Phase I and phase II sonidegib and vismodegib clinical trials for the treatment of paediatric and adult MB patients: a systemic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children but also rarely occur in adults. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) driven MB is associated with aberrant activation of the SHH signalling pathway. SMO inhibitors, sonidegib and vismodegib, have been used as selective antagonist of the hedgehog pathway that acts by binding to SMO, and inhibits activation of the downstream hedgehog target genes. Several clinical trials investigating SMO inhibitors for the treatment of relapsed MB patients have been published. METHODS:We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis among these Phase I and II clinical trials. The pooled effect of SMO inhibitors in relapsed MB were analysed using Reviewer Manager 5.3 software. The clinical efficacy of SMO inhibitors on SHH subtype of MB were measured by the objective response rate. The risk difference was obtained by comparing the ORR between SHH and non-SHH subtypes of MB. RESULTS:The five studies all had clear criteria for patient recruitment, adequate follow-up time for endpoint assessment and clear definition of tumour responses. MB patients had good compliance in the trials. The pooled objective response rate (ORR) of SMO inhibitor was 37% and 0 against SHH-driven and other MBs. The pooled ORR of sonidegib was 55% among MBSHH and 0 among MBnon-SHH subgroup. Vismodegib also had no efficacy on non-SHH subtype of MB. The sonidegib against SHH-driven MB produced the ORR 1.87-fold higher than that of vismodegib (95%CI 1.23, 6.69). Among paediatric patients, the efficacy of sonidegib was 3.67-fold higher than vismodegib (p
Project description:Response to targeting and non-targeting agents is variable and molecular information remains poorly described in patients with recurrent sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB).Clinical and PET/CT findings during treatment with successive hedgehog antagonists and temozolomide monotherapies are described in a heavily pre-treated patient with recurrent extraneural metastases from PTCH1 mutated/ wild type smoothened (SMO) CNS SHH-MB. Molecular tests were prospectively performed in tissue from two extraneural sites at progression.Sustained clinical/metabolic response was obtained to vismodegib. At progression, itraconazole was ineffective, but salvage temozolomide treatment results in a response similar to vismodegib. At further progression, acquired SMO and PIK3CA mutations were identified in bone (G477L and H1047A, respectively) and epidural (L412P and H1065L, respectively) metastases. No response was observed with subsequent sonidegib treatment.This is the first clinical report of recurrent extraneural PTCH1 mutated SHH-MB exhibiting: 1) a sustained response to vismodegib and temozolomide, and 2) inter-metastatic molecular heterogeneity and acquired SMO-G477L, SMO-L412P, and PIK3CA-H1065L mutations at progression, highlighting the need for a multitarget treatment approach.
Project description:Inhibition of aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) pathway had been proved to be a promising therapeutic intervention in cancers like basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma (MB), and so on. Two drugs (Vismodegib, Sonidegib) were approved to treat BCC and more inhibitors are in clinical investigation. However, the adverse effects and drug resistance restricted the use of Hh inhibitors. In the present study, 61 synthesized compounds containing central backbone of phthalazine or dimethylpyridazine were screened as candidates of new Hh signaling inhibitors by performing dual luciferase reporter assay. Among the compounds, L-4 exhibited an IC50 value of 2.33 nM in the Shh-Light II assay. L-4 strongly inhibited the Hh pathway in vitro and blocked the Hh pathway by antagonizing the smoothened receptor (Smo). Remarkably, L-4 could significantly suppress the Hh pathway activity provoked by Smo mutant (D473H) which showed strong resistant properties to existing drugs such as Vismodegib. Orally administered L-4 exhibited prominent dose-dependent anti-tumor efficacy in vivo in Ptch+/-; p53-/- MB allograft model. Furthermore, L-4 showed good tolerance in acute toxicity test using ICR mice. These evidences indicated that L-4 was a potent, well-tolerated, orally active inhibitor of Hedgehog pathway, and might be a promising candidate in development of Hh-targeted anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:In the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma (MB), tumor initiation and progression are in part driven by smoothened (SMO) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-receptor (FGFR) signaling, respectively. We investigated the impact of the SMO-FGFR crosstalk on tumor growth and invasiveness in MB. We found that FGFR signaling represses GLI1 expression downstream of activated SMO in the SHH MB line DAOY and induces MKI67, HES1, and BMI1 in DAOY and in the group 3 MB line HD-MBO3. FGFR repression of GLI1 does not affect proliferation or viability, whereas inhibition of FGFR is necessary to release SMO-driven invasiveness. Conversely, SMO activation represses FGFR-driven sustained activation of nuclear ERK. Parallel activation of FGFR and SMO in ex vivo tumor cell-cerebellum slice co-cultures reduced invasion of tumor cells without affecting proliferation. In contrast, treatment of the cells with the SMO antagonist Sonidegib (LDE225) blocked invasion and proliferation in cerebellar slices. Thus, sustained, low-level SMO activation is necessary for proliferation and tissue invasion, whereas acute, pronounced activation of SMO can repress FGFR-driven invasiveness. This suggests that the tumor cell response is dependent on the relative local abundance of the two factors and indicates a paradigm of microenvironmental control of invasion in SHH MB through mutual control of SHH and FGFR signaling.
