecules that are essential to cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the detailed mechanisms of PP-InsP signalling begin to emerge, synthetic analogues of PP-InsPs containing stabilised mimics of the labile diphosphate group can provide valuable investigational tools. We synthesised 5-PCF2Am-InsP5 (1), a novel fluorinated phosphonate analogue of 5-PP-InsP5, and obtained an X-ray crystal structure of 1 in complex with diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 (PPIP5K2). 5-PCF2Am-InsP5 binds to the kinase domain of PPIP5K2 in a similar orientation to that of the natural substrate 5-PP-InsP5 and the PCF2Am structure can mimic many aspects of the diphosphate group in 5-PP-InsP5. We propose that 1, the structural and electronic properties of which are in some ways complementary to those of existing phosphonoacetate and methylenebisphosphonate analogues of 5-PP-InsP5, may be a useful addition to the expanding array of chemical tools for the investigation of signalling by PP-InsPs. The PCF2Am group may also deserve attention for wider application as a diphosphate mimic.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol phosphates (PP-InsPs) are inositol phosphates (InsPs) that contain PP (diphosphate) groups. Converting a phosphate group in an InsP into a diphosphate has been reported to enhance affinity for some binding proteins. We synthesised 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2, the first diphosphate analogue of the intracellular signalling molecule InsP3, and examined its effects on InsP3 receptors, which are intracellular Ca2+ channels. 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 was indistinguishable from InsP3 in its ability to bind to and activate type 1 InsP3 receptors, indicating that the diphosphate modification of InsP3 affected neither affinity nor efficacy. Nevertheless, 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 is the most potent 1-phosphate modified analogue of InsP3 yet identified. PP-InsPs are generally hydrolysed by diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolases (DIPPs), but 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 was not readily metabolised by human DIPPs. Differential scanning fluorimetry showed that 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 stabilises DIPP proteins, but to a lesser extent than naturally occurring substrates 1-PP-InsP5 and 5-PP-InsP5. The non-hydrolysable InsP7 analogues 1-PCP-InsP5 and 5-PCP-InsP5 showed comparable stabilising abilities to their natural counterparts and may therefore be promising substrate analogues for co-crystallisation with DIPPs.
Project description:We synthesised analogues of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-InsPs) in which the diphosphate is replaced by an ?-phosphonoacetic acid (PA) ester. Structural analysis revealed that 5-PA-InsP(5) mimics 5-PP-InsP(5) binding to the kinase domain of PPIP5K2; both molecules were phosphorylated by the enzyme. PA-InsPs are promising candidates for further studies into the biology of PP-InsPs.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-InsP5 or 'InsP7') and bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate ([PP]2-InsP4 or 'InsP8') are the most highly phosphorylated members of the inositol-based cell signaling family. We have purified a rat hepatic diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase (DIPP) that cleaves a beta-phosphate from the diphosphate groups in PP-InsP5 (Km = 340 nM) and [PP]2-InsP4 (Km = 34 nM). Inositol hexakisphophate (InsP6) was not a substrate, but it inhibited metabolism of both [PP]2-InsP4 and PP-InsP5 (IC50 = 0.2 and 3 microM, respectively). Microsequencing of DIPP revealed a 'MutT' domain, which in other contexts guards cellular integrity by dephosphorylating 8-oxo-dGTP, which causes AT to CG transversion mutations. The MutT domain also metabolizes some nucleoside phosphates that may play roles in signal transduction. The rat DIPP MutT domain is conserved in a novel recombinant human uterine DIPP. The nucleotide sequence of the human DIPP cDNA was aligned to chromosome 6; the candidate gene contains at least four exons. The dependence of DIPP's catalytic activity upon its MutT domain was confirmed by mutagenesis of a conserved glutamate residue. DIPP's low molecular size, Mg2+ dependency and catalytic preference for phosphoanhydride bonds are also features of other MutT-type proteins. Because overlapping substrate specificity is a feature of this class of proteins, our data provide new directions for future studies of higher inositol phosphates.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 (PPIP5K2) is one of the mammalian PPIP5K isoforms responsible for synthesis of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (inositol pyrophosphates; PP-InsPs), regulatory molecules that function at the interface of cell signaling and organismic homeostasis. The development of drugs that inhibit PPIP5K2 could have both experimental and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe a synthetic strategy for producing naturally occurring 5-PP-InsP4, as well as several inositol polyphosphate analogs, and we study their interactions with PPIP5K2 using biochemical and structural approaches. These experiments uncover an additional ligand-binding site on the surface of PPIP5K2, adjacent to the catalytic pocket. This site facilitates substrate capture from the bulk phase, prior to transfer into the catalytic pocket. In addition to demonstrating a "catch-and-pass" reaction mechanism in a small molecule kinase, we demonstrate that binding of our analogs to the substrate capture site inhibits PPIP5K2. This work suggests that the substrate-binding site offers new opportunities for targeted drug design.
