The Upregulation of Toll-Like Receptor 3 via Autocrine IFN-? Signaling Drives the Senescence of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through JAK1.
ABSTRACT: Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are among the most promising cell sources for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine, the decline in their function with age due to cellular senescence limits their therapeutic applications. Unveiling the underlying mechanism of MSC senescence is therefore of substantial interest with regard to advancing MSC-based cell therapies. We here show that the induction of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSC (UCB-MSC) senescence causes the predominant upregulation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Subsequent TLR3 activation by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid triggers the prominent features of senescence. Using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 library screening system, we identified Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) as the candidate regulatory factor for TLR3-mediated MSC senescence. A JAK1 deficiency blocked the MSC senescence phenotype upon TLR3 activation and TLR3 induction. Targeting the JAK1 pathway using chemical JAK1 inhibitors also significantly suppressed TLR3-mediated MSC senescence. Importantly, we further observed that UCB-MSC senescence is driven by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and that interferon-? (IFN-?) is a component of TLR3-dependent SASP, whereby its autocrine actions upregulate TLR3 and suppress cell proliferation. A JAK1 depletion significantly interrupted these effects of IFN-?, indicating that JAK1 is a signaling mediator linking IFN-? activity to TLR3 expression and the process of MSC senescence. Collectively, our findings provide new mechanistic insights into UCB-MSC senescence by revealing the role of an autocrine regulatory loop of SASP evoked by TLR3 activation.
Project description:Cellular senescence and its secretory phenotype (senescence-associated secretory phenotype [SASP]) develop after long-term expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Further investigation of this phenotype is required to improve the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-based cell therapies. In this study, we show that positive feedback between SASP and inherent senescence processes plays a crucial role in the senescence of umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs).We found that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was secreted as a dominant component of the SASP during expansion of UCB-MSCs and reinforced senescence via its cognate receptor chemokine (c-c motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) by activating the ROS-p38-MAPK-p53/p21 signaling cascade in both an autocrine and paracrine manner. The activated p53 in turn increased MCP-1 secretion, completing a feed-forward loop that triggered the senescence program in UCB-MSCs. Accordingly, knockdown of CCR2 in UCB-MSCs significantly improved their therapeutic ability to alleviate airway inflammation in an experimental allergic asthma model. Moreover, BMI1, a polycomb protein, repressed the expression of MCP-1 by binding to its regulatory elements. The reduction in BMI1 levels during UCB-MSC senescence altered the epigenetic status of MCP-1, including the loss of H2AK119Ub, and resulted in derepression of MCP-1.Our results provide the first evidence supporting the existence of the SASP as a causative contributor to UCB-MSC senescence and reveal a so far unappreciated link between epigenetic regulation and SASP for maintaining a stable senescent phenotype.Senescence of UCB-MSCs is orchestrated by MCP-1, which is secreted as a major component of the SASP and is epigenetically regulated by BMI1.
Project description:In order to provide a sufficient number of cells for clinical use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) must be cultured for long-term expansion, which inevitably triggers cellular senescence. Although the small size of MSCs is known as a critical determinant of their fate, the main regulators of stem cell senescence and the underlying signaling have not been addressed. Umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) were obtained using size-isolation methods and then cultured with control or small cells to investigate the major factors that modulate MSC senescence. Cytokine array data suggested that the secretion of interukin-8 (IL-8) or growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROa) by senescent cells was markedly inhibited during incubation of small cells along with suppression of cognate receptor (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor2, CXCR2) via blockade of the autocrine/paracrine positive loop. Moreover, signaling via toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR5, both pattern recognition receptors, drove cellular senescence of MSCs, but was inhibited in small cells. The activation of TLRs (2 and 5) through ligand treatment induced a senescent phenotype in small cells. Collectively, our data suggest that small cell from UCB-MSCs exhibit delayed cellular senescence by inhibiting the process of TLR signaling-mediated senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) activation.
Project description:Cellular senescence is the permanent arrest of cell cycle, physiologically related to aging and aging-associated diseases. Senescence is also recognized as a mechanism for limiting the regenerative potential of stem cells and to protect cells from cancer development. The senescence program is realized through autocrine/paracrine pathways based on the activation of a peculiar senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We show here that conditioned media (CM) of senescent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contain a set of secreted factors that are able to induce a full senescence response in young cells. To delineate a hallmark of stem cells SASP, we have characterized the factors secreted by senescent MSC identifying insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 4 and 7 (IGFBP4 and IGFBP7) as key components needed for triggering senescence in young MSC. The pro-senescent effects of IGFBP4 and IGFBP7 are reversed by single or simultaneous immunodepletion of either proteins from senescent-CM. The blocking of IGFBP4/7 also reduces apoptosis and promotes cell growth, suggesting that they may have a pleiotropic effect on MSC biology. Furthermore, the simultaneous addition of rIGFBP4/7 increased senescence and induced apoptosis in young MSC. Collectively, these results suggest the occurrence of novel-secreted factors regulating MSC cellular senescence of potential importance for regenerative medicine and cancer therapy.