Project description:The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is a major regulator of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and tissue polarity. Aberrant activation of the Shh pathway has been shown in a variety of human cancers, including, basal cell carcinoma, malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma, leukemias, and cancers of the breast, lung, pancreas, and prostate. Tumorigenesis, tumor progression and therapeutic response have all been shown to be impacted by the Shh signaling pathway. Downstream effectors of the Shh pathway include smoothened (SMO) and glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI) family of zinc finger transcription factors. Both are regarded as important targets for cancer therapeutics. While most efforts have been devoted towards pharmacologically targeting SMO, developing GLI-targeted approach has its merit because of the fact that GLI proteins can be activated by both Shh ligand-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To date, two SMO inhibitors (LDE225/Sonidegib and GDC-0449/Vismodegib) have received FDA approval for treating basal cell carcinoma while many clinical trials are being conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this exciting class of targeted therapy in a variety of cancers. In this review, we provide an overview of the biology of the Shh pathway and then detail the current landscape of the Shh-SMO-GLI pathway inhibitors including those in preclinical studies and clinical trials.
Project description:The hedgehog pathway, for which sonic hedgehog (Shh) is the most prominent ligand, is highly conserved and is tightly associated with embryonic development in a number of species. This pathway is also tightly associated with the development of several types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and acute promyelocytic leukemia, among many others. Inactivating mutations in Patched-1 (PTCH1), leading to ligand-independent pathway activation, are frequent in several cancer types, but most prominent in BCC. This has led to the development of several compounds targeting this pathway as a cancer therapeutic. These compounds target the inducers of this pathway in Smoothened (SMO) and the GLI transcription factors, although targeting SMO has had the most success. Despite the many attempts at targeting this pathway, only three US FDA-approved drugs for cancers affect the Shh pathway. Two of these compounds, vismodegib and sonidegib, target SMO to suppress signaling from either PTCH1 or SMO mutations that lead to upregulation of the pathway. The other approved compound is arsenic trioxide, which can suppress this pathway at the level of the GLI proteins, although current evidence suggests it also has other targets. This review focuses on the safety and tolerability of these clinically approved drugs targeting the Shh pathway, along with a discussion on other Shh pathway inhibitors being developed.
Project description:Two phase II studies assessed the efficacy of vismodegib, a sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway inhibitor that binds smoothened (SMO), in pediatric and adult recurrent medulloblastoma (MB).Adult patients enrolled onto PBTC-025B and pediatric patients enrolled onto PBTC-032 were treated with vismodegib (150 to 300 mg/d). Protocol-defined response, which had to be sustained for 8 weeks, was confirmed by central neuroimaging review. Molecular tests to identify patterns of response and insensitivity were performed when tissue was available.A total of 31 patients were enrolled onto PBTC-025B, and 12 were enrolled onto PBTC-032. Three patients in PBTC-025B and one in PBTC-032, all with SHH-subgroup MB (SHH-MB), exhibited protocol-defined responses. Progression-free survival (PFS) was longer in those with SHH-MB than in those with non-SHH-MB, and prolonged disease stabilization occurred in 41% of patient cases of SHH-MB. Among those with SHH-MB, loss of heterozygosity of PTCH1 was associated with prolonged PFS, and diffuse staining of P53 was associated with reduced PFS. Whole-exome sequencing identified mutations in SHH genes downstream from SMO in four of four tissue samples from nonresponders and upstream of SMO in two of four patients with favorable responses.Vismodegib exhibits activity against adult recurrent SHH-MB but not against recurrent non-SHH-MB. Inadequate accrual of pediatric patients precluded conclusions in this population. Molecular analyses support the hypothesis that SMO inhibitor activity depends on the genomic aberrations within the tumor. Such inhibitors should be advanced in SHH-MB studies; however, molecular and genomic work remains imperative to identify target populations that will truly benefit.
