Status and influencing factors of diabetes information acquisition among rural elderly with pre-diabetes in Yiyang City, China: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate the status of diabetes information acquisition and its influencing factors among patients, 60 years and older, with pre-diabetes in rural China. DESIGN:This is a cross-sectional study. SETTING:The survey was conducted in 42 rural communities in Yiyang City, Hunan Province, China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 461 elderly with pre-diabetes participated in this study, and 434 of them completed the survey (434/461, 94.1%). OUTCOME MEASURES:Information on sociodemographic and diabetic information-seeking behaviours were assessed through the structured questionnaires and described by percentages, mean±SD. The influencing factors of diabetes information acquisition were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS:The average score of diabetes information acquisition in the subjects was 8.39±11.28. The most popular and trusted source of diabetes information for the subjects was doctors. The level of information acquisition not only declined as the age progressed (95% CI -3.754 to -0.143) but also proved lowest among subjects with less than 1 year of education (95% CI 0.756 to 4.326). In addition, the level of information acquisition among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes, but with no history of hyperglycaemia, was lower than among those with a history of hyperglycaemia (95% CI 3.398 to 11.945). CONCLUSIONS:These data indicated that the lack of ability to acquire diabetes information in elderly with pre-diabetes was common in rural China. Improving the ability of rural residents to access information should be incorporated into rural diabetes prevention efforts, especially for the elderly with pre-diabetes with low education and no history of hyperglycaemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR-IOR-15007033; Pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore diabetes-related behaviours and their influencing factors among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural areas of China. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted among elderly individuals (?60 years) in rural communities in Yiyang City of China. Multistaged cluster random sampling was carried out to select 42 areas, and interviews were conducted among 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes (fasting plasma glucose 6.1-7.0?mmol/L and/or 2-hour post-glucose load of 7.8-11.1?mmol/L) using questionnaires on diabetes-related behaviours. The diabetes-related behaviours included eight categories: average daily sedentary time; frequency of physical activities per week; regular or irregular diet; whether paying attention to diet control or not; daily dietary preferences; frequency of physical examinations per year; current smoking status; and current consumption of alcohol. Each of the risky behaviours was scored -1 and each of the healthy behaviours was scored +1. Each individual's score of diabetes-related behaviours was the sum of the score for all behaviours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Participants were asked about general information (age, gender, marital status, history of hyperglycaemia, family history of diabetes mellitus, presence of other diseases, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and education) and their diabetes-related behaviours. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for diabetes-related behaviour among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. RESULTS:The average score of diabetes-related behaviours of elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural China was 2.7. The prevalences of risky diabetes-related behaviours were as follows: <1 physical examination per year (57.6%), insufficient physical activities (55.3%), lack of attention paid to diet control (51.4%), high-salt and high-fat diets (41.0%), sedentary lifestyle (35.9%), smoking (22.8%), regular alcohol uptake (15.0%) and irregular diet (3.9%). Gender and a history of hyperglycaemia were found to be influencing factors of the diabetes-related behaviour score. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of risky diabetes-related behaviours was high among pre-diabetic elderly individuals in rural China. More effort should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in rural China. Future studies should be undertaken on diabetes prevention strategies tailored specially for this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR-IOR-15007033; Results.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the association between diabetes-specific health literacy (DSHL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural China. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:This cross-sectional study included 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes from 42 villages in rural China. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. DSHL was measured by a validated questionnaire in China. Differences in HRQoL between groups with and without high DSHL were tested by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). RESULTS:The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 21.5%. The average age of participants (n=434) was 69.4±6.4 years, and 58.5% were female. Bivariate analysis showed that those with high DSHL had increases of 2.9 points in the physical health component score and 4.4 points in the mental health component score (MCS) compared with those without. After adjustment for potential confounders, a significant MANCOVA model (Wilks' ?=0.974, F=5.63, p=0.004) indicated that individuals with pre-diabetes who had high DSHL reported higher MCS (Mdiff=3.5, 95%?CI 1.8 to 6.3, effect size=0.38). This remained significant across subscales: general health (p=0.028), vitality (p=0.014), social functioning (p=0.017) and mental health (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Low DSHL was associated with worsening HRQoL among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural China, particularly in the mental health components. