Comparison of cigarette, little cigar, and waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate and e-cigarette aerosol condensate in a self-administration model.
ABSTRACT: The pharmacological effects of tobacco products are primarily mediated by nicotine; however, research suggests that several non-nicotine tobacco constituents may alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine. This study evaluated the reinforcing effects of aqueous solutions of smoke/aerosol condensate from cigarettes, little cigars, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and waterpipe tobacco in a self-administration procedure to determine if abuse liability of these tobacco products differed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?64 total) were trained to self-administer intravenous nicotine (30??g/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Following nicotine dose-effect assessment (1, 7.5, 15, and 30??g/kg/infusion), rats were given access to smoke/aerosol condensate derived from their assigned tobacco product. Rats responded for smoke/aerosol condensate containing 1, 7.5, 15, and 30??g/kg/infusion nicotine, with the ratio of nicotine:non-nicotine constituents held constant across doses for each tobacco product. Responding for nicotine or smoke/aerosol condensate was also assessed on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Cigarette, little cigar, and e-cigarette smoke/aerosol condensates shifted the nicotine dose-effect curve leftward, whereas waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate shifted the dose-effect curve rightward. Smoke/aerosol condensate from all tobacco products produced similar levels of responding compared to nicotine alone during the progressive ratio phase. Results suggest that non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes, little cigars, and e-cigarettes differentially enhance nicotine's reinforcing potency. In contrast, waterpipe tobacco blunted nicotine's reinforcing potency, suggesting that it may contain unique constituents that dampen nicotine's reinforcing effects.
Project description:Waterpipe smoking has been growing in popularity in the United States and worldwide. Most tobacco control regulations remain limited to cigarettes. Few studies have investigated waterpipe tobacco smoke exposures in a real world setting. We measured carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM)2.5, and airborne nicotine concentrations in seven waterpipe cafes in the greater Baltimore area. Area air samples were collected between two and five hours, with an average sampling duration of three hours. Waterpipe smoking behaviors were observed at each venue. Indoor air samplers for CO, PM2.5, and airborne nicotine were placed in the main seating area 1-2?m above the floor. Indoor airborne concentrations of PM2.5 and CO were markedly elevated in waterpipe cafes and exceeded concentrations that were observed in cigarette smoking bars. Air nicotine concentrations, although not as high as in venues that allow cigarette smoking, were markedly higher than in smoke-free bars and restaurants. Concentrations of PM approached occupational exposure limits and CO exceeded occupational exposure guidelines suggesting that worker protection measures need to be considered. This study adds to the literature indicating that both employees and patrons of waterpipe venues are at increased risk from complex exposures to secondhand waterpipe smoke.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Characterizing flavors are widely available in e-cigarettes and motivate initiation and continued use. Flavors may enhance appeal and facilitate development of addiction to tobacco products through modulation of tobacco products' reinforcing or aversive actions. Palatable flavors (eg, fruit) may increase appeal through primary reinforcing properties. Menthol's cooling and anesthetic effects may increase appeal by counteracting nicotine's aversive effects. Genetics provide a method for modeling individual differences in sensitivity to nicotine's effects. A common polymorphism, rs16969968, encoded in the ?5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA5), is a well-recognized marker for smoking risk and reduces sensitivity to nicotine aversiveness. METHODS:This pilot study tested how flavors impacted e-cigarette appeal and self-administration. In a single testing day, cigarette smokers (N = 32; 94% menthol-smokers) self-administered e-cigarettes containing e-liquids differing in nicotine level (0 mg/mL, 24 mg/mL) and flavor (unflavored, menthol, fruit-flavored) within directed and ad libitum e-cigarette paradigms. Subjective drug effects, number of puffs, rs16969968 genotype, plasma nicotine, and menthol glucuronide levels were collected. RESULTS:Menthol partially ameliorated nicotine aversiveness; fruit did not. In nicotine's absence, fruit flavor increased self-reported preference and ad libitum use relative to menthol-containing or unflavored e-liquids. Individuals with high-smoking-risk rs16969968 genotype (N = 7) reported greater craving alleviation following directed administration of nicotine-containing e-liquids, showed a trend rating nicotine-containing e-liquids as less harsh, and self-administered more nicotine during ad libitum compared to individuals with low-smoking-risk genotype (N = 23). CONCLUSIONS:While menthol countered aversiveness of nicotine-containing e-liquids, fruit flavor increased appeal of nicotine-free e-liquids. These preliminary findings suggest menthol and fruit flavor increase e-cigarettes' appeal through distinct mechanisms. IMPLICATIONS:This study provides a detailed characterization of the effects of flavors (unflavored, menthol, fruit), nicotine (0 mg/mL, 24 mg/mL) and their interactions on the subjective drug effects and ad libitum self-administration of e-cigarettes. Genetics were used to assess these effects in higher-smoking-risk (diminished sensitivity to nicotine aversiveness) and lower-risk groups. Findings could inform impact of regulation of flavors or nicotine in e-cigarettes, and their impacts on vulnerable sub-populations.
