Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activity of Plantago asiatica and Clerodendrum trichotomum Extracts In Vitro and In Vivo.
ABSTRACT: The herbs Plantago asiatica and Clerodendrum trichotomum have been commonly used for centuries in indigenous and folk medicine in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In this study, we show that extracts from these herbs have antiviral effects against the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro cell cultures and an in vivo mouse model. Treatment of HEp2 cells and A549 cells with a non-cytotoxic concentration of Plantago asiatica or Clerodendrum trichotomum extract significantly reduced RSV replication, RSV-induced cell death, RSV gene transcription, RSV protein synthesis, and also blocked syncytia formation. Interestingly, oral inoculation with each herb extract significantly improved viral clearance in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Based on reported information and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the phenolic glycoside acteoside was identified as an active chemical component of both herb extracts. An effective dose of acteoside exhibited similar antiviral effects as each herb extract against RSV in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that extracts of Plantago asiatica and Clerodendrum trichotomum could provide a potent natural source of an antiviral drug candidate against RSV infection.
Project description:Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L.), which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-?-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of tea catechins.
Project description:Functional beverages constitute the rapidly increasing part of the functional food section and represent an area with a wide range of products including herbal-based beverages. We carried out screening investigations of the extracts of 85 Rosaceous tea plants. Among the extracts analyzed Agrimonia asiatica herb extract demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity against the enzyme ?-glucosidase (20.29 µg/mL). As a result of chromato-mass-spectrometric profiling of A. asiatica herb with high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray triple quadrupole mass-spectrometric detection (HPLC-PDA-ESI-tQ-MS) 60 compounds were identified, including catechins, ellagitannins, flavones, flavonols, gallotannins, hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, most for the very first time. The analysis of the seasonal variation of metabolites in A. asiatica herb demonstrated that the phenolic content was highest in summer samples and lower in spring and autumn. HPLC activity-based profiling was utilized to identify compounds of A. asiatica herb with the maximal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The most pronounced inhibition of ?-glucosidase was observed for agrimoniin, while less significant results of inhibition were revealed for ellagic acid and isoquercitrin. The evaluation of phenolic content in A. asiatica herbal teas with the subsequent determination of ?-glucosidase inhibiting potential was discovered. Maximum inhibition of ?-glucosidase was observed for hot infusion (75.33 µg/mL) and the minimum for 30 min decoction (159.14 µg/mL). Our study demonstrated that A. asiatica herbal tea is a prospective functional beverage in which dietary intake may help to reduce blood glucose.
Project description:Plantago asiatica L. seeds is a common folk medicine with a long history of medical use in China because of its antipyretic, diuretic, and expectorant properties. It has been applied to treat hypertension clinically due to its diuresis, however, its efficacy and mechanisms on anti-hypertension has not been reported yet to our knowledge. In this study, we investigated the antihypertensive effect and underlying mechanisms of P. asiatica L. seeds extract (PASE) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Male SHRs were treated with 2.5 mg/kg of fosinopril (FOS) and 400 mg/kg of PASE orally per day for once or 12 weeks. SHR or Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) receiving vehicle (distilled water) was used as control. The results demonstrated systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and MBP) were significantly lowered after single and long-term intragastric administration of PASE. The cardiac and aortic index and collagen accumulation were improved in the PASE group compared with the SHRs group. Meanwhile, PASE treatment remarkably reduced urine total protein, the ratio of serum urea nitrogen to serum creatinine, and increased serum potassium. The levels of serum angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin II (Ang II), the ratio of Ang II to Ang I, and aldosterone (ALD) were lowered after treatment of PASE. Besides, PASE and its major active constituents of phenylethanoid glycosides, including isoacteoside, plantamajoside and acteoside, were found to effectively inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activation in vitro. These findings suggest that PASE has the antihypertensive effect that may involve a mechanism of ACE inhibition and simultaneously protect organ damage against hypertension.
Project description:In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Centella asiatica is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient and is becoming popular in the West. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on pharmacology, mechanisms of action, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions and current research prospects of the herb. At the same time, studies to evaluate the likelihood of interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of the herb, are discussed.
