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Mosquito Midgut Prostaglandin Release Establishes Systemic Immune Priming.


ABSTRACT: Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes that have been infected with Plasmodium mount a more effective immune response to a subsequent infection. Priming is established when Plasmodium invasion of the mosquito midgut allows contact of the gut microbiota with epithelial cells. This event is followed by a systemic release of a hemocyte differentiation factor (HDF) consisting of Lipoxin A4 bound to Evokin, a lipocalin carrier, which increases the proportion of circulating hemocytes. We show that mosquito midgut cells produce and release prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which attracts hemocytes to the midgut surface and enhances their patrolling activity. Systemic injection of prostaglandins (PGs) recapitulates the priming response and enhances antiplasmodial immunity by triggering HDF production. Although insects lack cyclooxygenases, two heme peroxidases, HPX7 and HPX8, catalyze essential steps in PG biosynthesis in mosquitoes. Mosquito midgut PGE2 release attracts hemocytes and establishes a long-lasting enhanced systemic cellular immune response to Plasmodium infection.

SUBMITTER: Barletta ABF 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6661395 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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