The influence of Echinacea purpurea leaf microbiota on chicoric acid level.
ABSTRACT: The controversial anti-proliferative effects of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) might be related to different plant metabolites contained in plant samples, extracts and products. The influence of bacterial endophytes on the synthesis of bioactive compounds in the medicinal plants has been previously demonstrated but there are only few studies addressing anticancer effects and mechanisms of E. purpurea extracts following endophytic colonization. The present study aimed to test and compare the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition potential of n-hexane and methanol extracts from in vitro endophyte non-inoculated and inoculated E. purpurea plants. An in vitro model was previously set up to perform the infection of axenic E. purpurea plants with bacterial endophytic strains isolated from E. purpurea aerial part. Only methanol extracts showed LDH5 inhibition, in particular the richest in chicoric acid and most strongly inhibiting extract was obtained from inoculated stem and leaves of E. purpurea (IC50?=?0.9?mg/ml). Chicoric acid showed an IC50 value (66.7?µM) in enzymatic assays better than that of the reference compound galloflavin. Modeling studies were carried out to suggest the putative interaction mode of chicoric acid in the enzyme active site. This in vitro model on plant-bacterial interaction may lead to obtain extracts from plants enriched in bioactive compounds and it is a new approach for the discovery of novel anticancer compounds.
Project description:Chicoric acid has been widely used in food, medicine, animal husbandry, and other commercial products because of its significant pharmacological activities. However, the shortage of chicoric acid limits its further development and utilization. Currently, <i>Echinacea purpurea</i> (L.) Moench serves as the primary natural resource of chicoric acid, while other sources of it are poorly known. Extracting chicoric acid from plants is the most common approach. Meanwhile, chicoric acid levels vary in different plants as well as in the same plant from different areas and different medicinal parts, and different extraction methods. We comprehensively reviewed the information regarding the sources of chicoric acid from plant extracts, its chemical synthesis, biosynthesis, and bioactive effects.
Project description:The influence of the interaction(s) between the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and its endophytic communities on the production of alkamides is investigated. To mimic the in vivo conditions, we have set up an infection model of axenic in vitro E. purpurea plants inoculated with a pool of bacterial strains isolated from the E. purpurea stems and leaves. Here we show different alkamide levels between control (not-inoculated) and inoculated plants, suggesting that the alkamide biosynthesis may be modulated by the bacterial infection. Then, we have analysed the branched-chain amino acids (BCCA) decarboxylase gene (GenBank Accession #LT593930; the enzymatic source for the amine moiety formation of the alkamides) expression patterns. The expression profile shows a higher expression level in the inoculated E. purpurea tissues than in the control ones. These results suggest that the plant-endophyte interaction can influence plant secondary metabolism affecting the therapeutic properties of E. purpurea.
Project description:Endophytic fungal isolates <i>Hypocrea lixii</i> F3ST1 and <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> G1LU3 were evaluated for their potential to endophytically colonize and induce active compounds in <i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i>, as a defense mechanism against pea leafminer (<i>Liriomyza huidobrensis</i>) and fall armyworm (<i>Spodoptera frugiperda</i>). Endophytic colonization was achieved through seed inoculation with the volatile emissions from <i>P. vulgaris</i> plants being analyzed using GC-MS. The crude extracts of <i>P. vulgaris</i> obtained using methanol and dichloromethane were assayed against leafminer and fall armyworm larvae using leaf dipping and topical application, respectively. The two isolates successfully colonized the entire host plant (roots, stems, and leaves) with significant variation (<i>p</i> < 0.001) between fungal isolates and the controls. The results showed qualitative differences in the volatile profiles between the control plants, endophytically colonized and insect-damaged plants attributed to fungal inoculation and leafminer damage. The crude methanol extracts significantly reduced the percentage pupation of 2nd instar leafminer larvae (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and adult-flies emergence (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The survival of the 1st instar fall armyworm larvae was also significantly reduced (<i>p</i> < 0.001) compared to the controls. This study demonstrated the high potential of endophytic fungi <i>H. lixii</i> and <i>B. bassiana</i> in inducing mainly specific defense compounds in the common bean <i>P. vulgaris</i> that can be used against pea leafminer and fall armyworm.
Project description:<label>CONTEXT</label>Plants harbor endophytes with potential bioactivity. Markhamia tomentosa (Benth) K. Schum ex. Engl. (Bignoniaceae) is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities.<label>OBJECTIVE</label>The antifungal and antiproliferative properties of endophytic fungi extracts and fractions from M. tomentosa were evaluated.<label>MATERIAL AND METHODS</label>Endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of M. tomentosa and identified by ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The antagonistic effect of the fungal strains was investigated against pathogenic fungi viz, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorium, Rhizoctonia solani, and Botrytis cinerea using the dual culture assay for 5-7 days. Antiproliferative effect of the fungal extracts and fractions (3.91-250??g/mL) on HeLa cancer cell line was tested and IC50 was calculated. Poisoning food assay and antifeedant activity against the pathogenic fungi and Spodoptera litura larvae, for 7 days and 2?h, respectively, was also tested at concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000??g/mL.<label>RESULTS</label>Fungal endophytes Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Syncephalastrum racemosum were isolated from the leaves of M. tomentosa. Isolated endophytic fungal strains and solvent extracts showed MIC value of 1000??g/mL against tested pathogenic fungi in the dual culture and poisoning food assays. Methanol fraction of S. racemosum isolate showed the most effective antiproliferative activity with IC50 of 43.56??g/mL. Minimal feeding deterrent activity against S. litura larvae was also observed.<label>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION</label>These findings showed that the leaves of Markhamia tomentosa harbor strains of endophytic fungi with promising health benefits, and suggest their antifungal and antiproliferative effects against pathogenic fungi and HeLa cancer cell line.
