Even a low dose of tamoxifen profoundly induces adipose tissue browning in female mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Tamoxifen-inducible Cre/lox site-specific recombination technology has been widely used to generate conditional transgenic mice. As an estrogen receptor ligand, tamoxifen itself potentially affects energy metabolism, which may confound interpretation of data especially in metabolic studies. Considering sexual dimorphism, in this study, the effects of low-dose tamoxifen administration on energy metabolism, and browning of adipose tissues in female and male mice were investigated. METHODS:Female and male C57/BL6 mice were injected with tamoxifen oil solution (i.p.) and then housed at both room temperature (23?±?2?°C) and cold environment (6?±?1?°C). Serum, brown and white adipose tissues were obtained, and the effects of tamoxifen administration on energy metabolism and the browning of adipose tissues were evaluated. RESULTS:At 25?mg/kg body weight (BDW), tamoxifen administration for 3 alternative days decreased the percentage of inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissue weights in female mice accompanied by the up-regulation of thermogenesis in adipose tissues. In contrast, this dosage of tamoxifen did not induce noticeable changes in the energy metabolism and thermogenesis of adipose tissue in male mice under room temperature. Consistently, under cold stimulus, substantial browning of adipose tissues was observed in female mice injected with tamoxifen (50?mg/kg BDW, single injection) but not in male mice. Two-way ANOVA tests also demonstrated significant interactions between tamoxifen treatment and gender on the expression of thermogenic markers in adipose tissues. CONCLUSION:Tamoxifen, even at a low dose, remarkably increases thermogenesis in adipose tissues of female mice; meanwhile, such a low dose could be used in male mice for inducing gene recombination without confounding the interpretation of data related to metabolism and thermogenesis of adipose tissues.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The T-box gene Tbx15 is abundantly expressed in adipose tissues, especially subcutaneous and brown fat. Although its expression is correlated with obesity, its precise biological role in adipose tissue is poorly understood in vivo. Here we investigated the function of Tbx15 in brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in vivo. METHODS:In the present study, we generated adipose-specific Tbx15 knockout (AKO) mice by crossing Tbx15 floxed mice with adiponectin-Cre mice to delineate Tbx15 function in adipose tissues. We systematically investigated the influence of Tbx15 on brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in mice, as well as the possible underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS:Upon cold exposure, adipocyte browning in inguinal adipose tissue was significantly impaired in Tbx15 AKO mice. Furthermore, ablation of Tbx15 blocked adipocyte browning induced by β3 adrenergic agonist CL 316243, which did not appear to alter the expression of Tbx15. Analysis of DNA binding sites using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that TBX15 bound directly to a key region in the Prdm16 promoter, indicating it regulates transcription of Prdm16, the master gene for adipocyte thermogenesis and browning. Compared to control mice, Tbx15 AKO mice displayed increased body weight gain and decreased whole body energy expenditure in response to high fat diets. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these findings suggest that Tbx15 regulates adipocyte browning and might be a potential target for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK ?1/?2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPK? induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively, whereas chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 promoted WAT browning in inguinal WAT and protected against HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. These findings reveal a vital role for adipocyte AMPK in regulating the browning process in inguinal WAT and in maintaining energy homeostasis, which suggests that the targeted activation of adipocyte AMPK may be a promising strategy for anti-obesity therapy.
Project description:: Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis in metabolic tissues, including adipose tissues. The two main types of adipose tissues are the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT primarily stores excess energy, whereas BAT is predominantly responsible for energy expenditure by non-shivering thermogenesis through the mitochondria. WAT in response to appropriate stimuli such as cold exposure and ?-adrenergic agonist undergoes browning wherein it acts as BAT, which is characterized by the presence of a higher number of mitochondria. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes has been reported to have strong correlation with metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Dysfunction of mitochondria results in detrimental effects on adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, oxidative capacity, and thermogenesis, which consequently lead to metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial function can be improved by using thiazolidinedione, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and dietary natural compounds; by performing exercise; and by controlling caloric restriction, thereby maintaining the metabolic homeostasis by inducing adaptive thermogenesis of BAT and browning of WAT. In this review, we focus on and summarize the molecular regulation involved in the improvement of mitochondrial function in adipose tissues so that strategies can be developed to treat metabolic diseases.
Project description:Adipose tissue browning and systemic energy expenditure provide a defense mechanism against obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In high-cholesterol Western diet-fed mice, mast cell (MC) inactivation ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance and improves the metabolic rate, but a direct role of adipose tissue MCs in thermogenesis and browning remains unproven. Here, we report that adrenoceptor agonist norepinephrine-stimulated metabolic rate and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) browning are enhanced in MC-deficient Kitw-sh/w-sh mice and MC-stabilized wild-type mice on a chow diet. MC reconstitution to SAT in Kitw-sh/w-sh mice blocks these changes. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that MC inactivation elevates SAT platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFR?+) adipocyte precursor proliferation and accelerates beige adipocyte differentiation. Using the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) inhibitor and TPH1-deficient MCs, we show that MC-derived serotonin inhibits SAT browning and systemic energy expenditure. Functional inactivation of MCs or inhibition of MC serotonin synthesis in SAT promotes adipocyte browning and systemic energy metabolism in mice.
