Hcr1/eIF3j Is a 60S Ribosomal Subunit Recycling Accessory Factor In Vivo.
ABSTRACT: Hcr1/eIF3j is a sub-stoichiometric subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) that can dissociate the post-termination 40S ribosomal subunit from mRNA in vitro. We examine this ribosome recycling role in vivo by ribosome profiling and reporter assays and find that loss of Hcr1 leads to reinitiation of translation in 3' UTRs, consistent with a defect in recycling. However, the defect appears to be in the recycling of the 60S subunit, rather than the 40S subunit, because reinitiation does not require an AUG codon and is suppressed by overexpression of the 60S dissociation factor Rli1/ABCE1. Consistent with a 60S recycling role, overexpression of Hcr1 cannot compensate for loss of 40S recycling factors Tma64/eIF2D and Tma20/MCT-1. Intriguingly, loss of Hcr1 triggers greater expression of RLI1 via an apparent feedback loop. These findings suggest Hcr1/eIF3j is recruited to ribosomes at stop codons and may coordinate the transition to a new round of translation.
Project description:Hcr1/eIF3j is a sub-stoichiometric subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) that can dissociate the post-termination 40S ribosomal subunit from mRNA in vitro. We examined this ribosome recycling role in vivo by ribosome profiling and reporter assays and found that loss of Hcr1 led to reinitiation of translation in 3’UTRs, consistent with a defect in recycling. However, the defect appeared to be in recycling of the 60S subunit, rather than the 40S subunit, because reinitiation did not require an AUG codon and was suppressed by overexpression of the 60S dissociation factor Rli1/ABCE1. Consistent with a 60S recycling role, overexpression of Hcr1 could not compensate for loss of 40S recycling factors Tma64/eIF2D and Tma20/MCT-1. Intriguingly, loss of Hcr1 triggered higher expression of RLI1 via an apparent feedback loop. These findings suggest Hcr1/eIF3j is recruited to ribosomes at stop codons and may coordinate the transition to a new round of translation. Overall design: 25 biological samples are included in the study for ribosome footprinting and mRNA-Seq. These include wild-type and combination knockouts of Hcr1 and mutations of other eIF3 subunits and known ribosome recycling factors.
Project description:Termination of mRNA translation occurs when a stop codon enters the A site of the ribosome, and in eukaryotes is mediated by release factors eRF1 and eRF3, which form a ternary eRF1/eRF3-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) complex. eRF1 recognizes the stop codon, and after hydrolysis of GTP by eRF3, mediates release of the nascent peptide. The post-termination complex is then disassembled, enabling its constituents to participate in further rounds of translation. Ribosome recycling involves splitting of the 80S ribosome by the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1 to release the 60S subunit. Subsequent dissociation of deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) from the 40S subunit may be mediated by initiation factors (priming the 40S subunit for initiation), by ligatin (eIF2D) or by density-regulated protein (DENR) and multiple copies in T-cell lymphoma-1 (MCT1). These events may be subverted by suppression of termination (yielding carboxy-terminally extended read-through polypeptides) or by interruption of recycling, leading to reinitiation of translation near the stop codon.
Project description:The recycling of ribosomal subunits after translation termination is critical for efficient gene expression. Tma64 (eIF2D), Tma20 (MCT-1), and Tma22 (DENR) function as 40S recycling factors in vitro, but it is unknown whether they perform this function in vivo. Ribosome profiling of tma deletion strains revealed 80S ribosomes queued behind the stop codon, consistent with a block in 40S recycling. We found that unrecycled ribosomes could reinitiate translation at AUG codons in the 3' UTR, as evidenced by peaks in the footprint data and 3' UTR reporter analysis. In vitro translation experiments using reporter mRNAs containing upstream open reading frames (uORFs) further established that reinitiation increased in the absence of these proteins. In some cases, 40S ribosomes appeared to rejoin with 60S subunits and undergo an 80S reinitiation process in 3' UTRs. These results support a crucial role for Tma64, Tma20, and Tma22 in recycling 40S ribosomal subunits at stop codons and translation reinitiation.
