Differential transcriptome analysis of the disease tolerant Madagascar-Malaysia crossbred black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon hepatopancreas in response to acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) infection: inference on immune gene response and interaction.
ABSTRACT: Background:Penaeus monodon is the second most widely cultured marine shrimp species in the global shrimp aquaculture industry. However, the growth of P. monodon production has been constantly impaired by disease outbreaks. Recently, there is a lethal bacterial infection, known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND strain (Vp AHPND), which led to mass mortalities in P. monodon. Unfortunately, there is still insufficient knowledge about the underlying immune response of P. monodon upon AHPND infection. The present study aims to provide an insight into the antibacterial immune response elicited by P. monodon hepatopancreas towards AHPND infection. Methods:We have employed high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to uncover the transcriptome changes of P. monodon hepatopancreas when challenged with Vp AHPND. The shrimps were challenged with Vp AHPND through immersion method with dissected hepatopancreas samples for the control group (APm-CTL) and treatment group at 3 (APm-T3), 6 (APm-T6), and 24 (APm-T24) hours post-AHPND infection sent for RNA-Seq. The transcriptome de novo assembly and Unigene expression determination were conducted using Trinity, Tgicl, Bowtie2, and RSEM software. The differentially expressed transcripts were functionally annotated mainly through COG, GO, and KEGG databases. Results:The sequencing reads generated were filtered to obtain 312.77 Mb clean reads and assembled into 48662 Unigenes. Based on the DEGs pattern identified, it is inferred that the PAMPs carried by Vp AHPND or associated toxins are capable of activating PRRs, which leads to subsequent pathway activation, transcriptional modification, and antibacterial responses (Phagocytosis, AMPs, proPO system). DAMPs are released in response to cell stress or damage to further activate the sequential immune responses. The comprehensive interactions between Vp AHPND, chitin, GbpA, mucin, chitinase, and chitin deacetylase were postulated to be involved in bacterial colonization or antibacterial response. Conclusions:The outcomes of this research correlate the different stages of P. monodon immune response to different time points of AHPND infection. This finding supports the development of biomarkers for the detection of early stages of Vp AHPND colonization in P. monodon through host immune expression changes. The potential genes to be utilized as biomarkers include but not limited to C-type lectin, HMGB1, IMD, ALF, serine proteinase, and DSCAM.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), caused by marine bacteria Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, is a huge problem in shrimp farms. The V. parahaemolyticus infecting material is contained in a plasmid which encodes for the lethal toxins PirABVp, whose primary target tissue is the hepatopancreas, causing sloughing of epithelial cells, necrosis, and massive hemocyte infiltration. To get a better understanding of the hepatopancreas response during AHPND, juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were infected by immersion with V. parahaemolyticus. We performed transcriptomic mRNA sequencing of infected shrimp hepatopancreas, at 24 hours post-infection, to identify novel differentially expressed genes a total of 174,098 transcripts were examined of which 915 transcripts were found differentially expressed after comparative transcriptomic analysis: 442 up-regulated and 473 down-regulated transcripts. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis for up-regulated transcripts includes metabolic process, regulation of programmed cell death, carbohydrate metabolic process, and biological adhesion, whereas for down-regulated transcripts include, microtubule-based process, cell activation, and chitin metabolic process. The analysis of protein- protein network between up and down-regulated genes indicates that the first gene interactions are connected to oxidation-processes and sarcomere organization. Additionally, protein-protein networks analysis identified 20-top highly connected hub nodes. Based on their immunological or metabolic function, ten candidate transcripts were selected to measure their mRNA relative expression levels in AHPND infected shrimp hepatopancreas by RT-qPCR. Our results indicate a close connection between the immune and metabolism systems during AHPND infection. Our RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR data provide the possible immunological and physiological scenario as well as the molecular pathways that take place in the shrimp hepatopancreas in response to an infectious disease.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a shrimp farming disease, caused by a pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying a plasmid encoding Vp_PirAB-like toxin (VpAHPND). Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were fed food pellets containing formalin-killed VpAHPND (FKC-VpAHPND) to select for toxin resistance. To identify genes associated with Vp_PirAB-like toxin resistance, total RNA was sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the stomach and hepatopancreas among surviving shrimp (sur-FKC), AHPND-infected shrimp (Vp-inf) and normal shrimp (control). From a total of 79,591 genes, 194 and 224 DEGs were identified in the stomach and hepatopancreas transcriptomes, respectfully. The expressions of DEGs were validated by qPCR of ten genes. Only one gene, a gene homologous to L vannamei anti-lipopolysaccharide factor AV-R isoform (LvALF AV-R), was expressed significantly more strongly in sur-FKC than in the other groups. The association of LvALF AV-R expression and toxin resistance was affirmed from the surviving shrimp in a second-trial of FKC-VpAHPND feeding. These results suggest that LvALF AV-R may be involved in shrimp defense mechanisms against Vp_PirAB-like toxin virulence. Overall design: Total RNA of stomach and hepatopancreas from 3 groups of control (N =3), Vp-inf (N=3), and sur-FKC (N=4) were prepared library with Truseq Stranded mRNA Library Prep Kit. RNA-seq was genrated by Illumina MiSeq