Project description:Six endophytic fungi were isolated from Cupressus torulosa D.Don and identified phenotypically and genotypically. The fungal cultures were further grown and the culture was extracted by two organic solvents methanol and ethyl acetate. The screening was carried out using the agar well diffusion method against human pathogen such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Isolated strain of Pestalotiopsis sp. was showing prominent antibacterial activity. The crude methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Pestalotiopsis sp. showed MIC of 6.25 mg/mL for S. typhimurium and S. aureus which showed its efficacy as a potent antimicrobial. The phytochemical screening revealed the existence of a diverse group of secondary metabolites in the crude extracts of the endophytic fungi that resembled those in the host plant extracts. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and rDNA sequencing of the ITS region of the endophyte was identified as P. neglecta which turned out to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. There is little known about endophytes from C. torulosa D.Don. In this paper we studied in detail the identification of isolated endophytic fungi P. neglecta from C. torulosa D.Don and characterization of its active metabolite compounds. The partially purified second fraction (PPF) extracted from the fungal culture supernatant was subjected to gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry which revealed the presence of many phytochemicals. These results indicate that endophytic fungi P. neglecta isolated from medicinal plants could be a potential source for bioactive compounds and may find potential use in pharmaceutical industry.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi.<h4>Objective</h4>The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil.<h4>Methods</h4>The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities.<h4>Findings</h4>Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine.<h4>Main conclusion</h4>Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the fitness of the plants living in the rupestrian grassland.
Project description:Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) is a popular native North American herbal plant. Its major bioactive compound, chicoric acid, is reported to have various potential physiological functions, but little is known about its biosynthesis. Here, taking an activity-guided approach, we identify two cytosolic BAHD acyltransferases that form two intermediates, caftaric acid and chlorogenic acid. Surprisingly, a unique serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferase uses chlorogenic acid as its acyl donor and caftaric acid as its acyl acceptor to produce chicoric acid in vacuoles, which has evolved its acyl donor specificity from the better-known 1-O-β-D-glucose esters typical for this specific type of acyltransferase to chlorogenic acid. This unusual pathway seems unique to Echinacea species suggesting convergent evolution of chicoric acid biosynthesis. Using these identified acyltransferases, we have reconstituted chicoric acid biosynthesis in tobacco. Our results emphasize the flexibility of acyltransferases and their roles in the evolution of specialized metabolism in plants.
Project description:A series of symmetric molecules incorporating aryl or pyridyl moieties as central core and 1,4-substituted triazoles as a side bridge was synthesised. The new compounds were investigated as lactate dehydro-genase (LDH, EC 18.104.22.168) inhibitors. The cancer associated LDHA isoform was inhibited with IC50?=?117-174 µM. Seven compounds exhibited better LDHA inhibition (IC50 117-136 µM) compared to known LDH inhibitor - galloflavin (IC50 157 µM).
Project description:Natural products of animals, plants and microbes are potential source of important chemical compounds, with diverse applications including therapeutics. Endophytic bacteria that are especially associated with medicinal plants presents a reservoir of therapeutic compounds. Fagonia indica has been recently investigated by numerous researchers because of its striking therapeutic potential especially in cancer. It is also reported that endophytes play a vital role in the biosynthesis of various metabolites; therefore we believe that endophytes associated with F. indica are of crucial importance in this regard. The present study aims successful isolation, molecular identification of endophytic bacteria and their screening for bioactive metabolites quantification and in vitro pharmacological activities.16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for the identification of isolated endophytic bacteria. Methanolic extracts were evaluated for total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total anti-oxidant assays were performed. And also screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities by disc diffusion method and their MIC were calculated by broth dilution method using microplate reader. Further, standard protocols were followed for antileishmanial activity and protein kinase inhibition. Analysis and statistics were performed using SPSS, Table curve and Origin 8.5 for graphs.Bacterial strains belonging to various genera (Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Erwinia and Stenotrophomonas) were isolated and identified. Total phenolic contents and total flavonoids contents varies among all the bacterial extracts respectively in which Bacillus subtilis showed high phenolic contents 243 µg/mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed high flavonoids contents 15.9 µg/mg quercitin equivalents (QA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) 37.6 µg/mg of extract, reducing power (RP) 206 µg/mg of extract and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity with 98.7 ?g/mL IC50 value. Although all the extracts tested were active to inhibit growth of selected pathogenic microbes (bacteria and fungi), but significant antibacterial activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumonia and B. subtilis. An Enterobacter cloaca was active against Leishmania tropica with IC50 value of 1.4 µg/mg extracts. B. subtilis and Bacillus tequilensis correspondingly exhibit significant protein kinase inhibition of 47 ± 0.72 and 42 ± 1.21 mm bald zones, indicating anti-infective and antitumor potential.Our findings revealed that crude extracts of selected endophytic bacteria from F. indica possess excellent biological activities indicating their potential as an important source of antibiotics (antifungal, antibacterial) compounds.
Project description:Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 ?g of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 ?g of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 ?g/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 ?g/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.