Project description:The recycling of ribosomal subunits after translation termination is critical for efficient gene expression. Tma64 (eIF2D), Tma20 (MCT-1), and Tma22 (DENR) function as 40S recycling factors in vitro, but it is unknown whether they perform this function in vivo or serve as alternative initiation factors. Ribosome profiling of strains missing these factors revealed 80S ribosomes queued behind the stop codon, consistent with a block in 40S recycling. We found that unrecycled ribosomes could reinitiate translation at AUG codons in the 3’UTR, as evidenced by peaks in the footprint data and 3’UTR reporter analysis. In vitro translation experiments using reporter mRNAs containing upstream ORFs (uORFs) further established that reinitiation increased in the absence of these proteins. In some cases, 40S ribosomes appeared to rejoin with 60S subunits and undergo an alternative 80S reinitiation process in 3’UTRs. These results support a crucial role for Tma64, Tma20, and Tma22 in the recycling of 40S ribosomal subunits at stop codons and translation reinitiation. Overall design: 14 biological samples are included in the study for ribosome footprinting. These include wild-type and combination knockouts of TMA64, TMA20, and TMA22, and mutation of SUI1.
Project description:Translation is divided into initiation, elongation, termination and ribosome recycling. Earlier work implicated several eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) in ribosomal recycling in vitro. Here, we uncover roles for HCR1 and eIF3 in translation termination in vivo. A substantial proportion of eIF3, HCR1 and eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3) but not eIF5 (a well-defined "initiation-specific" binding partner of eIF3) specifically co-sediments with 80S couples isolated from RNase-treated heavy polysomes in an eRF1-dependent manner, indicating the presence of eIF3 and HCR1 on terminating ribosomes. eIF3 and HCR1 also occur in ribosome- and RNA-free complexes with both eRFs and the recycling factor ABCE1/RLI1. Several eIF3 mutations reduce rates of stop codon read-through and genetically interact with mutant eRFs. In contrast, a slow growing deletion of hcr1 increases read-through and accumulates eRF3 in heavy polysomes in a manner suppressible by overexpressed ABCE1/RLI1. Based on these and other findings we propose that upon stop codon recognition, HCR1 promotes eRF3·GDP ejection from the post-termination complexes to allow binding of its interacting partner ABCE1/RLI1. Furthermore, the fact that high dosage of ABCE1/RLI1 fully suppresses the slow growth phenotype of hcr1? as well as its termination but not initiation defects implies that the termination function of HCR1 is more critical for optimal proliferation than its function in translation initiation. Based on these and other observations we suggest that the assignment of HCR1 as a bona fide eIF3 subunit should be reconsidered. Together our work characterizes novel roles of eIF3 and HCR1 in stop codon recognition, defining a communication bridge between the initiation and termination/recycling phases of translation.
Project description:Despite recent progress in our understanding of the numerous functions of individual subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 3, little is known on the molecular level. Using NMR spectroscopy, we determined the first solution structure of an interaction between eIF3 subunits. We revealed that a conserved tryptophan residue in the human eIF3j N-terminal acidic motif (NTA) is held in the helix alpha1 and loop 5 hydrophobic pocket of the human eIF3b RNA recognition motif (RRM). Mutating the corresponding "pocket" residues in its yeast orthologue reduces cellular growth rate, eliminates eIF3j/HCR1 association with eIF3b/PRT1 in vitro and in vivo, affects 40S occupancy of eIF3, and produces a leaky scanning defect indicative of a deregulation of the AUG selection process. Unexpectedly, we found that the N-terminal half of eIF3j/HCR1 containing the NTA is indispensable and sufficient for wild-type growth of yeast cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deletion of either j/HCR1 or its N-terminal half only, or mutation of the key tryptophan residues results in the severe leaky scanning phenotype partially suppressible by overexpressed eIF1A, which is thought to stabilize properly formed preinitiation complexes at the correct start codon. These findings indicate that eIF3j/HCR1 remains associated with the scanning preinitiation complexes and does not dissociate from the small ribosomal subunit upon mRNA recruitment, as previously believed. Finally, we provide further support for earlier mapping of the ribosomal binding site for human eIF3j by identifying specific interactions of eIF3j/HCR1 with small ribosomal proteins RPS2 and RPS23 located in the vicinity of the mRNA entry channel. Taken together, we propose that eIF3j/HCR1 closely cooperates with the eIF3b/PRT1 RRM and eIF1A on the ribosome to ensure proper formation of the scanning-arrested conformation required for stringent AUG recognition.
