Reducing sugary drink intake through youth empowerment: results from a pilot-site randomized study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Efficacious strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among youth are needed. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based youth empowerment intervention to reduce SSB consumption and obesity risk among a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of youth. METHODS:The H2GO! intervention was pilot-tested in an afterschool setting (Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC)) in Massachusetts, USA. One site was randomized to receive the intervention; the other site received standard programming. Youth ages 9-12?years and their parents/caregivers were eligible to participate. A total of N =?110 parent-child pairs (N =?55 parent-child pairs per site) were recruited. The 6-week intervention consisted of group-based weekly sessions delivered by trained BGC staff and youth-led activities that engaged parents. Child outcomes included self-reported SSB and water intake and measured body mass index z scores (zBMI). Parent outcomes included self-reported SSB and water intake, SSB purchasing, and availability of SSBs at home. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 2?months, and 6?months. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate intervention effects over time. RESULTS:The final analytic study sample consisted of 100 child participants (38% Black, 20% Hispanic, 13% White, 12% Multiracial, 11% Asian) and 87 parent participants (78.2% female; 78.2% reporting eligibility for the free-or-reduced price lunch program). 6-month retention rates were???82%. Intervention attendance rates among intervention child participants (N =?51) averaged 78.1% (SD?=?10.3). Over half (56.0%) of child participants were overweight or obese at baseline. Relative to the comparison site, intervention site child participants had decreased SSB intake (??=?-?1.64; 95% CI: 2.52, -?0.76), increased water intake (??=?1.31; 95% CI: 0.38, 2.23), and decreased zBMI (-?0.23?units; 95% CI: -?0.31, -?0.14) over 6?months (p
Project description:Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story) can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents.Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent-child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC) (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population) as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9-12 years and their parents) will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition) with 54 parent-child pairs (N = 108) enrolled per site (N = 216 total). The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes) and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes) will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children's anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With an estimated 20 % dropout rate, the study will have 80 % power to detect a group difference of 3.9 servings of SSBs per week.Community-based approaches hold potential for decreasing SSB consumption among youth and families, particularly among underserved populations who are at greater obesity risk. This article describes the design and methods of a community-based behavioral intervention designed to reduce SSB consumption among youth and parents/caregivers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02890056 . Date of Registration: August 31, 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Since sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight in children, effective interventions to reduce their consumption are needed. Here we evaluated the effect of a combined school- and community-based intervention aimed at reducing children's SSB consumption by promoting the intake of water. Favourable intervention effects on children's SSB consumption were hypothesized. METHODS: In 2011-2012, a controlled trial was conducted among four primary schools, comprising 1288 children aged 6-12 years who lived in multi-ethnic, socially deprived neighbourhoods in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Intervention schools adopted the 'water campaign', an intervention developed using social marketing. Control schools continued with their regular health promotion programme. Primary outcome was children's SSB consumption, measured using parent and child questionnaires and through observations at school, both at baseline and after one year of intervention. RESULTS: Significant positive intervention effects were found for average SSB consumption (B -0.19 litres, 95% CI -0.28;-0.10; parent report), average SSB servings (B -0.54 servings, 95% CI -0.82;-0.26; parent report) and bringing SSB to school (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36;0.72; observation report). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the effectiveness of the water campaign intervention in reducing children's SSB consumption. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials: NTR3400.
Project description:To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI).A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center's written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children's nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention.Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers' and parents' knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children's zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points.The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by trained child health professionals such as child care health consultants, increases provider knowledge, improves center policies, and lowers BMI for children in child care centers. More health professionals specifically trained in a nutrition and physical activity intervention in child care are needed to help reverse the obesity epidemic.National Clinical Trials Number NCT01921842.
Project description:To examine feasibility and initial efficacy of having previously treated parents serve as peer interventionists in family-based behavioral weight management treatment (FBT).Children aged 7-11 years with overweight/obesity and parents (n?=?59 families) were enrolled in one of two pilot trials, the EPICH (Engaging Parents in Child Health) randomized trial comparing professional versus peer FBT delivery or the Parent Partnership trial, which provided professionally delivered FBT to families (first generation) and then randomly assigned first generation parents to either be or not be peer interventionists for subsequent families (second generation). Efficacy (child zBMI change), feasibility, and costs for delivering FBT, and impacts of being a peer interventionist were examined.In EPICH, families receiving professional versus peer intervention had similar decreases in child zBMI and parent BMI, with markedly lower costs for peer versus professional delivery. In Parent Partnership, families receiving peer intervention significantly decreased weight status, with very preliminary evidence suggesting better maintenance of child zBMI changes if parents served as peer interventionists. Previously treated parents were willing, highly confident, and able to serve as peer interventionists in FBT.Two pilot randomized clinical trials suggest parents-as-peer interventionists in FBT may be feasible, efficacious, and delivered at lower costs, with perhaps some additional benefits to serving as a peer interventionist. More robust investigation is warranted of peer treatment delivery models for pediatric weight management.