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR-IOR-15007033.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. This study aimed to determine if differences existed in HRQoL between individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active compared with those who were physically inactive in rural China. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the elderly (?60 years) in rural communities in Yiyang City of China. Multistage cluster random sampling was carried out to select 42 areas, and interviews were conducted among 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes was screened using an oral glucose tolerance test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure HRQoL. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to test for differences in HRQoL between the physically active group and the inactive group. RESULTS:A total of 434 individuals with pre-diabetes were included in this study. The physical component summary (PCS) score of HRQoL was 42.1±10.2?and the mental component summary score was 46.4±8.9. A median total physical activity of 524 metabolic equivalent-min/week was reported. A significant MANCOVA model (Wilks' ?=0.962, F(2,423)=8.44, P<0.001) indicated that elderly individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active reported higher PCS scores (Mdiff=5.2, P<0.001, effective size=0.47) compared with those physically inactive after adjusting for the following covariates: age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, chronic disease, body mass index and waist:hip ratio. CONCLUSIONS:The HRQoL of elderly individuals with pre-diabetes is poor in rural China. These findings demonstrated that elderly individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active had higher PCS scores than those who were physically inactive. Furthermore, these results support the rationale for developing a physical activity intervention for HRQoL of individuals with pre-diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR-IOR-15007033; Results.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>To explore the clustering and influencing factors of unhealthy lifestyles among elderly adults with prediabetes in rural China.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yiyang, Hunan Province, China. Through multistage cluster random sampling and an oral glucose tolerance test, we screened 461 elderly adults aged 60 years and older with prediabetes out of 2144 elderly adults who were sampled. The prediabetic adults completed a survey examining four common lifestyle factors: diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol use and the ability to acquire diabetes-related knowledge and thereby promote one's own health-diabetes health literacy. The influencing factors were analyzed retrospectively with the Kruskal-Wallis test and ordinal logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 425 elderly adults completed the survey, of whom 325 were identified with unhealthy lifestyle clustering. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences between unhealthy lifestyle clusters by age, gender, marital status, occupation and hyperlipidemia (P < 0.05). Ordinal logistic regression showed that female gender (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI: 0.15 0.37), personal annual income???2800 CNY (OR?=?0.61, 95% CI: 0.38 0.99) and occupation as a worker (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI: 0.34 0.92) were protective factors against unhealthy lifestyle clustering. An unsatisfactory marital status (OR?=?1.60, 95% CI: 1.02 2.51) and low diabetes health literacy (OR?=?3.17, 95% CI: 1.03 9.81) were risk factors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In total, 76.47% of the prediabetic elderly adults in rural China showed unhealthy lifestyle clusters. Being male and having an unsatisfactory marital status, a low personal annual income, an occupation as a farmer and low diabetes health literacy were the main risk factors for unhealthy lifestyle clustering. More effective interventions should be implemented based on these risk factors to prevent diabetes in rural elderly adults.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:With the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries, biological risk factors, such as hyperglycaemia, are a major public health concern in Bangladesh. Hyperglycaemia is an excess of glucose in the bloodstream and is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nationally representative data of hyperglycaemia prevalence starting from age ≥18 years are currently unavailable for Bangladeshi adults. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of hyperglycaemia among adults in Bangladesh aged ≥18 years. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Data for this analysis were collected in November to December 2015, from a population-based nationally representative sample of 1843 adults, aged ≥18 years, from both urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Demographic information, capillary blood glucose, blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference and treatment history were recorded. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Hyperglycaemia was defined as a random capillary blood glucose level of ≥11.1 mmol/L (ie, in the diabetic range) or currently taking medication to control type 2 diabetes, based on self-report. RESULTS:Overall, the prevalence of hyperglycaemia was 5.5% (95% CI 4.5% to 6.6%) and was significantly higher among urban (9.8%, 95% CI 7.7% to 12.2%) than rural residents (2.8%, 95% CI 1.9% to 3.9%). The age-standardised prevalence of hyperglycaemia was 5.6% (95% CI 4.6% to 6.8%). Among both urban and rural residents, the associated determinants of hyperglycaemia included hypertension and abdominal obesity. About 5% of the total population self-reported have been previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes; among these adults, over 25% were not taking medications to control their diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:Our study found that about 1 in 20 Bangladeshi adults aged ≥18 years have hyperglycaemia. To control and prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, data from this study can be used to inform public health programming and provide descriptive information on surveillance of progress towards controlling diabetes in Bangladesh.