Project description:The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions.
Project description:Mammalian cells utilize multiple signaling mechanisms to protect against the osmotic stress that accompanies plasma membrane ion transport, solute uptake, and turnover of protein and carbohydrates (Schliess, F., and Haussinger, D. (2002) Biol. Chem. 383, 577-583). Recently, osmotic stress was found to increase synthesis of bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate ((PP)2-InsP4), a high energy inositol pyrophosphate (Pesesse, X., Choi, K., Zhang, T., and Shears, S. B. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 43378-43381). Here, we describe the purification from rat brain of a diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase (PPIP5K) that synthesizes (PP)2-InsP4. Partial amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, matched the sequence of a 160-kDa rat protein containing a putative ATP-grasp kinase domain. BLAST searches uncovered two human isoforms (PPIP5K1 (160 kDa) and PPIP5K2 (138 kDa)). Recombinant human PPIP5K1, expressed in Escherichia coli, was found to phosphorylate diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-InsP5) to (PP)2-InsP4 (Vmax = 8.3 nmol/mg of protein/min; Km = 0.34 microM). Overexpression in human embryonic kidney cells of either PPIP5K1 or PPIP5K2 substantially increased levels of (PP)2-InsP4, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead PPIP5K1(D332A) mutant had no effect. PPIP5K1 and PPIP5K2 were more active against PP-InsP5 than InsP6, both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis by confocal immunofluorescence showed PPIP5K1 to be distributed throughout the cytoplasm but excluded from the nucleus. Immunopurification of overexpressed PPIP5K1 from osmotically stressed HEK cells (0.2 M sorbitol; 30 min) revealed a persistent, 3.9 +/- 0.4-fold activation when compared with control cells. PPIP5Ks are likely to be important signaling enzymes.
Project description:The diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-IPs) are a central group of eukaryotic second messengers. They regulate numerous processes, including cellular energy homeostasis and adaptation to environmental stresses. To date, most of the molecular details in PP-IP signalling have remained elusive, due to a lack of appropriate methods and reagents. Here we describe the expedient synthesis of methylene-bisphosphonate PP-IP analogues. Their characterization revealed that the analogues exhibit significant stability and mimic their natural counterparts very well. This was further confirmed in two independent biochemical assays, in which our analogues potently inhibited phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt and hydrolytic activity of the Ddp1 phosphohydrolase. The non-hydrolysable PP-IPs thus emerge as important tools and hold great promise for a variety of applications.