Project description:The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein (JAK-STAT) pathway mediates essential biological functions from immune responses to haematopoiesis. Deregulated JAK-STAT signaling causes myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukaemia, and lymphomas, as well as autoimmune diseases. Thereby JAKs have gained significant relevance as therapeutic targets. However, there is still a clinical need for better JAK inhibitors and novel strategies targeting regions outside the conserved kinase domain have gained interest. In-depth knowledge about the molecular details of JAK activation is required. For example, whether the function and regulation between receptors is conserved remains an open question. We used JAK-deficient cell-lines and structure-based mutagenesis to study the function of JAK1 and its pseudokinase domain (JH2) in cytokine signaling pathways that employ JAK1 with different JAK heterodimerization partner. In interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced STAT5 activation JAK1 was dominant over JAK3 but in interferon-? (IFN?) and interferon-? (IFN?) signaling both JAK1 and heteromeric partner JAK2 or TYK2 were both indispensable for STAT1 activation. Moreover, IL-2 signaling was strictly dependent on both JAK1 JH1 and JH2 but in IFN? signaling JAK1 JH2 rather than kinase activity was required for STAT1 activation. To investigate the regulatory function, we focused on two allosteric regions in JAK1 JH2, the ATP-binding pocket and the ?C-helix. Mutating L633 at the ?C reduced basal and cytokine induced activation of STAT in both JAK1 wild-type (WT) and constitutively activated mutant backgrounds. Moreover, biochemical characterization and comparison of JH2s let us depict differences in the JH2 ATP-binding and strengthen the hypothesis that de-stabilization of the domain disturbs the regulatory JH1-JH2 interaction. Collectively, our results bring mechanistic understanding about the function of JAK1 in different receptor complexes that likely have relevance for the design of specific JAK modulators.
Project description:Recognition of cytosolic DNA initiates a series of innate immune responses by inducing IFN-I production and subsequent triggering JAK1-STAT1 signaling which plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of infection, inflammation and autoimmune diseases through promoting B cell activation and antibody responses. The stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING) has been demonstrated to be a critical hub of type I IFN induction in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways. However, it still remains unknown whether cytosolic DNA can directly activate the JAK1-STAT1 signaling or not. And the role of STING is also unclear in this response. In the present study, we found that dsDNA directly triggered the JAK1-STAT1 signaling by inducing phosphorylation of the Lyn kinase. Moreover, this response is not dependent on type I IFN receptors. Interestingly, STING could inhibit dsDNA-triggered activation of JAK1-STAT1 signaling by inducing SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphorylation. In addition, compared with normal B cells, the expression of STING was significantly lower and the phosphorylation level of JAK1 was significantly higher in B cells from MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice, highlighting the close association between STING low-expression and JAK1-STAT1 signaling activation in B cells in autoimmune diseases. Our data provide a molecular insight into the novel role of STING in dsDNA-mediated inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) reside in the bone marrow (BM) niche and serve as a reservoir for mature blood cells throughout life. Aging in the BM is characterized by low-grade chronic inflammation that could contribute to the reduced functionality of aged HSPC. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in the BM support HSPC self-renewal. However, changes in MSC function with age and the crosstalk between MSC and HSPC remain understudied. Here, we conducted an extensive characterization of senescence features in BM-derived MSC from young and aged healthy donors. Aged MSC displayed an enlarged senescent-like morphology, a delayed clonogenic potential and reduced proliferation ability when compared to younger counterparts. Of note, the observed proliferation delay was associated with increased levels of SA-?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) and lipofuscin in aged MSC at early passages and a modest but consistent accumulation of physical DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) activation. Consistent with the establishment of a senescence-like state in aged MSC, we detected an increase in pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, both at the transcript and protein levels. Conversely, the immunomodulatory properties of aged MSC were significantly reduced. Importantly, exposure of young HSPC to factors secreted by aged MSC induced pro-inflammatory genes in HSPC and impaired HSPC clonogenic potential in a SASP-dependent manner. Altogether, our results reveal that BM-derived MSC from aged healthy donors display features of senescence and that, during aging, MSC-associated secretomes contribute to activate an inflammatory transcriptional program in HSPC that may ultimately impair their functionality.