Project description:Novel treatment options, including targeted therapies, are needed for patients with medulloblastoma (MB), especially for those with high-risk or recurrent/relapsed disease. Four major molecular subgroups of MB have been identified, one of which is characterized by activation of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway. Preclinical data suggest that inhibitors of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway could become valuable treatment options for patients with this subgroup of MB. Indeed, agents targeting the positive regulator of the pathway, smoothened (SMO), have demonstrated efficacy in a subset of patients with SHH MB. However, because of resistance and the presence of mutations downstream of SMO, not all patients with SHH MB respond to SMO inhibitors. The development of agents that target these resistance mechanisms and the potential for their combination with traditional chemotherapy and SHH inhibitors will be discussed. Due to its extensive molecular heterogeneity, the future of MB treatment is in personalized therapy, which may lead to improved efficacy and reduced toxicity. This will include the development of clinically available tests that can efficiently discern the SHH subgroup. The preliminary use of these tests in clinical trials is also discussed herein.
Project description:The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) smoothened (SMO) is a key signaling component of the sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway and a clinically validated target for cancer treatment. The FDA-approved SMO inhibitors GDC-0449/Vismodegib and LDE225/Sonidegib demonstrated clinical antitumor efficacy. Nevertheless, relatively high percentage of treated patients would eventually develop acquired cross resistance to both drugs. Here, based on published structure and activity of GDC-0449 inhibitor class, we replaced its amide core with benzimidazole which retained bulk of the SMO-targeting activity as measured in our Hh/SMO/Gli1-reporter system. Synthesis and screening of multiple series of benzimidazole derivatives identified HH-1, HH-13, and HH-20 with potent target suppression (IC50: <0.1??mol/L) in the reporter assays. In NIH3T3 cells stimulated with a secreted Hh (SHH), these inhibitors dose dependently reduced mRNA and protein expression of the endogenous pathway components PTCH-1, Gli1, and cyclin D1 resulting in growth inhibition via G0/G1 arrest. Mechanistically, the SMO-targeted growth inhibition involved downregulation of mTOR signaling inputs and readouts consistent with diminished mTORC1/mTORC2 functions and apoptosis. In mice, as with GDC-0449, orally administered HH inhibitors blocked paracrine activation of stromal Hh pathway in Calu-6 tumor microenvironment and attenuated growth of PTCH+/-/P53-/- medulloblastoma allograft tumors. Furthermore, HH-13 and HH-20 potently targeted the drug-resistant smoothened SMO-D473H (IC50: <0.2??mol/L) compared to the poor inhibition by GDC-0449 (IC50: >60??mol/L). These results identify HH-13 and HH-20 as potent inhibitors capable of targeting naïve and drug-resistant Hh/SMO-driven cancers. The current leads may be optimized to improve pharmaceutical property for potential development of new therapy for treatment of Hh pathway-driven cancers.
Project description:SHH Medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) is a pediatric brain tumor characterized by an inappropriate activation of the developmental Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. SHH-MB patients treated with the FDA-approved vismodegib, an Hh inhibitor that targets the transmembrane activator Smoothened (Smo), have shown the rapid development of drug resistance and tumor relapse due to novel Smo mutations. Moreover, a subset of patients did not respond to vismodegib because mutations were localized downstream of Smo. Thus, targeting downstream Hh components is now considered a preferable approach. We show here that selective inhibition of the downstream Hh effectors HDAC1 and HDAC2 robustly counteracts SHH-MB growth in mouse models. These two deacetylases are upregulated in tumor and their knockdown inhibits Hh signaling and decreases tumor growth. We demonstrate that mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a selective HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibitor, is a potent Hh inhibitor and that its effect is linked to Gli1 acetylation at K518. Of note, we demonstrate that administration of mocetinostat to mouse models of SHH-MB drastically reduces tumor growth, by reducing proliferation and increasing apoptosis of tumor cells and prolongs mouse survival rate. Collectively, these data demonstrate the preclinical efficacy of targeting the downstream HDAC1/2-Gli1 acetylation in the treatment of SHH-MB.
Project description:To assess the tumor response to the smoothened (SMO) inhibitor, sonidegib (LDE225), in patients with an advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) resistant to treatment with vismodegib (GDC0449).Nine patients with an advanced BCC that was previously resistant to treatment with vismodegib were given sonidegib in this investigational, open-label study. Tumor response was determined using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. SMO mutations were identified using biopsy samples from the target BCC location.The median duration of treatment with sonidegib was 6 weeks (range, 3-58 weeks). Five patients experienced progressive disease with sonidegib. Three patients experienced stable disease and discontinued sonidegib either due to adverse events (n = 1) or due to election for surgery (n = 2). The response of one patient was not evaluable. SMO mutations with in vitro data suggesting resistance to Hh pathway inhibition were identified in 5 patients, and none of these patients experienced responses while on sonidegib.Patients with advanced BCCs that were previously resistant to treatment with vismodegib similarly demonstrated treatment resistance with sonidegib. Patients who have developed treatment resistance to an SMO inhibitor may continue to experience tumor progression in response to other SMO inhibitors.