EDTA Treatment for Overcoming the Prozone Effect and for Predicting C1q Binding in HLA Antibody Testing.
ABSTRACT: The Luminex-based single antigen bead (SAB) assay is widely used to detect HLA antibody in transplant recipients. However, one limitation of the SAB assay is the prozone effect, which occurs mostly as a result of complement interference. We investigated the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect and predicting C1q binding of HLA antibody. We subjected 27 non-treated (naïve) and EDTA-treated serum samples from highly sensitized patients to IgG-SAB assays, and we confirmed the prozone effect in 53% and 31% of class I and class II antibody tests, respectively, after EDTA treatment. When we conducted additional assays after dithiothreitol treatment and serum dilution, EDTA was the most efficacious in eliminating the prozone effect. Reducing the prozone effect by EDTA treatment strengthened the correlation between IgG mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and C1q MFI values (ρ=0.825) as compared with the naïve sera (ρ=0.068). Although C1q positivity was dependent on the concentration of HLA antibody in EDTA-treated sera, the correlations varied individually. Overall, our results confirmed the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect. EDTA treatment showed a positive effect on the correlation between IgG MFI and C1q MFI values.
Project description:Solid-phase assays to distinguish complement binding from noncomplement binding HLA-specific antibodies have been introduced, but technical limitations may compromise their interpretation. We have examined the extent to which C1q-binding to HLA-class I single-antigen beads (SAB) is influenced by denatured HLA on SAB, antibody titre, and complement interference that causes a misleading low assessment of HLA-specific antibody levels.Sera from 25 highly sensitized patients were tested using Luminex IgG-SAB and C1q-SAB assays. Sera were tested undiluted, at 1:20 dilution to detect high-level IgG, and after ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid treatment to obviate complement interference. Conformational HLA and denatured HLA protein levels on SAB were determined using W6/32 and HC-10 monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Denatured HLA was expressed as HC-10 binding to untreated SAB as a percentage of maximal binding to acid-treated SAB.For undiluted sera, Luminex mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for IgG-SAB and C1q-SAB correlated poorly (r = 0.42). ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and serum dilution improved the correlation (r = 0.57 and 0.77, respectively). Increasing levels of denatured HLA interfered with the detection of C1q binding. Consequently, the correlation between IgG-SAB MFI and C1q-SAB MFI was lowest using undiluted sera and SAB with greater than 30% denatured HLA (r = 0.40) and highest using diluted sera and SAB with 30% or less denatured HLA (r = 0.86).Antibody level, complement interference, and denatured HLA class I on SAB may all affect the clinical interpretation of the C1q-SAB assay. The C1q-SAB assay represents a substantial additional cost for routine clinical use, and we question its justification given the potential uncertainty about its interpretation.