Project description:Background:Most smoke-free legislation to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure exempts waterpipe (hookah) smoking venues. Few studies have examined SHS exposure in waterpipe venues and their employees. Methods:We surveyed 276 employees of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. We interviewed venue managers and employees and collected biological samples from employees to measure exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), hair nicotine, saliva cotinine, urine cotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG). We estimated adjusted geometric mean ratios (GMR) of each SHS biomarker by employee characteristics and indoor air SHS measures. Results:There were 73 nonsmoking employees and 203 current smokers of cigarettes or waterpipe. In nonsmokers, the median (interquartile) range concentrations of SHS biomarkers were 1.1 (0.2, 40.9) µg/g creatinine urine cotinine, 5.5 (2, 15) ng/mL saliva cotinine, 0.95 (0.36, 5.02) ng/mg hair nicotine, 1.48 (0.98, 3.97) pg/mg creatinine urine NNAL, 0.54 (0.25, 0.97) pmol/mg creatinine urine 1-OHPG, and 1.67 (1.33, 2.33) ppm exhaled CO. An 8-hour increase in work hours was associated with higher urine cotinine (GMR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.37) and hair nicotine (GMR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.43). Lighting waterpipes was associated with higher saliva cotinine (GMR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.05, 7.62). Conclusions:Nonsmoking employees of waterpipe tobacco venues were exposed to high levels of SHS, including measurable levels of carcinogenic biomarkers (tobacco-specific nitrosamines and PAHs). Implications:Smoke-free regulation should be extended to waterpipe venues to protect nonsmoking employees and patrons from the adverse health effects of SHS.
Project description:Although nicotine is the primary reinforcing constituent in cigarettes, there is evidence that other constituents in cigarette smoke may interact with nicotine to reinforce smoking behavior.The present experiments investigated whether a novel combination of these cigarette smoke constituents would increase nicotine self-administration in adult male rats. The constituents included five minor alkaloids (anabasine, nornicotine, cotinine, myosmine, and anatabine), two ?-carbolines (harman and norharman), and acetaldehyde. All doses were indexed to be proportional to concentrations in cigarette smoke given a standard dose of nicotine used in rodent self-administration, or ten times higher than this standard. To model MAO inhibition seen in chronic smokers, some groups received separate injections of tranylcypromine prior to each self-administration session.Tranylcypromine increased low-dose nicotine self-administration independent of other smoke constituents, which had no effect on self-administration behavior. The effect of tranylcypromine was confirmed across a large range of reinforcement schedules. The effect of tranylcypromine on low-dose nicotine self-administration was observed regardless of whether the injection was delivered 1-h or 23-h prior to the self-administration session, consistent with the interpretation that MAO inhibition was responsible for the increase in self-administration, instead of acute off-target effects.These data suggest that this cocktail of constituents does not significantly alter the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, but constituents that inhibit MAO may increase the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, especially at low doses.
Project description:Waterpipe smoking is becoming more popular worldwide and there is a pressing need to better characterize the exposure of smokers to chemical compounds present in the mainstream smoke. We report real-time measurements of mainstream smoke for carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nanoparticle size distribution and chemical composition using a custom dilution flow tube. A conventional tobacco mixture, a dark leaf unwashed tobacco and a nicotine-free herbal tobacco were studied. Results show that carbon monoxide is present in the mainstream smoke and originates primarily from the charcoal used to heat the tobacco. Online measurements of volatile organic compounds in mainstream smoke showed an overwhelming contribution from glycerol. Gas phase analysis also showed that very little filtration of the gas phase products is provided by the percolation of mainstream smoke through water. Waterpipe smoking generated high concentrations of 4-100 nm nanoparticles, which were mainly composed of sugar derivatives and especially abundant in the first 10 min of the smoking session. These measured emissions of volatiles and particles are compared with those from a reference cigarette (3R4F) and represent the equivalent of the emission of one or more entire cigarettes for a single puff of hookah smoke. Considerations related to the health impacts of waterpipe smoking are discussed.
