BMP-2 gene delivery in cell-loaded and cell-free constructs for bone regeneration.
ABSTRACT: To induce osteogenicity in bone graft substitutes, plasmid-based expression of BMP-2 (pBMP-2) has been successfully applied in gene activated matrices based on alginate polymer constructs. Here, we investigated whether cell seeding is necessary for non-viral BMP-2 gene expression in vivo. Furthermore, to gain insight in the role of BMP-producing cells, we compared inclusion of bone progenitor cells with non-osteogenic target cells in gene delivery constructs. Plasmid DNA encoding GFP (pGFP) was used to trace transfection of host tissue cells and seeded cells in a rat model. Transgene expression was followed in both cell-free alginate-ceramic constructs as well as constructs seeded with syngeneic fibroblasts or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Titration of pGFP revealed that the highest pGFP dose resulted in frequent presence of positive host cells in the constructs. Both cell-loaded groups were associated with transgene expression, most effectively in the MSC-loaded constructs. Subsequently, we investigated effectiveness of cell-free and cell-loaded alginate-ceramic constructs with pBMP-2 to induce bone formation. Local BMP-2 production was found in all groups containing BMP-2 plasmid DNA, and was most pronounced in the groups with MSCs transfected with high concentration pBMP-2. Bone formation was only apparent in the recombinant protein BMP-2 group. In conclusion, we show that non-viral gene delivery of BMP-2 is a potentially effective way to induce transgene expression in vivo, both in cell-seeded as well as cell-free conditions. However, alginate-based gene delivery of BMP-2 to host cells or seeded cells did not result in protein levels adequate for bone formation in this setting, calling for more reliable scaffold compatible transfection methods.
Project description:Alginate-poloxamer (ALG-POL) copolymer with optimal POL content was synthesized, and it was combined with silk fibroin (SF) for building ALG-POL/SF dual network hydrogels. Hyaluronic acid(HA)/chitosan-poly(dioxanone)(CH-PDO) complex nanoparticles (NPs) with optimized composition and high encapsulation efficiency were employed as a vehicle for loading bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7). BMP-7-loaded HA/CH-PDO NPs were incorporated into ALG-POL/SF hydrogel for constructing composite gels to achieve controlled release of BMP-7. These gels showed thermosensitive sol-gel transitions near physiological temperature and pH; and they were tested to be elastic, tough and strong. Some gels exhibited abilities to administer the BMP-7 release in nearly linear manners for a few weeks. Synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) were seeded into optimally fabricated gels for assessing their chondrogenic differentiation potency. Real-time PCR analyses showed that the blank ALG-POL/SF gels were not able to induce the chondrogenic differentiation of SMSCs, whereas SMSCs were detected to significantly express cartilage-related genes once they were seeded in the BMP-7-loaded ALG-POL/SF gel for two weeks. The synthesis of cartilaginous matrix components further confirmed that SMSCs seeded in the BMP-7-loaded ALG-POL/SF gel differentiated toward chondrogenesis. Results suggest that BMP-7-loaded ALG-POL/SF composite gels can function as a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Autograft treatment of large bone defects and fracture non-unions is complicated by limited tissue availability and donor site morbidity. Polymeric biomaterials such as alginate hydrogels provide an attractive tissue engineering alternative due to their biocompatibility, injectability, and tunable degradation rates. Irradiated RGD-alginate hydrogels have been used to deliver proteins such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), to promote bone regeneration and restoration of function in a critically sized rat femoral defect model. However, slow degradation of irradiated alginate hydrogels may impede integration and remodeling of the regenerated bone to its native architecture. Oxidation of alginate has been used to promote degradation of alginate matrices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alginate oxidation on BMP-2 release and bone regeneration. We hypothesized that oxidized-irradiated alginate hydrogels would elicit an accelerated release of BMP-2, but degrade faster in vivo, facilitating the formation of higher quality, more mature bone compared to irradiated alginate. Indeed, oxidation of irradiated alginate did accelerate in vitro BMP-2 release. Notably, the BMP-2 retained within both constructs was bioactive at 26days, as observed by induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and positive Alizarin Red S staining of MC3T3-E1 cells. From the in vivo study, robust bone regeneration was observed in both groups through 12weeks by radiography, micro-computed tomography analyses, and biomechanical testing. Bone mineral density was significantly greater for the oxidized-irradiated alginate group at 8weeks. Histological analyses of bone defects revealed enhanced degradation of oxidized-irradiated alginate and suggested the presence of more mature bone after 12weeks of healing.