Project description:Humoral alloimmunity, particularly that triggered by preformed antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA), is associated with an increased prevalence of rejection and reduced transplant survival. The high sensitivity of solid phase assays, based on microbeads coated with single antigens (SAB), consolidated them as the gold-standard method to characterize anti-HLA antibodies, ensuring a successful allograft allocation. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) provided by SAB is regularly used to stratify the immunological risk, assuming it as a reliable estimation of the antibody-level, but it is often limited by artifacts. Beyond MFI, other properties, such as the complement-binding ability or the IgG1-4 subclass profile have been examined to more accurately define the clinical relevance of antibodies and clarify their functional properties. However, there are still unresolved issues. Neat serum-samples from 20 highly-sensitized patients were analyzed by SAB-panIgG, SAB-IgG1-4 subclass and SAB-C1q assays. All 1:16 diluted serum-samples were additionally analyzed by SAB-panIgG and SAB-IgG1-4 subclass assays. A total of 1,285 anti-HLA antibodies were identified as positive, 473 (36.8%) of which were C1q-binding. As expected, serum-dilution enhanced the correlation between the C1q-binding ability and the antibody-strength, measured as the MFI (rneat = 0.248 vs. rdiluted = 0.817). SAB-subclass assay revealed at least one IgG1-4 subclass in 1,012 (78.8%) positive antibody-specificities. Among them, strong complement-binding subclasses, mainly IgG1, were particularly frequent (98.9%) and no differences were found between C1q- and non-C1q-binding antibodies regarding their presence (99.4 vs. 98.5%; p = 0.193). In contrast, weak or non-C1q-binding subclasses (IgG2/IgG4) were more commonly detected in C1q-binding antibodies (78.9 vs. 38.6%; p < 0.001). Interestingly, a strong association was found between the C1q-binding ability and the IgG1 strength (rIgG1dil = 0.796). Though lower, the correlation between the IgG2 strength and the C1q-binding ability was also strong (rIgG2dil = 0.758), being both subclasses closely related (rIgG1-IgG2 = 0.817). We did not find any correlation with the C1q-binding ability considering the remaining subclasses. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a particular profile of IgG subclasses (IgG1/IgG3) itself does not determine at all the ability to bind complement of anti-HLA antibodies assessed by SAB-C1q assay. It is the IgG subclass strength, mainly of IgG1, which usually appears in combination with IgG2, that best correlates with it.
Project description:Antibodies may have different pathogenicities according to IgG subclass. We investigated the association between IgG subclasses of circulating anti-human HLA antibodies and antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury. Among 635 consecutive kidney transplantations performed between 2008 and 2010, we enrolled 125 patients with donor-specific anti-human HLA antibodies (DSA) detected in the first year post-transplant. We assessed DSA characteristics, including specificity, HLA class specificity, mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), C1q-binding, and IgG subclass, and graft injury phenotype at the time of sera evaluation. Overall, 51 (40.8%) patients had acute antibody-mediated rejection (aABMR), 36 (28.8%) patients had subclinical ABMR (sABMR), and 38 (30.4%) patients were ABMR-free. The MFI of the immunodominant DSA (iDSA, the DSA with the highest MFI level) was 6724±464, and 41.6% of patients had iDSA showing C1q positivity. The distribution of iDSA IgG1-4 subclasses among the population was 75.2%, 44.0%, 28.0%, and 26.4%, respectively. An unsupervised principal component analysis integrating iDSA IgG subclasses revealed aABMR was mainly driven by IgG3 iDSA, whereas sABMR was driven by IgG4 iDSA. IgG3 iDSA was associated with a shorter time to rejection (P<0.001), increased microcirculation injury (P=0.002), and C4d capillary deposition (P<0.001). IgG4 iDSA was associated with later allograft injury with increased allograft glomerulopathy and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy lesions (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Integrating iDSA HLA class specificity, MFI level, C1q-binding status, and IgG subclasses in a Cox survival model revealed IgG3 iDSA and C1q-binding iDSA were strongly and independently associated with allograft failure. These results suggest IgG iDSA subclasses identify distinct phenotypes of kidney allograft antibody-mediated injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bead based flow cytometry and Luminex play a major role in identification of alloantibodies in renal transplant work-up. Strong sensitization events may lead to prozone phenomenon that can affect single antigen bead (SAB) assay and result in false negativity. However, this can also be due to high titer of other blocking antibodies. While methods like, heat inactivation, C1 inhibitor, Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic-acid and Dithio threitol treatment can remove interfering antibodies of complement and IgM, these methods are not optimal if false negativity is due to prozone effect, which is high titer of antibodies alone. METHODS:We hereby present a case of a highly sensitized renal transplant recipient with 64% panel reactive antibody positivity (PRA) and a subsequent negative SAB assay. This paradoxical finding hinted at SAB being a false negative result and serial dilutions were used to perform further tests. RESULTS:Serum dilutions lead to positive flow based panel reactive antibody (PRA) and flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM), with an increasing trend in FCXM. CONCLUSIONS:In highly sensitized patients serial dilution should be considered during a transplant work-up to avoid missing any underlying antibodies. Serum dilution can be used as first option to circumvent prozone. Also, interference of other antibodies should not be labeled as prozone effect.