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an emerging shrimp (Penaeus monodon) disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) since 2013 in Bangladesh. The aim of this work was to evaluate a PCR and RT-PCR techniques as rapid methods for detecting V. parahaemolyticus AHPND-positive P. monodon using genetic markers. Healthy and diseased shrimp (P. monodon) samples were collected from three monitoring stations. The samples were enriched in TCBS plates and DNA extraction from the cultured bacteria. DNA quantifications, PCR amplification, RT-PCR, and gene sequencing were done for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND-positive P. monodon. The sequence of PCR amplicons showed 100% identity and significant alignment with V. parahaemolyticus. The primers used provided high specificity for V. parahaemolyticus in PCR detection compared with another Vibrio species. In the PCR, amplification resulted positive amplicons, whereas, non-AHPND isolates showed no amplicons. Neighbor-joining methods indicated that all genes evolved from a common ancestor and clades have different traits with very low genetic distance and low variability. The pairwise alignment scores of atpA, tox, blaCARB, 16S rRNA, and pirA genes were 100.0, 98.90, 98.89, 95.53, and 41.42, respectively. The RT-qPCR exposed variable expression levels for all genes in the AHPND-positive strain. Homology analysis and distance matrix exhibited all genes to have the lowest similarity and most divergence, offering the highest specificity. In this study, the expression and variability of target genes confirmed the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in all sampling sites. The results suggested that PCR amplification, RT-qPCR, and gene sequencing can be used for the rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus in AHPND-positive P. monodon that may lead to subsequent prevention and treatment research in the future for managing this disease.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor a pVA plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp These are released from VPAHPND isolates that colonize the shrimp stomach and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions (massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells). PCR results indicated that V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 lacked pirA Vp but carried pirB Vp Unexpectedly, Western blot analysis of proteins from the culture broth of XN87 revealed the absence of both toxins, and the lack of PirB Vp was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, shrimp immersion challenge with XN87 resulted in 47% mortality without AHPND lesions. Instead, lesions consisted of collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelia. In contrast, control shrimp challenged with typical VPAHPND isolate 5HP gave 90% mortality, accompanied by AHPND lesions. Sequence analysis revealed that the pVA plasmid of XN87 contained a mutated pirA Vp gene interrupted by the out-of-frame insertion of a transposon gene fragment. The upstream region and the beginning of the original pirA Vp gene remained intact, but the insertion caused a 2-base reading frameshift in the remainder of the pirA Vp gene sequence and in the downstream pirB Vp gene sequence. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of 5HP revealed a bicistronic pirAB Vp mRNA transcript that was not produced by XN87, explaining the absence of both toxins in its culture broth. However, the virulence of XN87 revealed that some V. parahaemolyticus isolates carrying mutant pVA plasmids that produce no Pir Vp toxins can cause mortality in shrimp in ponds experiencing an outbreak of early mortality syndrome (EMS) but may not have been previously recognized to be AHPND related because they did not cause pathognomonic AHPND lesions.IMPORTANCE Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor the pVA1 plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp The toxins are produced in the shrimp stomach but cause death by massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells (pathognomonic AHPND lesions). V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 harbors a mutant pVA plasmid that produces no Pir toxins and does not cause AHPND lesions but still causes ?50% shrimp mortality. Such isolates may cause a portion of the mortality in ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that is not ascribed to VPAHPND Thus, they pose to shrimp farmers an additional threat that would be missed by current testing for VPAHPND Moribund shrimp from ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that exhibit collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells can serve as indicators for the possible presence of such isolates, which can then be confirmed by additional PCR tests for the presence of a pVA plasmid.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> resulted in great economic losses in global shrimp aquaculture. There is an urgent need for development of novel strategies to combat AHPND-causing <i>V. parahaemolyticus</i> (<i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub>), given that one of the greatest challenges currently is the widespread use of antibiotics and subsequent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Here, we proposed a broad-spectrum antivirulence approach targeting a conserved histidine kinase, QseC, which has been demonstrated to activate virulence expression in several Gram-negative pathogens. Our results showed that QseC mediated the catecholamine stimulated effects on growth and flagellar motility of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub>. Transcriptome analysis revealed that QseC was involved in the global regulation of the virulence of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> as the ?<i>qseC</i> mutant exhibited a decreased expression of genes related to type IV pilin, flagellar motility, and biofilm formation, while an overexpression of type VI secretion system and cell wall biosynthesis. Subsequently, the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209 not only neutralized the stimulatory effects of host catecholamines on the growth and motility of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> <i>in vitro</i>, but also attenuated the virulence of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> towards brine shrimp larvae and white shrimp <i>in vivo</i>. Additionally, LED209 presented no interference with pathogen growth, nor the toxicity to the experimental animals. These results suggest that QseC can be an attractive antivirulence therapy target, and LED209 is a promising candidate for development of broad-spectrum antivirulence agents. This is the first study that demonstrated the role of QseC in the global regulation of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> infection and demonstrated the antivirulence potential of LED209, which provides insight into the use of an antivirulence approach for targeting not only <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub>, but also a much larger collection of pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP), proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture) have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24-48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA) and 50 kDa (ToxB). Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1) and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B), respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium). The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of VPAHPND isolates in the test set.