Project description:It has recently been found that B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We also have previously reported that BAFF deficiency reverses high-fat (HF) diet-induced glucose intolerance by potentiating adipose tissue function. In the present study, we found that BAFF deficient (BAFF-/-) mice exhibit gender-specific differences in protection against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and aimed to characterize the gender-dependent molecular alterations in energy metabolism. Under HF feeding conditions, serum BAFF level of female wild-type (WT) mice was considerably higher than that of male mice. Despite increased body weight gain, both male and female BAFF-/- mice showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to their WT counterparts. Expressions of genes involved in glucose transport, thermogenesis and lipid oxidation were up-regulated in brown adipose tissues of both male and female BAFF-/- mice. Interestingly, the expression of thermogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly enhanced in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but the difference was not observed between male BAFF-/- and WT mice. The enhanced thermogenic program was confirmed by higher protein levels of UCP1 and irisin in female BAFF-/- than in WT mice. Additionally, adiponectin production in white adipose tissues and AMPK phosphorylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also significantly elevated in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but not in male BAFF-/- mice. Our findings define a comprehensive scenario for the enhancing effect of BAFF depletion on glucose tolerance wherein the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, gender-specific, and suggest that gender difference should be considered as an important factor in the use of BAFF blockade as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:With rapid economic development, the prevalence of obesity has increased remarkably worldwide. Obesity can induce a variety of metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease, which significantly endanger the health and welfare of individuals. Brown and beige fat tissues play an important role in thermogenesis in mammals. Recent studies have shown that follistatin (FST) can potentially induce the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were injected with follistatin for one week to explore the effects of follistatin on browning and metabolism and to determine the mechanism. The results showed that follistatin suppressed obesity caused by a high-fat diet and increased insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, and subcutaneous fat browning. The beneficial effects remained even after a period of withdrawal. Follistatin promoted secretion of irisin from subcutaneous fat via the AMPK-PGC1?-irisin signal pathway, which induces browning of WAT, and activated the insulin pathway in beige fat thereby promoting metabolism.
Project description:Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet-fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning-related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature-increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat-associated obesity and diabetes.
Project description:Induction of beige cells causes the browning of white fat and improves energy metabolism. However, the central mechanism that controls adipose tissue browning and its physiological relevance are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that fasting and chemical-genetic activation of orexigenic AgRP neurons in the hypothalamus suppress the browning of white fat. O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins regulates fundamental cellular processes. The levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc modification are enriched in AgRP neurons and are elevated by fasting. Genetic ablation of OGT in AgRP neurons inhibits neuronal excitability through the voltage-dependent potassium channel, promotes white adipose tissue browning, and protects mice against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These data reveal adipose tissue browning as a highly dynamic physiological process under central control, in which O-GlcNAc signaling in AgRP neurons is essential for suppressing thermogenesis to conserve energy in response to fasting.
Project description:Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in the control of energy metabolism. In the hypothalamus, chronic exposure to high levels of apelin is associated with an increase in hepatic glucose production, and then contributes to the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms behind deleterious effects of chronic apelin in the brain and consequences on energy expenditure and thermogenesis are currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of apelin in normal mice on hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression, energy expenditure, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue functions. We have shown that chronic icv infusion of apelin increases the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the hypothalamus associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-1 beta. In parallel, mice infused with icv apelin exhibit a significant lower energy expenditure coupled to a decrease in PGC1alpha, PRDM16 and UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue which could explain the alteration of thermogenesis in these mice. These data provide compelling evidence that central apelin contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes by altering energy expenditure, thermogenesis and fat browning.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling is a pathway controlling adaptive thermogenesis in brown or beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the biological roles of the transcription factor Foxp1 in brown/beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific deletion of Foxp1 leads to an increase of brown adipose activity and browning program of white adipose tissues. The Foxp1-deficient mice show an augmented energy expenditure and are protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Consistently, overexpression of Foxp1 in adipocytes impairs adaptive thermogenesis and promotes diet-induced obesity. A robust change in abundance of the ?3-adrenergic receptor (?3-AR) is observed in brown/beige adipocytes from both lines of mice. Molecularly, Foxp1 directly represses ?3-AR transcription and regulates its desensitization behavior. Taken together, our findings reveal Foxp1 as a master transcriptional repressor of brown/beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis, and provide an important clue for its targeting and treatment of obesity.