Project description:Added sugar intake in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been considered a contributor to weight gain and cardiometabolic dysfunction in adults and youth. Adolescents are some of the highest consumers of added sugars, taking in ?16% of their total calories from added sugars with ?40% of these calories coming from SSBs. Food preferences and self-regulation of dietary intake by youth can be influenced by parents.To evaluate the effectiveness of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in understanding and predicting adolescents' SSB consumption, identify which constructs are the most important when evaluating SSB consumption in adolescents, and determine whether and how adolescents' beverage choices are influenced by parents' reactions to their beverage choices.Measurements for this cross-sectional study included four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls and responses to an SSB-specific TPB questionnaire from 100 adolescents. Consenting parents completed a beverage intake questionnaire, a TPB questionnaire, and the Parent Response to Beverage Choice Questionnaire.The TPB explained 34% of the variance in adolescents' and parents' intention to limit SSBs to <1cup/day. Parents' perceived behavioral control (b=1.35; P=0.002) and adolescents' subjective norms (b=0.57; P=0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of SSB consumption in both adolescents and parents (b=-37 [P=0.026] and b=-49 [P=0.003], respectively). The TPB explained more variance in parent SSB consumption (R(2)=0.38) than adolescents (R(2)=0.22). Parents did more discouraging of SSBs and encouraging of non-SSBs. Adolescents' intention to limit SSB consumption moderated the relationship between parents' reactions encouraging SSBs and adolescents' predicted SSB consumption (P=0.021).The TPB explained a small but significant amount of variance in adolescents' SSB consumption. When addressing adolescent SSB intake, people in addition to parents may influence their intentions and SSB consumption.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parent-child diet quality resemblance is unknown in families of youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom nutrition is central to disease management. OBJECTIVE:Examine diet quality resemblance in families of youth with type 1 diabetes participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention trial and investigate whether treatment assignment or family meal frequency modifies resemblance. DESIGN:This is a secondary data analysis from an 18-month randomized controlled trial conducted August 2010 to May 2013. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING:Parent-youth dyads (N=136, child age=12.3±2.5 years) were recruited from a northeast US diabetes center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Parent and child Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, reflecting adherence to 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans) and whole plant food density (WPFD, reflecting intervention target foods) were calculated from 3-day food records collected every 6 months. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Linear random effects models adjusting for demographics and disease characteristics investigated parent-child diet quality resemblance. Separate models examined whether treatment assignment or family meal frequency modified resemblance. Three-way interaction terms examined whether resemblance changed over time by treatment assignment. RESULTS:Time-varying parent and child HEI-2005 and WPFD were positively associated (P<0.001), and there were no interactions with family meals. Parent-child HEI-2005 resemblance was similar across treatment groups; however, parent-child WPFD resemblance was stronger in the intervention (?±standard error [SE]=.30±.06) vs control families (?±SE=.12±.05). Parent-child HEI-2005 resemblance was similar over time by treatment assignment, whereas parent-child WPFD resemblance increased over time for families in the intervention group (three-way interaction term ?±SE=.03±.01). CONCLUSIONS:Parent and youth diet quality were positively correlated in families of youth with type 1 diabetes. Resemblance was stronger in the intervention group for target foods, but not for a general measure of diet quality. The lack of effect modification by family meal frequency suggests that family diet quality resemblance is not contingent on shared meals.
Project description:Basic research has shown that increasing variety increases energy intake, and repeated consumption of the same food increases habituation to those foods and reduces consumption. Twenty-four families with overweight/obese 8-12 year-old children and overweight/obese parents were randomly assigned to 6months of usual family based treatment (FBT) or FBT plus reduced variety of high energy-dense foods (FBT+Variety). Intention to treat mixed model ANOVA showed between group differences in child percent overweight (FBT+Variety-15.4% vs. FBT-8.9%, p=0.017) and parent BMI (FBT+Variety-3.7kg/m(2) vs. FBT-2.3kg/m(2); p=0.017). Positive relationships were observed between child zBMI and parent BMI changes (r=0.51, p=0.018), and between reductions in food variety of high energy-dense foods and reductions in child zBMI (r=0.54, p=0.02) and parent BMI (r=0.45, p=0.08). These pilot data suggest that reducing the variety of high energy dense foods and repeating meals within the context of FBT resulted in improved child and parent weight changes at six months. This represents easy to implement changes that reduce choice and may reduce response burden on families. Reducing variety may be a complement to standard FBT that enhances weight loss. Long term studies are needed to assess maintenance of these changes.