Project description:After translational termination, mRNA and P site deacylated tRNA remain associated with ribosomes in posttermination complexes (post-TCs), which must therefore be recycled by releasing mRNA and deacylated tRNA and by dissociating ribosomes into subunits. Recycling of bacterial post-TCs requires elongation factor EF-G and a ribosome recycling factor RRF. Eukaryotes do not encode a RRF homolog, and their mechanism of ribosomal recycling is unknown. We investigated eukaryotic recycling using post-TCs assembled on a model mRNA encoding a tetrapeptide followed by a UAA stop codon and report that initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF3j, a loosely associated subunit of eIF3, can promote recycling of eukaryotic post-TCs. eIF3 is the principal factor that promotes splitting of posttermination ribosomes into 60S subunits and tRNA- and mRNA-bound 40S subunits. Its activity is enhanced by eIFs 3j, 1, and 1A. eIF1 also mediates release of P site tRNA, whereas eIF3j ensures subsequent dissociation of mRNA.
Project description:We found that mutating the RNP1 motif in the predicted RRM domain in yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit b/PRT1 (prt1-rnp1) impairs its direct interactions in vitro with both eIF3a/TIF32 and eIF3j/HCR1. The rnp1 mutation in PRT1 confers temperature-sensitive translation initiation in vivo and reduces 40S-binding of eIF3 to native preinitiation complexes. Several findings indicate that the rnp1 lesion decreases recruitment of eIF3 to the 40S subunit by HCR1: (i) rnp1 strongly impairs the association of HCR1 with PRT1 without substantially disrupting the eIF3 complex; (ii) rnp1 impairs the 40S binding of eIF3 more so than the 40S binding of HCR1; (iii) overexpressing HCR1-R215I decreases the Ts(-) phenotype and increases 40S-bound eIF3 in rnp1 cells; (iv) the rnp1 Ts(-) phenotype is exacerbated by tif32-Delta6, which eliminates a binding determinant for HCR1 in TIF32; and (v) hcr1Delta impairs 40S binding of eIF3 in otherwise wild-type cells. Interestingly, rnp1 also reduces the levels of 40S-bound eIF5 and eIF1 and increases leaky scanning at the GCN4 uORF1. Thus, the PRT1 RNP1 motif coordinates the functions of HCR1 and TIF32 in 40S binding of eIF3 and is needed for optimal preinitiation complex assembly and AUG recognition in vivo.
Project description:To study the function of Rli1/ABCE1 in vivo, we used ribosome profiling and biochemistry to characterize its contribution to ribosome recycling. When Rli1 levels were diminished, 80S ribosomes accumulated both at stop codons and in the adjoining 3'UTRs of most mRNAs. Frequently, these ribosomes reinitiated translation without the need for a canonical start codon, as small peptide products predicted by 3'UTR ribosome occupancy in all three reading frames were confirmed by western analysis and mass spectrometry. Eliminating the ribosome-rescue factor Dom34 dramatically increased 3'UTR ribosome occupancy in Rli1 depleted cells, indicating that Dom34 clears the bulk of unrecycled ribosomes. Thus, Rli1 is crucial for ribosome recycling in vivo and controls ribosome homeostasis. 3'UTR translation occurs in wild-type cells as well, and observations of elevated 3'UTR ribosomes during stress suggest that modulating recycling and reinitiation is involved in responding to environmental changes.
Project description:Assembly factors (AFs) prevent premature translation initiation on small (40S) ribosomal subunit assembly intermediates by blocking ligand binding. However, it is unclear how AFs are displaced from maturing 40S ribosomes, if or how maturing subunits are assessed for fidelity, and what prevents premature translation initiation once AFs dissociate. Here we show that maturation involves a translation-like cycle whereby the translation factor eIF5B, a GTPase, promotes joining of large (60S) subunits with pre-40S subunits to give 80S-like complexes, which are subsequently disassembled by the termination factor Rli1, an ATPase. The AFs Tsr1 and Rio2 block the mRNA channel and initiator tRNA binding site, and therefore 80S-like ribosomes lack mRNA or initiator tRNA. After Tsr1 and Rio2 dissociate from 80S-like complexes Rli1-directed displacement of 60S subunits allows for translation initiation. This cycle thus provides a functional test of 60S subunit binding and the GTPase site before ribosomes enter the translating pool.