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is an osteoinductive growth factor used clinically to induce bone regeneration and fusion. Some complications associated with BMP-2 treatment have been attributed to rapid release of BMP-2 from conventional collagen scaffolds, motivating the development of tunable sustained-release strategies. We incorporated BMP-2-binding heparin microparticles (HMPs) into a hydrogel scaffold to improve spatiotemporal control of BMP-2 delivery to large bone defects. HMPs pre-loaded with BMP-2 were mixed into alginate hydrogels and compared to hydrogels containing BMP-2 alone. BMP-2 release from scaffolds in vitro, BMP-2 retention within injury sites in vivo, and bone regeneration in a critically sized femoral defect were evaluated. Compared to hydrogel delivery alone, BMP-2-loaded HMPs reduced BMP-2 release in vitro and increased early BMP-2 retention in the bone defect. BMP-2-loaded HMPs induced bone formation at both ectopic and orthotopic sites; however, the volume of induced bone was lower for defects treated with BMP-2-loaded HMPs compared to hydrogel delivery. To better understand the effect of HMPs on BMP-2 release kinetics, a computational model was developed to predict BMP-2 release from constructs in vivo. The model suggested that HMPs limited BMP-2 release into surrounding tissues, and that changing the HMP density could modulate BMP-2 release. Taken together, these experimental and computational results suggest the importance of achieving a balance of BMP-2 retention within the bone defect and BMP-2 release into surrounding soft tissues. HMP delivery of BMP-2 may provide a method of tuning BMP-2 release in vivo that can be further investigated to improve current methods of bone regeneration. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:The development of effective biomaterials for sustained protein delivery is a crucial component of tissue engineering strategies. However, in most applications, including bone repair, the optimal balance between protein presentation in the injury site and protein release into the surrounding tissues is unknown. Herein, we introduced heparin microparticles (HMPs) into a tissue engineered construct to increase in vivo retention of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and enhance healing in femoral defects. Although HMPs induced bone regeneration, no increase in bone volume was observed, leading to further experimental and computational analysis of the effect of HMP-BMP-2 interactions on protein retention and release. Ultimately, this work provides insight into designing tunable protein-material interactions and their implications for controlling BMP-2 delivery.
Project description:Biocompatible scaffolding materials play an important role in bone tissue engineering. This study sought to develop and characterize a nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)/collagen I (ColI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite scaffold loaded with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP-9) for bone tissue engineering by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The composite nHA/ColI/MWCNT scaffolds were fabricated at various concentrations of MWCNTs (0.5, 1, and 1.5% wt) by blending and freeze drying. The porosity, swelling rate, water absorption rate, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of scaffolds were measured. After loading with BMP-9, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were seeded to evaluate their characteristics in vitro and in a critical sized defect in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. It was shown that the 1% MWCNT group was the most suitable for bone tissue engineering. Our results demonstrated that scaffolds loaded with BMP-9 promoted differentiation of BMMSCs into osteoblasts in vitro and induced more bone formation in vivo. To conclude, nHA/ColI/MWCNT scaffolds loaded with BMP-9 possess high biocompatibility and osteogenesis and are a good candidate for use in bone tissue engineering.
Project description:One of the major challenges of bone tissue engineering applications is to construct a fully vascularized implant that can adapt to hypoxic environments in vivo. The incorporation of proangiogenic factors into scaffolds is a widely accepted method of achieving this goal. Recently, the proangiogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) has been confirmed in several studies. In the present study, we incorporated MSC-MVs into alginate-polycaprolactone (PCL) constructs that had previously been developed for bone tissue engineering applications, with the aim of promoting angiogenesis and bone regeneration. MSC-MVs were first isolated from the supernatant of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and characterized by scanning electron microscopic, confocal microscopic, and flow cytometric analyses. The proangiogenic potential of MSC-MVs was demonstrated by the stimulation of tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. MSC-MVs and osteodifferentiated MSCs were then encapsulated with alginate and seeded onto porous three-dimensional printed PCL scaffolds. When combined with osteodifferentiated MSCs, the MV-alginate-PCL constructs enhanced vessel formation and tissue-engineered bone regeneration in a nude mouse subcutaneous bone formation model, as demonstrated by micro-computed tomographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. This MV-alginate-PCL construct may offer a novel, proangiogenic, and cost-effective option for bone tissue engineering.