Project description:Traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese herbs have a demonstrated value for disease therapy and sub-health improvement. Attempts in this area tend to develop new forms to make their applications more convenient and wider. Here, we propose a novel Chinese herb microneedle (CHMN) patch by integrating the herbal extracts, <i>Premna microphylla</i> and <i>Centella asiatica</i>, with microstructure of microneedle for wound healing. Such path is composed of sap extracted from the herbal leaves <i>via</i> traditional kneading method and solidified by plant ash derived from the brine induced process of tofu in a well-designed mold. Because the leaves of the <i>Premna microphylla</i> are rich in pectin and various amino acids, the CHMN could be imparted with medicinal efficacy of heat clearing, detoxicating, detumescence and hemostatic. Besides, with the excellent pharmaceutical activity of Asiatic acid extracted from <i>Centella asiatica</i>, the CHMN is potential in promoting relevant growth factor genes expression in fibroblasts and showing excellent performance in anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activity. Taking advantages of these pure herbal compositions, we have demonstrated that the derived CHMN was with dramatical achievement in anti-bacteria, inhibiting inflammatory, collagen deposition, angiogenesis and tissue reconstruction during the wound closure. These results indicate that the integration of traditional Chinese herbs with progressive technologies will facilitate the development and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine in modern society.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The herb formulation Deva-5 is used in traditional medicine to treat acute infectious diseases. Deva-5 is composed of five herbs: Gentiana decumbens L., Momordica cochinchinensis L., Hypecoum erectum L., Polygonum bistorta L., and Terminalia chebula Retz. Deva-5 and its five components were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8. METHODS: The water extracts of the herbal parts of G. decumbens, H. erectum and P. bistorta, the seeds of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis and Deva-5 were prepared by boiling and clarified by low-speed centrifugation and filtration. To assess the antiviral properties, avian influenza virus isolate A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010(H3N8) was incubated at 37°C for 30 min in the presence and absence of the extracts of five plants and DEVA-5 in various concentrations. Subsequently, the concentration of infectious virus in each sample was determined by plaque assays. Neutralisation indexes and 90% plaque reduction concentrations were estimated for each extract, and the significance of the data was evaluated using statistical methods. RESULTS: The extracts of G. decumbens, H. erectum, P. bistorta and Deva-5 demonstrated no significant toxicity at concentrations up to 2%, whereas extracts of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis were well-tolerated by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells at concentrations up to 1%. The extracts of H. erectum, M. cochinchinensis and T. chebula reduced the titre of A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010 (H3N8) by approximately five-fold (p???0.05). The other three extracts did not significantly reduce the infectivity of the virus. The plaque reduction neutralisation tests revealed that none of the extracts tested were able to inhibit formation of plaques by 90%. However, three extracts, H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis, were able to inhibit formation of plaques by more than 50% at low dilutions from 1:3 to 1:14. The T. chebula extract had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, the consistent direct antiviral action of the extracts of H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis was detected. These extracts significantly reduced the infectivity of influenza A virus H3N8 in vitro when used at high concentrations (0.5-1%). However, Deva-5 itself and the remainder of its components did not exhibit significant antiviral action. The results suggest that H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis plants contain substances with direct antiviral activity and could be promising sources of new antiviral drugs.
Project description:Numerous organisms integrate information from multiple sources and express adaptive behaviours, but how they do so at different developmental stages remains to be identified. Seeds, which are the embryonic stage of plants, need to make decisions about the timing of emergence in response to environmental cues related to survival. We investigated the timing of emergence of Plantago asiatica (Plantaginaceae) seed while manipulating the presence of Trifolium repens seed and the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed. The relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed and the presence of seeds of T. repens did not on their own influence the timing of P. asiatica emergence. However, when encountering a T. repens seed, a P. asiatica seed emerged faster in the presence of a sibling seed than in the presence of a non-sibling seed. Water extracts of seeds gave the same result. We show that P. asiatica seeds integrate information about the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seeds and the presence of seeds of a different species via water-soluble chemicals and adjust their emergence behaviour in response. These findings suggest the presence of kin-dependent interspecific interactions.
Project description:Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Influenza infection remains a major health threat for animals and humans which crucially requires effective antiviral remedies. The usage of herbal medications as readily available alternatives for their compatibility with the body and fewer side effects compared to synthetic chemical treatments has become popular globally. The aim of this study was to investigate and screen in vitro anti-influenza activity of extracts of five South African medicinal plants, namely Tabernaemontana ventricosa, Cussonia spicata, Rapanea melanophloeos, Pittosporum viridiflorum and Clerodendrum glabrum, species which are used traditionally for the treatment of several diseases such as inflammatory and respiratory diseases.<h4>Methods</h4>Methanol, ethanol (100% and 30%), acetone, hot and cold water extracts of the powdered plants leaves were obtained by standard methods. The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT colorimetric assay on MDCK cells. The concentrations below CC<sub>50</sub> values were tested for antiviral activity against influenza A virus (IAV) in different combination treatments. The effect of extracts on viral surface glycoproteins and viral titer were tested by HI and HA virological assays, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Based on the applied methods, the most effective results against IAV were obtained from Rapanea melanophloeos methanol leaf extract (EC<sub>50</sub>?=?113.3 ?g/ml) and Pittosporum viridiflorum methanol, 100% and 30% ethanol and acetone leaf extracts (EC<sub>50</sub> values?=?3.6, 3.4, 19.2, 82.3 ?g/ml, respectively) in all types of combined treatments especially in pre- and post-penetration combined treatments with highly significant effects against viral titer (P???0.01).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The outcomes offer for the first time a scientific basis for the use of extracts of Rapanea melanophloeos and Pittosporum viridiflorum against IAV. It is worth focusing on the isolation and identification of effective active compounds and elucidating the mechanism of action from these species. However, Tabernaemontana ventricosa, Cussonia spicata and Clerodendrum glabrum leaf extracts were ineffective in vitro in this study.
Project description:Testosterone concentrations in males tend to decline with advancing age. Low testosterone, also known as androgen deficiency (AD), is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Currently, the primary treatment for AD is testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), which may exacerbate pre-existing medical conditions. Therefore, the use of alternative options, such as herbs, spices, plants, or their extracts, has been explored as a potential treatment option for AD. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and critically evaluate randomized controlled trials published on the efficacy of single herbal ingredients on testosterone concentrations, in addition to its fractions or binding proteins, in men (≥18 y). From the 4 databases searched, there were 13 herbs identified in 32 studies, published between 2001 and 2019. The main findings of this review indicate that 2 herbal extracts, fenugreek seed extracts and ashwagandha root and root/leaf extracts, have positive effects on testosterone concentrations in men. Also, some evidence exists for another herb and herbal extract, Asian red ginseng and forskohlii root extract. Overall, 9 out of 32 studies demonstrated statistically significant increases in testosterone concentrations. Moreover, 6 studies out of 32 were judged as having a low risk of bias. Current evidence is largely based on young, nonclinical populations, with 16 out of 32 studies using men <40 y of age. Conclusions are moderated by the paucity of research for many herbs, the variation in dosages and extracts used, small sample sizes, and the heterogeneity of study characteristics. Also, further research is required before definitive conclusions on efficacy and safety can be made. This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020173623.