Project description:The causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is the bacterium, <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i>, which secretes toxins into the gastrointestinal tract of its host. <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> toxins A and B (PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup>) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are, therefore, the focus of studies developing treatments for AHPND. We previously produced recombinant antibodies based on the hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB) capable of neutralizing some viruses, suggesting that this type of antibody may have a potential application for treatment of AHPND. Here, recombinant PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup>, produced using a bacterial expression system, were used as antigens to screen a hagfish VLRB cDNA library to obtain PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup>-specific antibodies. A cell line secreting these antibodies was established by screening and cloning the DNA extracted from hagfish B cells. Supernatants collected from cells secreting the PirA<sup>vp</sup>/PirB<sup>vp</sup> antibodies were collected and concentrated, and used to passively immunize shrimp to neutralize the toxins PirA<sup>vp</sup> or PirB<sup>vp</sup> associated with AHPND. Briefly, 10 ?g of PirA<sup>vp</sup> and PirB<sup>vp</sup> antibodies, 7C12 and 9G10, respectively, were mixed with the shrimp feed, and fed to shrimp for three days consecutive days prior to experimentally infecting the shrimp with <i>V. parahaemolyticus</i> (containing toxins A and B), and resulting mortalities recorded for six days. Results showed significantly higher level of survival in shrimp fed with the PirB<sup>vp</sup>-9G10 antibody (60%) compared to the group fed the PirA<sup>vp</sup>-7C12 antibody (3%) and the control group (0%). This suggests that VLRB antibodies may be a suitable alternative to immunoglobulin-based antibodies, as passive immunization treatments for effective management of AHPND outbreaks within shrimp farms.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease which can cause 70-100% mortality in Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon, and has resulted in enormous economic losses since its appearance. AHPND is caused by the specific strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that harbor the pVA1 plasmid and express PirAvp and PirBvp toxins. These two toxins have been reported to form a binary complex. When both are present, they lead to the death of shrimp epithelial cells in the hepatopancreas and cause the typical histological symptoms of AHPND. However, the binding mode of PirAvp and PirBvp has not yet been determined. Here, we used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the binding affinity of PirAvp and PirBvp. Since the dissociation constant (Kd = 7.33 ± 1.20 ?M) was considered too low to form a sufficiently stable complex for X-ray crystallographic analysis, we used alternative methods to investigate PirAvp-PirBvp interaction, first by using gel filtration to evaluate the molecular weight of the PirAvp/PirBvp complex, and then by using cross-linking and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry to further understand the interaction interface between PirAvp and PirBvp. Based on these results, we propose a heterotetrameric interaction model of this binary toxin complex. This model provides insight of how conformational changes might activate the PirBvp N-terminal pore-forming domain and should be helpful for devising effective anti-AHPND strategies in the future.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirAvp/PirBvp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus, we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control.IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirAvp/PirBvp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type VI secretion system is associated with the AHPND strains and differentiates them from non-AHPND strains, similar to what was seen with the PirA/PirB toxins. We propose that T6SS1 provides a selective advantage during shrimp infections.
Project description:A new emerging disease called "translucent post-larvae disease" (TPD) or "glass post-larvae disease" (GPD) of Penaeus vannamei, characterized by pale or colorless hepatopancreas and digestive tract, has become an urgent threat to the shrimp farming industry. Following this clue that treatment of an antibacterial agent could alleviate the disease, systematic investigation of the potential infectious agent of TPD was conducted using bacterial identification and artificial challenge tests to fulfill Koch's postulates. A dominant bacterial isolate, Vp-JS20200428004-2, from the moribund individuals was isolated and identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus based on multi-locus sequence analysis. However, Vp-JS20200428004-2 differed from the V. parahaemolyticus that caused typical acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Immersion challenge tests revealed that Vp-JS20200428004-2 could cause 100% mortality within 40 h at a dose of 1.83 × 106 CFU/mL, and experimental infected shrimp showed similar clinical signs of TPD. The Vp-JS20200428004-2 could be re-isolated and identified from the experimental infected individuals. Moreover, histopathological analysis of diseased samples indicated that Vp-JS20200428004-2 caused severe necrosis and sloughing of epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas and midgut in shrimp individuals both naturally and experimentally infected. Our present results indicated that Vp-JS20200428004-2 is a highly virulent infectious agent associated with the TPD and deserves further attention.