Project description:The frequency of positive parent-child interactions is associated with youth adjustment. Yet, little is known about daily parent-child interactions and how day-to-day consistency in positive parent-child interactions may be linked to youth well-being. Using a daily diary approach, this study added to this literature to investigate whether and how day-to-day consistency in positive parent-child interactions was linked to youth depressive symptoms, risky behavior, and physical health. Participants were youth whose parents were employed in the IT division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 129, youth's mean age = 13.39, 55 % female), who participated in an 8 day daily diary study. Analyses revealed that, controlling for cross-day mean levels of positive parent-child interactions, older (but not younger) adolescents who experienced more consistency in positive interactions with parents had fewer depressive and physical health symptoms (e.g., colds, flu). The discussion focuses on the utility of daily diary methods for assessing the correlates of consistency in parenting, possible processes underlying these associations, and intervention implications.
Project description:Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., plans tightly connected to a behavioral goal), may offer a solution. Action plans state "how" a goal will be achieved, while coping plans identify a potential barrier and corresponding solution. The research reported here evaluated the short- and long-term effects of goal setting enhanced with implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable intake in a 10-episode, theoretically-grounded serious videogame promoting fruit and vegetables. This is one of the first studies to test the efficacy of implementation intentions on the dietary intake of healthy children.A four-group randomized design with three data collection periods (baseline, immediate post-intervention, 3 months post-intervention) was employed. Groups varied on whether children created an implementation intention (none, action, coping, both) as part of goal setting. Participants were 4th and 5th grade children (~9-11 years old) and one parent. An a priori power analysis indicated this would provide >80% power to detect a small effect (Cohen's d?=?0.17). Children played a 10-episode online videogame; parents received 10 electronic newsletters and access to a parent-only website. The primary outcome was child fruit and vegetable intake, assessed via three, dietitian-assisted telephone recalls at each data collection period. The primary analysis was conducted using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with a mixed model procedure. Secondary analyses examined intervention effects on fruit and vegetables separately.Four hundred parent/child dyads were recruited. A significant group-by-time interaction for fruit and vegetable intake (p?<?0.001) was found in only the Action group, which had significant increases in fruit and vegetable intake at post 1 (p?<?0.0001) and post 2 (p?<?0.0001). No other significant interactions were observed; however, there were significant time effects for fruit (p?<?0.0001).Action intentions may be an important component of successful interventions to increase and maintain fruit and vegetable intake in pre-adolescent children. Videogames promoting healthy diets offer an effective vehicle for delivering behavior change interventions to children.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of overweight and obesity remains high in Canada, and the current standard for the treatment of childhood obesity is in-person, family-based, multidisciplinary interventions that target lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors). These programs are costly to operate, have limited success, and report recruitment and retention challenges. With recent advances in technology, mobile health or mHealth has been presented as a viable alternative to in-person interventions for behavior change, especially with teens. PURPOSE:The primary aim of this study is to test the efficacy of Aim2Be, a gamified app based on behavior change theory with health coaching to improve weight outcomes (i.e., decrease in standardized body mass index (zBMI)) and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., improve dietary quality, increase fruit and vegetable intake, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake, increase physical activity, and reduce screen time) among children 10- to 17-years old with overweight or obesity versus their peers randomized into a waitlist control condition. The secondary aims of this study are to 1) test whether supplementing the Aim2Be program with health coaching increases adherence and 2) examine the mediators and moderators of adherence to the Aim2Be intervention. METHODS:We will employ a randomized controlled trial design and recruit 200 child and parent dyads to participate in the study (2019-2020). Participants will be recruited from Canadian pediatric weight management clinics and through online advertisements. Child participants must be between the ages of 10 and 17?years, have overweight or obesity, be able to read English at least at a grade 5 level, and have a mobile phone or home computer with internet access. Following baseline data collection, participants will be randomized into intervention and waitlist control groups. Intervention participants will receive access to Aim2Be, with access to health coaching. After having their data collected for 3 months, the control group will gain access to Aim2Be, with no access to health coaching. Participants will control their frequency and duration of app usage to promote autonomy. DISCUSSION:Findings from this study will determine the efficacy of using Aim2Be in improving child weight outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and guide future mHealth interventions for pediatric weight management. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03651284. Registered 29 August 2018.