Project description:This study examines prehospital Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilisation and patterns of demand for hyperglycaemia management, including characteristics of individuals and factors related to hospital transport.A state-wide, community-based observational study of all patients requiring prehospital EMS for hyperglycaemia during a 7 year study period (Jan 2009-Dec 2015) using electronic data from the Ambulance Victoria data warehouse was conducted. Pre-specified variables related to patient demographics, comorbidities, examination findings, paramedic treatment and transport outcomes were obtained. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with transport to hospital.There were 11,417 cases of hyperglycaemia attended by paramedics during the study period, accounting for 0.3-0.4% of the total annual EMS caseload, and equating to 0.54 attendances per 100 people with diabetes in the state of Victoria, Australia, per year. There was a significant increase in annual utilisation, with a rate ratio of 1.62 between 2009 (2.42 cases per 10,000 population) and 2015 (3.91 cases per 10,000 population). Fifty-one percent of cases had type 2 diabetes, 37% had type 1 diabetes, 4% had diabetes with the type unspecified and 8% had no recorded history of diabetes. Ninety percent of cases were transported to hospital. Factors associated with increased odds of transport to hospital included no known history of diabetes, regional/rural locations, case time between 0600 and <1800 hours, increasing number of comorbidities and increasingly unstable vital sign observations.There is substantial utilisation of prehospital EMS for hyperglycaemia. With increased population prevalence of diabetes predicted, further research on opportunities for prevention, as well as optimal management in the prehospital environment is warranted.
Project description:AIM:To determine whether intermediate hyperglycaemia, defined by fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c criteria, is associated with mortality in a 10-year cohort of people in a Latin American country. METHODS:Analysis of the PERU MIGRANT Study was conducted in three different population groups (rural, rural-to-urban migrant, and urban). The baseline assessment was conducted in 2007/2008, with follow-up assessment in 2018. The outcome was all-cause mortality, and the exposure was intermediate hyperglycaemia, using three definitions: (1) impaired fasting glucose, defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria [fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l (100-125 mg/dl)]; (2) intermediate hyperglycaemia defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria [HbA1c levels 39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%)]; and (3) intermediate hyperglycaemia defined according to the International Expert Committee criteria [HbA1c levels 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%)]. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS:At baseline, the mean (sd) age of the study population was 47.8 (11.9) years and 52.5% of the cohort were women. The study cohort was divided into population groups as follows: 207 people (20.0%) in the rural population group, 583 (59.7%) in the rural-to-urban migrant group and 198 (20.3%) in the urban population group. The prevalence of intermediate hyperglycaemia was: 6%, 12.9% and 38.5% according to the American Diabetes Association impaired fasting glucose definition, the International Expert Committee HbA1c -based definition and the American Diabetes Association HbA1c -based definition, respectively, and the mortality rate after 10 years was 63/976 (7%). Intermediate hyperglycaemia was associated with all-cause mortality using the HbA1c -based definitions in the crude models [hazard ratios 2.82 (95% CI 1.59-4.99) according to the American Diabetes Association and 2.92 (95% CI 1.62-5.28) according to the International Expert Committee], whereas American Diabetes Association-defined impaired fasting glucose was not [hazard ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.26-2.68)]. In the adjusted model, however, only the American Diabetes Association HbA1c -based definition was associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.91 (95% CI 1.03-3.53)], whereas the International Expert Committee HbA1c -based and American Diabetes Association impaired fasting glucose-based definitions were not [hazard ratios 1.42 (95% CI 0.75-2.68) and 1.09 (95% CI 0.33-3.63), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:Intermediate hyperglycaemia defined using the American Diabetes Association HbA1c criteria was associated with an elevated mortality rate after 10 years in a cohort from Peru. HbA1c appears to be a factor associated with mortality in this Peruvian population.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The primary aim of this study was to describe the socioeconomic status (SES), housing conditions and depression of the elderly in rural China, as well as to examine the associations between depression and SES and housing conditions using the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). DESIGN:This is a cross-sectional study. SETTING:A nationally representative sample of elderly in rural China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 4585 elderly adults in 2015 in rural China. OUTCOME MEASURES:Prevalence and risk factors of depression among rural elderly. RESULTS:Among the participants in this study, approximately 46.15% (2116/4585) reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CESD-10] score >10) in rural China. The results revealed significant associations between higher scores on CESD-10 (indicating more symptoms of depression) and lowest personal annual income (OR=1.63, 95%?CI 1.290 to 2.060), polluting cooking fuel (OR=1.16, 95%?CI 1.018 to 1.321), toilet without seat (OR=1.273, 95%?CI 1.056 to 1.535), as well as having no bath facility (OR=1.172, 95%?CI 1.025 to 1.341) after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSION:Elderly in rural China experienced severe depressive symptoms. Lowest personal annual income, polluting cooking fuel, toilet without seat and having no bath facility were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Caution needs to be taken in generalising the findings of this study to the rest of the population in China since its highly selected sample.