Project description:The current study has investigated the use of decellularised, demineralised bone extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel constructs for in vivo tissue mineralisation and bone formation. Stro-1-enriched human bone marrow stromal cells were incorporated together with select growth factors including VEGF, TGF-?3, BMP-2, PTHrP and VitD3, to augment bone formation, and mixed with alginate for structural support. Growth factors were delivered through fast (non-osteogenic factors) and slow (osteogenic factors) release PLGA microparticles. Constructs of 5 mm length were implanted in vivo for 28 days within mice. Dense tissue assessed by micro-CT correlated with histologically assessed mineralised bone formation in all constructs. Exogenous growth factor addition did not enhance bone formation further compared to alginate/bone ECM (ALG/ECM) hydrogels alone. UV irradiation reduced bone formation through degradation of intrinsic growth factors within the bone ECM component and possibly also ECM cross-linking. BMP-2 and VitD3 rescued osteogenic induction. ALG/ECM hydrogels appeared highly osteoinductive and delivery of angiogenic or chondrogenic growth factors led to altered bone formation. All constructs demonstrated extensive host tissue invasion and vascularisation aiding integration and implant longevity. The proposed hydrogel system functioned without the need for growth factor incorporation or an exogenous inducible cell source. Optimal growth factor concentrations and spatiotemporal release profiles require further assessment, as the bone ECM component may suffer batch variability between donor materials. In summary, ALG/ECM hydrogels provide a versatile biomaterial scaffold for utilisation within regenerative medicine which may be tailored, ultimately, to form the tissue of choice through incorporation of select growth factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Vascularization is a critical process during bone regeneration/repair and the lack of tissue vascularization is recognized as a major challenge in applying bone tissue engineering methods for cranial and maxillofacial surgeries. The aim of our study is to fabricate a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded gelatin/alginate/?-TCP composite scaffold by 3D printing method using a computer-assisted design (CAD) model. METHODS:The paste, composed of (VEGF-loaded PLGA)-containing gelatin/alginate/?-TCP in water, was loaded into standard Nordson cartridges and promptly employed for printing the scaffolds. Rheological characterization of various gelatin/alginate/?-TCP formulations led to an optimized paste as a printable bioink at room temperature. RESULTS:The in vitro release kinetics of the loaded VEGF revealed that the designed scaffolds fulfill the bioavailability of VEGF required for vascularization in the early stages of tissue regeneration. The results were confirmed by two times increment of proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded on the scaffolds after 10 days. The compressive modulus of the scaffolds, 98±11MPa, was found to be in the range of cancellous bone suggesting their potential application for craniofacial tissue engineering. Osteoblast culture on the scaffolds showed that the construct supports cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. It was found that the ALP activity increased over 50% using VEGF-loaded scaffolds after 2 weeks of culture. SIGNIFICANCE:The 3D printed gelatin/alginate/?-TCP scaffold with slow releasing of VEGF can be considered as a potential candidate for regeneration of craniofacial defects.