Project description:The definition of anti-HLA antibody profile in highly sensitized patients on a waiting list is crucial when virtual crossmatch is used in organ allocation systems, but also when used to identify the true deleterious anti-HLA antibodies. Here we propose different levels of risk based on the results of anti-HLA antibody testing in neat serum (N) and after sera dilution (DIL) and C1q test in 18 highly sensitized patients. This group was heterogeneous in terms of anti-HLA antibody titers and their ability to fix complement. After dilution, 15 out of 18 patients (83.3%) showed a reduction of positive bead counts whereas 4 patients showed a prozone effect and complement fixation was demonstrated. The high dilution of sera and ascertaining the complement fixation allow the accurate definition of risk anti-HLA antibody profiles in highly sensitized patients, as demonstrated in 5 of the sensitized patients who were transplanted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) pretreatment has been shown to overcome complement interference in the single-antigen bead (SAB) assay. However, a quantitative evaluation of its impact on the assay for preemptive application to diverse clinical samples is still lacking. METHODS:Serum samples from 95 renal transplant candidates were tested with and without EDTA-pretreatment in parallel. Changes in mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values were analyzed to determine the impact of EDTA-pretreatment and the characteristics of complement interference. RESULTS:MFI values from EDTA-treated and untreated sera showed good correlations (r = 0.99) and were linear after excluding outliers (slopes, 1; intercepts, -63.7 and -24.2 for class I and II, respectively). Using an assay cutoff of 2000 MFI, positive/negative assignments were concordant for 99% of the 9215 class I beads and 9025 class II beads tested. As defined by an MFI increment above 4000 after EDTA pretreatment, complement interference affected 172 class I beads in 12 samples (12.6%) and 60 class II beads in 7 samples (7.4%), and the findings were supported in 83% and 86% of these samples by dilution studies. In a case study, EDTA pretreatment prevented falsely low MFI values and facilitated the interpretation of titration curves. Finally, EDTA pretreatment reduced the coefficient of variance (CV) by 2.1% and 2.4% for class I and II beads respectively (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:It is safe to preemptively treat all clinical samples with EDTA before SAB assay to prevent false negative results or falsely low MFI values. EDTA pretreatment has the added benefit of improved assay precision.
Project description:The current state-of-the-art technology employed to assess anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (Anti-HLA Ab) for donor-recipient matching and patient risk stratification in renal transplantation is the single antigen bead (SAB) assay. However, there are limitations to the SAB assay as it is not quantitative and due to variations in techniques and reagents, there is no standardization across laboratories. In this study, a structurally-defined human monoclonal alloantibody was employed to provide a mechanistic explanation for how fundamental alloantibody biology influences the readout from the SAB assay. Performance of the clinical SAB assay was evaluated by altering Anti-HLA Ab concentration, subclass, and detection reagents. Tests were conducted in parallel by two internationally accredited laboratories using standardized protocols and reagents. We show that alloantibody concentration, subclass, laboratory-specific detection devices, subclass-specific detection reagents all contribute to a significant degree of variation in the readout. We report a significant prozone effect affecting HLA alleles that are bound strongly by the test alloantibody as opposed to those bound weakly and this phenomenon is independent of complement. These data highlight the importance for establishing international standards for SAB assay calibration and have significant implications for our understanding of discordance in previous studies that have analyzed its clinical relevance.
