Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in a pastoralist post-conflict community, Karamoja sub-region, North eastern Uganda.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Adolescent sexual risky behaviours continue to be significant drivers of the HIV epidemic globally. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in Karamoja sub-region, a pastoralist and post-conflict community in North-eastern Uganda. METHODS:Between August and September 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1439 adolescents receiving primary healthcare services at nine public health facilities located in five of the seven districts that make up Karamoja sub-region. High-risk sexual behaviour was defined as engaging in sex with two or more (2+) sexual partners in the 6 months preceding the survey or exchanging sex for money or gifts with no or inconsistent use of condoms over the same period of time. Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours were analysed using a modified Poison regression model with log-link and Poisson-family via a generalized linear model. RESULTS:Eighty-two percent (81.8%, n = 1177) of the respondents had ever tested for HIV while 62 % (61.5%, n = 885) had ever had sex. Of those that had ever had sex, 11.4% (n = 101) reported prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was lower among men than women (adjusted prevalence ratio (adj. PR) = 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.62) and those whose sex debut was above 14 years (adj.PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.69). However, prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly higher in adolescents who were not aware of their recent sexual partner's HIV status (adj.PR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68, 3.52) and those who used illicit drugs (adj.PR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.88, 4.05). CONCLUSION:Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly associated with having sex with partners of unknown HIV sero-status and use of illicit drugs. These findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to improve mutual HIV status disclosure between sexual partners while minimizing their use of illicit drugs/substances.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether circumcision of HIV-positive men is associated with increased subsequent sexual risk behaviors which may place their female partners at risk. METHODS:Newly circumcised and uncircumcised HIV-positive men in the Rakai Community Cohort Study were followed from baseline (July 2013-January 2015) to determine trend in sexual risk behaviors and association of circumcision with subsequent sexual risk behaviors at follow up (February 2015-September 2016). Risk behaviors included sexual activity, alcohol before sex, transactional sex, multiple sex partners, casual sex partners, and inconsistent condom use with casual partners. The association was evaluated using modified Poisson regression, and sensitivity analyses were performed after multiple imputation with chained equations for missing data. RESULTS:We identified 538 eligible men, of whom 113(21.0%) were circumcised at baseline and 425(79.0%) were uncircumcised. Men in fishing communities were more likely to be circumcised (p?=?0.032) as well as those exposed to targeted HIV messaging (p?<?0.001). Overall, 188(34.9%) men were lost to follow up and most were uncircumcised (p?=?0.020). Among those followed up, behaviors remained largely unchanged with no differences by circumcision status. Transactional sex appeared to be associated with circumcision in unadjusted analyses (PR?=?1.58, 95%CI?=?1.01,2.48; p?=?0.045, p?=?0.05) and adjusted analyses (adj.PR?=?1.54, 95%CI?=?1.06,2.23; p?=?0.022). However, the association was no longer significant in sensitivity analyses after accounting for loss to follow up (adj.PR?=?1.43, 95%CI?=?0.98,2.08; p?=?0.066). No association with circumcision was observed for other sexual risk behaviors. CONCLUSION:We found no association between circumcision of HIV-positive men and subsequent sexual risk behavior.
Project description:The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points.Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study ('earlier cohort', surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study ('later cohort', surveyed 1999 and 2003).Central Clydeside Conurbation around Glasgow City.Young people who participated in the Twenty-07 and 11-16/16+ studies at ages 15 and 18-19. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: The authors analysed data on risk behaviours in both early adolescence (started smoking prior to age 14, monthly drinking and ever used illicit drugs at age 15 and sexual intercourse prior to age 16) and late adolescence (age 18-19, current smoking, excessive drinking, ever used illicit drugs and multiple sexual partners) by gender and social class.Drinking, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour (but not smoking) increased between the earlier and later cohort, especially among girls. The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. Adjusted ORs for associations between each substance and sexual risk behaviour were around 2.00. The only significant between-cohort difference was a stronger association between female early adolescent smoking and early sexual initiation in the later cohort. Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort.Despite changes in rates, relationships between adolescent risk behaviours remain strong, irrespective of gender and social class. This indicates a need for improved risk behaviour prevention in young people, perhaps through a holistic approach, that addresses the broad shared determinants of various risk behaviours.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Reducing high-risk behaviours (i.e. multiple partnership, condomless anal/vaginal sex, alcohol use before sex, illicit drug use) after HIV diagnosis is critical for curtailing HIV transmission. We designed an intervention to explore peer- counselling in reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS:We randomized 367 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men to either standard-of-care (SOC; n = 183) or peer-counselling intervention (n = 184), and followed them for 12 months (visit at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month). SOC participants received counselling on high-risk behaviour reduction by clinic staff. Intervention participants received both SOC and peer counselling. A generalized estimating equation was used to compare pre-post diagnosis high-risk behaviour change; logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of practicing high-risk behaviours between intervention and SOC participants. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol (full-dosage) approaches were used for the analyses. RESULTS:For pre- and post-diagnosis comparisons, multiple partnership fell from 50% to 16% (p < 0.001), alcohol use before sex from 23% to 9% (p = 0.001), illicit drug use from 33% to 6% (p < 0.001), condomless anal sex from 47% to 4% (insertive from 23% to 2%; receptive from 36% to 3%; p < 0.001). In the intent-to-treat analysis accounting for repeated measures, peer counselling was more likely to reduce insertive anal sex (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.94), condomless anal sex (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.64) and illicit drug use (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.64). In the per-protocol analysis, peer counselling was associated with a lower likelihood of using illicit drug (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.81) and having condomless vaginal sex with women (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS:We observed a 14 to 43% decrease in the prevalence of selected high-risk behaviours after HIV diagnosis. Peer counselling had a greater impact in reducing condomless anal sex with men, illicit drug use and condomless vaginal sex with women over time. Future studies with exclusive peer-counselling arm are necessary to test its efficacy and effectiveness among Chinese MSM. Clinical Trial Number: NCT01904877.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. METHODS: We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136). Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0) to 12-month (M12) and 24-month (M24) visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART) or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART). Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1) sexual activity in the past year, 2) multiple partnership in the past year, 3) unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4) risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status) at last intercourse. RESULTS: Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm(3)). Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57-0.92), multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.79), unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.75) and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45-0.76). Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. CONCLUSIONS: In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry into HIV care, rather than ART initiation, resulted in decreased sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours. We did not observe any evidence of a risk compensation phenomenon associated with early ART initiation. These results illustrate the potential behavioural preventive effect of early entry into care, which goes hand in hand with early ART initiation.
Project description:HIV/AIDS is the second cause of mortality globally and there are 5000 new infections each day. Globally, sex workers are 13 times more at risk of HIV than the general population and in Senegal they have an HIV prevalence 16.5 times greater. Therefore, it is urgent to encourage behaviour change, which requires a better understanding of the reasons why sex workers engage in risky behaviours. We provide new evidence of the role of risk preferences on sexual behaviours, health behaviours and health outcomes of 600 female sex workers in Senegal in July and August 2017. We measure risk aversion of sex workers using an incentivised Gneezy and Potters task in addition to specific risk-taking scales in four domains (in general, finance, health and sex). Understanding of the experimental task was high despite low literacy level of participants. Using ordinary least squares, we find that risk aversion is an important predictor of sex workers' sexual behaviours. We find that sex workers with higher level of risk aversion have less sex acts with clients, have less clients at risk of HIV, are more likely to engage in protected sex acts and as a result earn less money per sex act. Furthermore, we find that sex workers exhibiting higher level of risk aversion are less likely to be infected with sexually transmitted infections. Results highlight that some associations between risk preferences and sexual and health behaviours are domain specific. To conclude, our results confirm the role of risk preferences in the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic and suggest the importance of collecting information on self-reported risk aversion to identify individuals who are at a greater risk of HIV/AIDS. Finally, our results provide some rationale in using lottery-based financial incentives to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS among high-risk populations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare risky sexual behaviours between HIV-positive persons initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (ART-experienced) and persons waiting to start on ART (ART-naive) and assess predictors of risky sexual behaviours among HIV-infected patients in rural Rakai district, Uganda. STUDY DESIGN:This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) database between 2013 and 2014. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. We used stepwise logistic regression as an index to estimate the adjusted ORs for the association between risky sexual behaviours and ART treatment status. STUDY SETTING:This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda. The data for this study were extracted from the RCCS. RCCS is an open prospective cohort of approximately 15?000 consenting participants aged 15-49 years. PARTICIPANTS:HIV-positive participants aged 18-49 years who had sex at least once a month with any partner prior to the start of the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Inconsistent/no condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use at last sexual encounter, and two or more sexual partners. RESULTS:ART-naive participants were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (OR=1.74, 95%?CI 1.11 to 2.73) and more likely to drink alcohol at last sexual encounter (OR=1.65, 95%?CI 1.11 to 2.46), compared with ART-experienced patients. ART treatment status (p<0.001) was a significant predictor of risky sexual behaviours. Both marital status (p=0.016) and occupation level (p=0.009) were positively associated with inconsistent condom use, while sex (p<0.001) correlated with alcohol use at last sexual encounter. CONCLUSION:ART-naive participants were more likely to exhibit risky sexual behaviours than the ART-experienced participants. The intensity of risk reduction counselling should be increased for HIV-positive persons waiting to start ART but already in HIV care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV. The Swiss HCVree Trial targeted a micro-elimination by using a treat and counsel strategy. Self-reported condomless anal intercourse with non-steady partners was used as the selection criterion for participation in a counselling intervention designed to prevent HCV re-infection. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of this criterion to identify men who engaged in other sexual risk behaviours associated with HCV re-infection. METHODS:Men who disclosed their sexual and drug- use behaviours during the prior 6 months, at study baseline, were included in the current study. Using a descriptive comparative study design, we explored self-reported sexual and drug-use risk behaviours, compared the odds of reporting each behaviour in men who reported and denied condomless anal intercourse with non-steady partners during the prior year and calculated the sensitivity/specificity (95% CI) of the screening question in relation to the other at-risk behaviours. RESULTS:Seventy-two (61%) of the 118 men meeting eligibity criteria reported condomless anal intercourse with non-steady partners during the prior year. Many also engaged in other potential HCV transmission risk behaviours, e.g., 52 (44%) had used drugs. In participants disclosing drug use, 44 (37%) reported sexualised drug use and 17 (14%) injected drugs. Unadjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for two well-known risk behaviours were 2.02 (0.80, 5.62) for fisting and 5.66 (1.49, 37.12) for injecting drug use. The odds ratio for sexualised drug use - a potential mediator for increased sexual risk taking - was 5.90 (2.44, 16.05). Condomless anal intercourse with non-steady partners showed varying sensitivity in relation to the other risk behaviours examined (66.7-88.2%). CONCLUSIONS:Although condomless anal intercourse with non-steady partners was fairly sensitive in detecting other HCV relevant risk behaviours, using it as the only screening criterion could lead to missing a proportion of HIV-positive men at risk for HCV re-infection due to other behaviours. This work also points to the importance of providing access to behavioral interventions addressing other sexual and drug use practices as part of HCV treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trial Number: NCT02785666 , 30.05.2016.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8) than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:High incidence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) has been attributed to the numerous and often layered vulnerabilities that they encounter including violence against women, unfavourable power relations that are worsened by age-disparate sexual relations, and limited access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. For AGYW living in urban informal settlements (slums), these vulnerabilities are compounded by pervasive poverty, fragmented social networks, and limited access to social services including health and education. In this paper, we assess sexual risk behaviours and their correlates among AGYW in two slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, prior to the implementation of interventions under the Determined Resilient Empowered AIDS-free Mentored and Safe (DREAMS) Partnership. METHODS:We drew on secondary data from the Transition to Adulthood study, the most recent representative study on adolescent sexual behaviour in the two settlements. The study was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). Data were collected in 2009 from 1,390 AGYW aged 12-23 years. We estimated the proportions of AGYW reporting ever tested for HIV, condom use, multiple sexual partners and age-disparate sex by socio-demographic characteristics. "High risk" sexual behaviour was defined as a composite of these four variables and age at first sex. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with risk behaviours. RESULTS:Fifty-one percent of AGYW reported that they had ever tested for HIV and received results of their last test, with the proportion rising steeply by age (from 15% to 84% among those <15 years and 20-23 years, respectively). Of 578 AGYW who were sexually active in the 12 months preceding the survey, 26% reported using a condom at last sex, 4% had more than one sexual partner, and 26% had sex with men who were at least 5 years older or younger. All girls aged below 15 years who had sex (n = 9) had not used condoms at last sex. The likelihood of engaging in "high risk" sexual risk behaviour was higher among older AGYW (19-23 years), those in marital unions, of Luo ethnicity, out of school, living alone or with a friend (versus parents), living with spouse (versus parents), and those whose friends engaged in risky/anti-social behaviours. In contrast, Muslim faith, co-residence with both parents, and belonging to an organised social group were associated with lower odds of risky sexual behaviours. CONCLUSION:Our study findings suggest that multifaceted approaches addressing the educational and social mediators of AGYW's vulnerability and that also reach the people with whom AGYW live and interact, are needed to reduce the rapid onset of sexual risk during the adolescent years. There is a particular need to reach the youngest adolescent girls in poor urban settings, among whom condom use and awareness of HIV status is rare.
Project description:Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use.On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09-2.86), self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79-5.67), self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35-4.17), illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65-10.09), and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07-8.12).We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used illicit drugs or were older than 25. HIV education and social marketing should be expanded and specifically designed for MSM to better educate on the increased risk of HIV with unprotected anal sex and illicit drug use as risk factors, and the importance of the use of both condoms and lubricant during anal intercourse.