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Strategies are needed to prevent and control type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia, which together affect roughly a third of adults in Bangladesh. We aimed to assess the effects of mHealth and community mobilisation on the prevalence of intermediate hyperglycaemia and diabetes among the general adult population in rural Bangladesh, and to assess the effect of these interventions on the incidence of type 2 diabetes among people with intermediate hyperglycaemia within the study population. METHODS:DMagic was a three-arm, cluster-randomised trial of participatory community mobilisation, mHealth mobile phone messaging, and usual care (control) in 96 villages (population roughly 125?000) in Bangladesh. Community mobilisation involved 18 monthly group meetings, led by lay facilitators, applying a participatory learning and action (PLA) cycle focused on diabetes prevention and control. mHealth involved twice-weekly voice messages over 14 months promoting behaviour change to reduce diabetes risk. The primary outcomes were the combined prevalence of type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in the overall population at the end of the intervention implementation period, and 2-year cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes in a cohort with intermediate hyperglycaemia at baseline. Primary outcomes were assessed through fasting blood glucose concentrations and 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests among a cross-section of adults aged 30 years and older and a cohort of individuals identified with intermediate hyperglycaemia. Prevalence findings are based on a cross-sectional survey at the end of the study; incidence findings are based on 2-year follow-up survey of a cohort of individuals identified with intermediate hyperglycaemia through a cross-sectional survey at baseline. We also assessed the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN41083256, and is completed. FINDINGS:The study took place between June 27, 2015, and June 28, 2018, with the PLA intervention running in 32 villages from June, 2016, to December, 2017, and the mHealth intervention running in 32 villages from Oct 21, 2016, to Dec 24, 2017. End-of study prevalence was assessed in 11?454 individuals and incidence in 2100 individuals. There was a large reduction in the combined prevalence of type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in the PLA group compared with the control group at the end of the study (adjusted [for stratification, clustering, and wealth] odds ratio [aOR] 0·36 [0·27-0·48]), with an absolute reduction of 20·7% (95% CI 14·6-26·7). Among 2470 adults with intermediate hyperglycaemia at baseline, 2100 (85%) were followed-up at 2 years. The 2-year cumulative incidence of diabetes in this cohort was significantly lower in the PLA group compared with control (aOR 0·39, 0·24-0·65), representing an absolute incidence reduction of 8·7% (3·5-14·0). There was no evidence of effect of mHealth on combined prevalence of intermediate hyperglycaemia and diabetes (aOR 0·93, 0·74-1·16) or the incidence of diabetes (1·02, 0·73-1·43). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for PLA were INT$316 per case of intermediate hyperglycaemia or type 2 diabetes prevented and $6518 per case of type 2 diabetes prevented among individuals with intermediate hyperglycaemia. INTERPRETATION:Our data provide strong evidence to support the use of community mobilisation based on PLA to prevent type 2 diabetes in this rural Bangladeshi population. Despite raising knowledge and awareness of diabetes, the mHealth intervention did not change disease outcomes in our population. Replication studies in other populations should be a priority. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The escalating problem of multiple chronic conditions among older adults in China draws public health attention due to increasing proportion of the elderly population. This study sought to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with four chronic diseases in older adults in Haikou, the capital city of Hainan Province, China. METHOD:In this cross-sectional study, 9432 community-dwelling elderly people aged 60 years and older living in rural or urban areas in Haikou were investigated. The interviews collected self-reported information on the presence of four major chronic diseases, as well as socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and self-reported height and weight. FINDINGS:Overall, 31.7% (2961/9344) reported at least one of the four chronic diseases. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, COPD, and stroke was 26.0% (2449/9407), 8.0% (749/9371), 1.0% (95/9360), and 1.9% (175/9382), respectively. Common correlates of the four major chronic diseases were older age, being engaged in intellectual work, currently being a smoker and obesity. Gender, locality of residence, and alcohol consumptions were also found to be associated to some of the chronic conditions. CONCLUSION:This finding indicates that multiple chronic conditions among elderly people in Haikou are prevalent and warrant special attention to reduce diseases burden and align health care services to cater the holistic elderly patients' need.