Project description:Inositol poly- and pyrophosphates (InsPs and PP-InsPs) are an important group of metabolites and mediate a wide range of processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of these molecules, robust techniques for the characterization of inositol phosphate metabolism are required, both at the biochemical and the cellular level. Here, a new tool-set is reported, which employs uniformly 13C-labeled compounds ([13C6]myo-inositol, [13C6]InsP5, [13C6]InsP6, and [13C6]5PP-InsP5), in combination with commonly accessible NMR technology. This approach permitted the detection and quantification of InsPs and PP-InsPs within complex mixtures and at physiological concentrations. Specifically, the enzymatic activity of IP6K1 could be monitored in vitro in real time. Metabolic labeling of mammalian cells with [13C6]myo-inositol enabled the analysis of cellular pools of InsPs and PP-InsPs, and uncovered high concentrations of 5PP-InsP5 in HCT116 cells, especially in response to genetic and pharmacological perturbation. The reported method greatly facilitates the analysis of this otherwise spectroscopically silent group of molecules, and holds great promise to comprehensively analyze inositol-based signaling molecules under normal and pathological conditions.
Project description:Cells contain several inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs; also known as diphosphoinositol polyphosphates), which play pivotal roles in cellular and organismic homeostasis. It has been proposed that determining mechanisms of compartmentation of the synthesis of a particular PP-InsP is key to understanding how each of them may exert a specific function. Human PPIP5K2 (hPPIP5K2), one of the key enzymes that synthesizes PP-InsPs, contains a putative consensus sequence for a nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, such in silico analysis has limited predictive power, and may be complicated by phosphorylation events that can dynamically modulate NLS function. We investigated if this candidate NLS is functional and regulated, using the techniques of cell biology, mutagenesis and mass spectrometry.Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the metazoan PPIP5K2 family contains a candidate NLS within a strikingly well-conserved 63 amino-acid domain. By analyzing the distribution of hPPIP5K2-GFP in HEK293T cells with the techniques of confocal microscopy and imaging flow cytometry, we found that a distinct pool of hPPIP5K2 is present in the nucleus. Imaging flow cytometry yielded particular insight into the characteristics of the nuclear hPPIP5K2 sub-pool, through a high-throughput, statistically-robust analysis of many hundreds of cells. Mutagenic disruption of the candidate NLS in hPPIP5K2 reduced its degree of nuclear localization. Proximal to the NLS is a Ser residue (S1006) that mass spectrometry data indicate is phosphorylated inside cells. The degree of nuclear localization of hPPIP5K2 was increased when S1006 was rendered non-phosphorylatable by its mutation to Ala. Conversely, a S1006D phosphomimetic mutant of hPPIP5K2 exhibited a lower degree of nuclear localization.The current study describes for the first time the functional significance of an NLS in the conserved PPIP5K2 family. We have further demonstrated that there is phosphorylation of a Ser residue that is proximal to the NLS of hPPIP5K2. These conclusions draw attention to nuclear compartmentation of PPIP5K2 as being a physiologically relevant and covalently-regulated event. Our study also increases general insight into the consensus sequences of other NLSs, the functions of which might be similarly regulated.
Project description:Among many cellular functions, inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are metabolic messengers involved in the regulation of glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and weight gain. However, their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. So far, the influence of PP-InsPs on cellular metabolism has been studied by overexpression or knockout/inhibition of relevant metabolizing kinases (IP6Ks, PPIP5Ks). These approaches are, inter alia, limited by time-resolution and potential compensation mechanisms. Here, we describe the synthesis of cell-permeant caged PP-InsPs as tools to rapidly modulate intracellular levels of defined isomers of PP-InsPs in a genetically non-perturbed cellular environment. We show that caged prometabolites readily enter live cells where they are enzymatically converted into still inactive, metabolically stable, photocaged PP-InsPs. Upon light-triggered release of 5-PP-InsP5, the major cellular inositol pyrophosphate, oscillations of intracellular Ca2+ levels in MIN6 cells were transiently reduced to spontaneously recover again. In contrast, uncaging of 1-PP-InsP5, a minor cellular isomer, was without effect. These results provide evidence that PP-InsPs play an active role in regulating [Ca2+]i oscillations, a key element in triggering exocytosis and secretion in β-cells.