Project description:The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including nicotine, to promote public health. Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes may lead to lower levels of addiction. Smokers however may compensate by smoking more cigarettes and/or smoking more intensely. The objective of this study was to test whether individual differences in the level of nicotine dependence (as measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]) and/or the rate of nicotine metabolism influence smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants when smokers are switched to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNC).Data from 51 participants from a previously published clinical trial of RNC were analyzed. Nicotine content of cigarettes was progressively reduced over 6 months and measures of smoking behavior, as well as nicotine metabolites and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure, CYP2A6 and nicotinic CHRNA5-A3-B4 (rs1051730) genotype were measured.Higher baseline FTCD predicted smoking more cigarettes per day (CPD), higher cotinine and smoke toxicant levels while smoking RNC throughout the study, with no interaction by RNC level. Time to first cigarette (TFC) was associated with differences in compensation. TFC within 10 min was associated with a greater increase in CPD compared to TFC greater than 10 min. Neither rate of nicotine metabolism, nor CYP2A6 or nicotinic receptor genotype, had an effect on the outcome variables of interest.FTCD is associated with overall exposure to nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke, while a short TFC is associated with an increased compensatory response after switching to RNC.
Project description:Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes.We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users.The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m(3). The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m(3), respectively; p = .0081).Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions.
Project description:Alternative tobacco products are increasing in popularity. An important question is whether their use is associated with or even leads to conventional smoking, but large-scale (European) studies are scarce. In two cohorts of Dutch adolescents (Cohort I n = 6819, mean age = 13.8 SD = 1.1, 48.2% female; Cohort II n = 2758, mean age = 17.3 SD = 1.8, 61.3% female), we investigated use of electronic (e)-cigarettes with nicotine, e-cigarettes without nicotine and waterpipe. Generalized estimating equation modelling was conducted with ever conventional smoking as the dependent variable (0 = no, 1 = yes) and ever alternative tobacco use as the independent variable, correcting for clustering within schools, age, sex and education in both cohorts. In a subsample (n = 2100), the association between alternative tobacco use at baseline and conventional smoking 6 months later was tested, taking into account smoking propensity (based on personality, susceptibility to peer pressure and smoking intentions). Ever use prevalence was 13.7% for e-cigarettes with nicotine, 29.4% for e-cigarettes without nicotine and 22.1% for waterpipe in Cohort I and 12.3, 27.6 and 45.3% respectively in Cohort II. Ever smokers had tried alternative tobacco products more often than never smokers. Among never-smoking adolescents at baseline, alternative tobacco use predicted ever smoking 6 months later (e-cigarettes with nicotine OR 11.90 95% CI 3.36-42.11; e-cigarettes without nicotine OR 5.36 95% CI 2.73-10.52; waterpipe OR 5.36 95% CI 2.78-10.31). This association was strongest for adolescents with a low baseline risk of smoking. Experimenting with alternative tobacco products is common among Dutch youth. Alternative tobacco use predicts (future) smoking, especially among adolescents with a low smoking propensity.
Project description:Aerosols from electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products have been found to contain lower levels of almost all compounds from the list of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents known to be present in tobacco products and tobacco smoke than smoke from conventional cigarettes. Free radicals, which also pose potential health risks, are not considered in this list, and their levels in the different product types have not yet been compared under standardized conditions. We compared the type and quantity of free radicals in mainstream aerosol of 3R4F research cigarettes, two types of electronic cigarettes, and a heat-not-burn tobacco product. Free radicals and NO in the gas phases were separately spin trapped and quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy by using a smoking machine for aerosol generation and a flow-through cell to enhance reproducibility of the quantification. Particulate matter was separated by a Cambridge filter and extracted, and persistent radicals were quantified by EPR spectroscopy. Levels of organic radicals for electronic cigarettes and the heat-not-burn product, as measured with the PBN spin trap, did not exceed 1% of the level observed for conventional cigarettes and were close to the radical level observed in air blanks. The radicals found in the smoke of conventional cigarettes were oxygen centered, most probably alkoxy radicals, whereas a signal for carbon-centered radicals near the detection limit was observed in aerosol from the heat-not-burn product and electronic cigarettes. The NO level in aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes was below our detection limit, whereas for the heat-not-burn product, it reached about 7% of the level observed for whole smoke from 3R4F cigarettes. Persistent radicals in particulate matter could be quantified only for 3R4F cigarettes. Aerosols from vaping and heat-not-burn tobacco products have much lower free radical levels than cigarette smoke, however, the toxicological implications of this finding are as yet unknown.
Project description:Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs).This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined.The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand.THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform.Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of burning can offer a potentially lower risk of delivering nicotine compared to CCs.