Project description:Neuroinflammation occurs after germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) and induces secondary brain injury. Interferon-? (IFN-?) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in infectious diseases via activating IFNAR and its downstream signaling. We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Recombinant human IFN-? (rh-IFN-?) and the underlying mechanisms in a rat GMH model. Two hundred and eighteen P7 rat pups of both sexes were subjected to GMH by an intraparenchymal injection of bacterial collagenase. Rh-IFN-? was administered intraperitoneally. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of IFNAR, and siRNA of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) were administered through intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections. JAK1 inhibitor ruxolitinib was given by oral lavage. Post-GMH evaluation included neurobehavioral function, Nissl staining, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. Our results showed that endogenous IFN-? and phosphorylated IFNAR levels were increased after GMH. Administration of rh-IFN-? improved neurological functions, attenuated neuroinflammation, inhibited microglial activation, and ameliorated post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus after GMH. These observations were concomitant with IFNAR activation, increased expression of phosphorylated JAK1, phosphorylated STAT1 and TRAF3, and decreased levels of phosphorylated NF-?B, IL-6 and TNF-?. Specifically, knockdown of IFNAR, JAK1 and TRAF3 abolished the protective effects of rh-IFN-?. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that rh-IFN-? treatment attenuated neuroinflammation, neurological deficits and hydrocephalus formation through inhibiting microglial activation after GMH, which might be mediated by IFNAR/JAK1-STAT1/TRAF3/NF-?B signaling pathway. Rh-IFN-? may be a promising therapeutic agent to attenuate brain injury via its anti-inflammatory effect.
Project description:Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a leading cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, inhibits type I interferon (IFN) signaling by an unidentified mechanism. In this study, we showed that infection of airway epithelial cells with hMPV decreased cellular level of Janus tyrosine kinase (Jak1) and tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), due to enhanced proteosomal degradation and reduced gene transcription. In addition, hMPV infection also reduced the surface expression of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). These inhibitory mechanisms are different from the ones employed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which does not affect Jak1, Tyk2 or IFNAR expression, but degrades downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins 2 (STAT2), although both viruses are pneumoviruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Our study identifies a novel mechanism by which hMPV inhibits STAT1 and 2 activation, ultimately leading to viral evasion of host IFN responses.
Project description:Inhibition of JAK1 or JAK2 in human tumor cells was previously shown to increase susceptibility of these cells to NK cell lysis. In the present study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate this effect in hematopoietic tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. Incubation of tumor cells with supernatant from activated NK cells or interferon-gamma (IFN?)-induced activation of pSTAT1 and increased expression of PD-L1 without altering expression of other activating or inhibitory NK cell ligands. These functional effects were blocked by chemical JAK inhibition or shRNAs targeting JAK1, JAK2 or STAT1. Inhibition of IFN? signaling also prevented the upregulation of PD-L1 and blocking PD-L1 resulted in increased tumor lysis by NK cells. These results show that NK cell activation and secretion of IFN? results in activation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT1 in tumor cells, resulting in rapid up-regulation of PD-L1 expression. Increased expression of PD-L1 results in increased resistance to NK cell lysis. Blockade of JAK pathway activation prevents increased PD-L1 expression resulting in increased susceptibility of tumor cells to NK cell activity. These observations suggest that JAK pathway inhibitors as well as PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies may work synergistically with other immune therapies by preventing IFN-induced inhibition of NK cell-mediated tumor cell lysis.
Project description:ITAM-coupled receptors play an essential role in regulating macrophage activation and function by cross-regulating signaling from heterologous receptors. We investigated mechanisms by which ITAM-associated receptors inhibit type I IFN (IFN-?/?) signaling in primary human macrophages and tested the effects of simultaneous ligation of ITAM-associated receptors and TLR4 on TLR4-induced Jak-STAT signaling that is mediated by autocrine IFN-?. Preligation of ITAM-coupled ?2 integrins and Fc?Rs inhibited proximal signaling by the type I IFN receptor IFNAR. Cross-inhibition of IFNAR signaling by ?2 integrins resulted in decreased Jak1 activation and was mediated by partial downregulation of the IFNAR1 subunit and MAPK-dependent induction of USP18, which blocks the association of Jak1 with IFNAR2. Simultaneous engagement of ITAM-coupled ?2 integrins or Dectin-1 with TLR4 did not affect TLR4-induced direct activation of inflammatory target genes such as TNF or IL6 but abrogated subsequent induction of IFN response genes that is mediated by autocrine IFN-? signaling. Type I IFNs promote macrophage death postinfection by Listeria monocytogenes. Consequently, attenuation of IFN responses by ?2 integrins protected primary human macrophages from L. monocytogenes-induced apoptosis. These results provide a mechanism for cross-inhibition of type I IFN signaling by ITAM-coupled ?2 integrins and demonstrate that ITAM signaling qualitatively modulates macrophage responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pathogens by selectively suppressing IFN responses.