Project description:A critical challenge in tissue regeneration is to develop constructs that effectively integrate with the host tissue. Here, we describe a composite, laser micromachined, collagen-alginate construct containing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for tissue repair applications. Collagen type I was fashioned into laminated collagen sheets to form a mechanically robust fascia that was subsequently laser micropatterned with pores of defined dimension and spatial distribution as a means to modulate mechanical behavior and promote tissue integration. Significantly, laser micromachined patterned constructs displayed both substantially greater compliance and suture retention strength than non-patterned constructs. hMSCs were loaded in an RGD-functionalized alginate gel modified to degrade in vivo. Over a 7 day observation period in vitro, high cell viability was observed with constant levels of VEGF, PDGF-? and MCP-1 protein expression. In a full thickness abdominal wall defect model, the composite construct prevented hernia recurrence in Wistar rats over an 8-week period with de novo tissue and vascular network formation and the absence of adhesions to underlying abdominal viscera. As compared to acellular constructs, constructs containing hMSCs displayed greater integration strength (cell seeded: 0.92 ± 0.19 N/mm vs. acellular: 0.59 ± 0.25 N/mm, p=0.01), increased vascularization (cell seeded: 2.7-2.1/hpf vs. acellular: 1.7-2.1/hpf, p<0.03), and increased infiltration of macrophages (cell seeded: 2021-3630 ?m(2)/hpf vs. acellular: 1570-2530 ?m(2)/hpf, p<0.05). A decrease in the ratio of M1 macrophages to total macrophages was also observed in hMSC-populated samples. Laser micromachined collagen-alginate composites containing hMSCs can be used to bridge soft tissue defects with the capacity for enhanced tissue repair and integration.Effective restoration of large soft tissue defects caused by trauma or treatment complications represents a critical challenge in the clinic. In this study, a novel composite construct was engineered and evaluated for stem cell delivery and tissue repair. Laser micromachining was used to fabricate patterned, microporous constructs designed with pores of defined size and distribution as a means to tune mechanical responses, accommodate and protect incorporated cells, and enhance tissue integration. The construct was embedded within an engineered alginate gel containing hMSCs. Upon repair of a full thickness abdominal wall defect in a rat model, the composite construct modulated host innate immunity towards a reparative phenotypic response, promoted neovascularization and associated matrix production, and increased the strength of tissue integration.
Project description:The growing socioeconomic burden of musculoskeletal injuries and limitations of current therapies have motivated tissue engineering approaches to generate functional tissues to aid in defect healing. A readily implantable scaffold-free system comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells embedded with bioactive microparticles capable of controlled delivery of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was engineered to guide endochondral bone formation. The microparticles were formulated to release TGF-?1 early to induce cartilage formation and BMP-2 in a more sustained manner to promote remodeling into bone. Cell constructs containing microparticles, empty or loaded with one or both growth factors, were implanted into rat critical-sized calvarial defects. Micro-computed tomography and histological analyses after 4 weeks showed that microparticle-incorporated constructs with or without growth factor promoted greater bone formation compared to sham controls, with the greatest degree of healing with bony bridging resulting from constructs loaded with BMP-2 and TGF-?1. Importantly, bone volume fraction increased significantly from 4 to 8 weeks in defects treated with both growth factors. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of types I, II, and X collagen, suggesting defect healing via endochondral ossification in all experimental groups. The presence of vascularized red bone marrow provided strong evidence for the ability of these constructs to stimulate angiogenesis. This system has great translational potential as a readily implantable combination therapy that can initiate and accelerate endochondral ossification in vivo. Importantly, construct implantation does not require prior lengthy in vitro culture for chondrogenic cell priming with growth factors that is necessary for current scaffold-free combination therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1644-1659.
Project description:Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) scaffolds have been widely employed as a supportive matrix and delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Previous studies using osteoinductive growth factors loaded Ca-P scaffolds via passive adsorption often experience issues associated with easy inactivation and uncontrolled release. In present study, a new delivery system was fabricated using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) scaffold by lyophilization with addition of trehalose. The in vitro osteogenesis effects of this formulation were compared with lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct without trehalose and absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose. The release characteristics and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analyses showed that addition of trehalose could sufficiently protect BMP-2 bioactivity during lyophilization and achieve sustained BMP-2 release from lyophilized CDHA construct in vitro and in vivo. However, absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose showed similar BMP-2 bioactivity and presented a burst release. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct with trehalose (lyo-tre-BMP-2) promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) significantly and this formulation could preserve over 70% protein bioactivity after 5 weeks storage at 25°C. Micro-computed tomography, histological and fluorescent labeling analyses further demonstrated that lyo-tre-BMP-2 formulation combined with bMSCs led to the most percentage of new bone volume (38.79% ± 5.32%) and area (40.71% ± 7.14%) as well as the most percentage of fluorochrome stained bone area (alizarin red S: 2.64% ± 0.44%, calcein: 6.08% ± 1.37%) and mineral apposition rate (4.13 ± 0.62 µm/day) in critical-sized rat cranial defects healing. Biomechanical tests also indicated the maximum stiffness (118.17 ± 15.02 Mpa) and load of fracture (144.67 ± 16.13 N). These results lay a potential framework for future study by using trehalose to preserve growth factor bioactivity and optimize release profile of Ca-P based delivery system for enhanced bone regeneration.