Project description:The consolidation of single antigen beads (SAB-panIgG) assay in the detection of preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies has improved transplantation success. However, its high sensitivity has limited the allograft allocation for sensitized patients, increasing their waiting time. A modification of the standard SAB-panIgG assay allows the detection of that subset of antibodies capable of binding C1q (SAB-C1q assay). However, the clinical usefulness of SAB-C1q assay for determining the unacceptable mismatches is under discussion. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of preformed donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) according to the C1q-binding ability on allograft outcome, examining 389 single-kidney transplanted patients from deceased donors. Recipients with preformed C1q-binding DSA showed the lowest allograft survival up to 7?years (40.7%) compared to patients with preformed non-C1q-binding DSA (73.4%; p?=?0.001) and without DSA (79.1%; p?<?0.001). Allograft survival rate was similar between patients with preformed non-C1q-binding DSA and patients without preformed DSA (p?=?0.403). Interestingly, among the high-mean fluorescence intensity DSA (?10,000) population (n?=?46), those patients whose DSA were further capable of binding C1q showed a poorer allograft outcome (38.4 vs. 68.9%; p?=?0.041). Moreover, in our multivariate predictive model for assessing the risk of allograft loss, the presence of C1q-binding DSA (HR 4.012; CI 95% 2.326-6.919; p?<?0.001) but not of non-C1q-binding DSA (HR 1.389; CI 95% 0.784-2.461; p?=?0.260) remained an independent predictor after stratifying the DSA population according to the C1q-binding ability and adjusting the model for other pre-transplantation predictive factors including donor age, cold-ischemia time, and HLA-DR mismatches. In conclusion, the unacceptable mismatch definition according to the SAB-C1q assay would improve the risk stratification of allograft loss and increase the limited allograft allocation of highly sensitized patients, shortening their waiting time.
Project description:Allospecific anti-HLA antibodies (Abs) are associated with rejection of solid organ grafts. The 2 main kits to detect anti-HLA Ab in patient serum are commercialized by Immucor and One Lambda/ThermoFisher. We sought to compare the performance of both platforms.Background-adjusted mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values were used from both platforms to compare sera collected from 125 pretransplant and posttransplant heart and lung transplant recipients.Most HLA class I (94.5%) and HLA class II (89%) Abs with moderate to high MFI titer (?4000) were detected by both assays. A modest correlation was observed between MFI values obtained from the 2 assays for both class I (r = 0.3, r2 = 0.09, P < 0.0001) and class II Ab (r = 0.707, r2 = 0.5, P < 0.0001). Both assays detected anti-class I and II Ab that the other did not; however, no specific HLA allele was detected preferentially by either of the 2 assays. For a limited number of discrepant sera, dilution resulted in comparable reactivity profiles between the 2 platforms.Immucor and One Lambda/ThermoFisher assays have a similar, albeit nonidentical, ability to detect anti-HLA Ab. Although the correlation between the assays was present, significant variances exist, some of which can be explained by a dilution-sensitive "prozone" effect.
Project description:Activation of complement may cause severe tissue damage in antibody-mediated allograft rejection and other antibody-mediated clinical conditions; therefore, novel potent complement inhibitors are needed. Previously, we described binding of the inhibitory receptor LAIR-1 and its soluble family member LAIR-2 to collagen. Here, we investigated binding of LAIR-1 and LAIR-2 to the complement proteins C1q and MBL, which both have collagen-like domains, and evaluated the effect of this binding on complement function. We demonstrate specific binding of recombinant LAIR proteins to both C1q and MBL. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that LAIR-2-Fc protein bound C1q and MBL with the highest affinity compared to LAIR-2-HIS. We, therefore, hypothesized that LAIR-2-Fc is a potent complement inhibitor. Indeed, LAIR-2-Fc inhibited C4 fixation to IgG or mannan, reduced activation of C4 by aggregated IgG in plasma and inhibited iC3b deposition on cells. Finally, LAIR-2-Fc inhibited complement-mediated lysis of cells sensitized with anti-HLA antibodies in an ex vivo model for antibody-mediated transplant rejection. Thus, LAIR-2-Fc is an effective novel complement inhibitor for the treatment and prevention of antibody-mediated allograft rejection and antibody-mediated clinical conditions.