De novo loss-of-function variants in NSD2 (WHSC1) associate with a subset of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare but recurrent microdeletion syndrome associated with hemizygosity of an interstitial segment of Chromosome 4 (4p16.3). Consistent with historical reports in which overlapping deletions defined a minimal critical region in WHS patients, recent reports from exome sequence analysis have provided further evidence that haploinsufficiency of a specific gene within this critical region, NSD2 (WHSC1), is causal for many features of the syndrome. In this report, we describe three unrelated patients with loss-of-function alterations in NSD2 who presented clinically with WHS features including intrauterine growth retardation and global developmental delay. Two of the three patients also had overlapping features of failure to thrive, short stature, constipation, and hypotonia. This series adds additional cases to expand the phenotypic spectrum of WHS and reports novel NSD2 variants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial 4p deletion highly variable in size in individual patients. The core WHS phenotype is defined by the association of growth delay, typical facial characteristics, intellectual disability and seizures. The WHS critical region (WHSCR) has been narrowed down and NSD2 falls within this 200?kb region. Only four patients with NSD2 variants have been documented with phenotypic features in detail. CASE PRESENTATION:Herein, we report the case of a 12-year-old boy with developmental delay. He had dysmorphic facial features including wide-spaced eyes, prominent nasal bridge continuing to forehead, abnormal teething and micrognathia. He also had mild clinodactyly of both hands. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a pathogenic mutation in NSD2 [c.4029_4030insAA, p.Glu1344Lysfs*49] isolated from peripheral blood DNA. Sanger confirmation of this variant revealed it as a de novo truncating variant in the family. CONCLUSION:Here, we reported a boy with de novo truncating variant in NSD2 with atypical clinical features comparing with 4p16.3 deletion related WHS. Our finding further supported the pathogenesis of truncating variants in NSD2 and delineated the possible symptom spectrum caused by these variants.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Despite a few recent reports of patients harboring truncating variants in NSD2, a gene considered critical for the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype, the clinical spectrum associated with NSD2 pathogenic variants remains poorly understood.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected a comprehensive series of 18 unpublished patients carrying heterozygous missense, elongating, or truncating NSD2 variants; compared their clinical data to the typical WHS phenotype after pooling them with ten previously described patients; and assessed the underlying molecular mechanism by structural modeling and measuring methylation activity in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>The core NSD2-associated phenotype includes mostly mild developmental delay, prenatal-onset growth retardation, low body mass index, and characteristic facial features distinct from WHS. Patients carrying missense variants were significantly taller and had more frequent behavioral/psychological issues compared with those harboring truncating variants. Structural in silico modeling suggested interference with NSD2's folding and function for all missense variants in known structures. In vitro testing showed reduced methylation activity and failure to reconstitute H3K36me2 in NSD2 knockout cells for most missense variants.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NSD2 loss-of-function variants lead to a distinct, rather mild phenotype partially overlapping with WHS. To avoid confusion for patients, NSD2 deficiency may be named Rauch-Steindl syndrome after the delineators of this phenotype.
Project description:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex genetic disorder caused by the loss of genomic material from the short arm of chromosome 4. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies indicated that the loss of genes within 4p16.3 is necessary for expression of the core features of the phenotype. Within this region, haploinsufficiency of the genes WHSC1 and LETM1 is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of WHS. We present clinical findings for three patients with relatively small (<400?kb) de novo interstitial deletions that overlap WHSC1 and LETM1. 3D facial analysis was performed for two of these patients. Based on our findings, we propose that hemizygosity of WHSC1 and LETM1 is associated with a clinical phenotype characterized by growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, and motor and speech delays. The deletion of additional genes nearby WHSC1 and LETM1 does not result in a marked increase in the severity of clinical features, arguing against their haploinsufficiency. The absence of seizures and typical WHS craniofacial findings in our cohort suggest that deletion of distinct or additional 4p16.3 genes is necessary for expression of these features. Altogether, these results show that although loss-of-function for WHSC1 and/or LETM1 contributes to some of the features of WHS, deletion of additional genes is required for the full expression of the phenotype, providing further support that WHS is a contiguous gene deletion disorder.
Project description:Deletions in the 4p16.3 region are associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions. In this study, we perform a cytogenomic integrative analysis combining classical cytogenetic methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), and systems biology strategies, to establish the cytogenomic profile involving the 4p16.3 critical region and suggest WHS-related intracellular cell signaling cascades. The cytogenetic and clinical patient profiles were evaluated. We characterized 12 terminal deletions, one interstitial deletion, two ring chromosomes, and one classical translocation 4;8. CMA allowed delineation of the deletions, which ranged from 3.7 to 25.6?Mb with breakpoints from 4p16.3 to 4p15.33. Furthermore, the smallest region of overlapping (SRO) encompassed seven genes in a terminal region of 330?kb in the 4p16.3 region, suggesting a region of susceptibility to convulsions and microcephaly. Therefore, molecular interaction networks and topological analysis were performed to understand these WHS-related symptoms. Our results suggest that specific cell signaling pathways including dopamine receptor, NAD+ nucleosidase activity, and fibroblast growth factor-activated receptor activity are associated with the diverse pathological WHS phenotypes and their symptoms. Additionally, we identified 29 hub-bottlenecks (H-B) nodes with a major role in WHS.
Project description:<i>Nuclear receptor SET domain protein</i> (<i>NSD2</i>) plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) and is overexpressed in multiple human myelomas, but its protein-protein interaction (PPI) patterns, particularly at the isoform/exon levels, are poorly understood. We explored the subcellular localizations of four representative <i>NSD2</i> transcripts with immunofluorescence microscopy. Next, we used label-free quantification to perform immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry (IP-MS) analyses of the transcripts. Using the interaction partners for each transcript detected in the IP-MS results, we identified 890 isoform-specific PPI partners (83% are novel). These PPI networks were further divided into four categories of the exon-specific interactome. In these exon-specific PPI partners, two genes, RPL10 and HSPA8, were successfully confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. RPL10 primarily interacted with Isoforms 1, 3, and 5, and HSPA8 interacted with all four isoforms, respectively. Using our extended NSD2 protein interactions, we constructed an isoform-level PPI landscape for NSD2 to serve as reference interactome data for NSD2 spliceosome-level studies. Furthermore, the RNA splicing processes supported by these isoform partners shed light on the diverse roles NSD2 plays in WHS and myeloma development. We also validated the interactions using Western blotting, RPL10, and the three NSD2 (Isoform 1, 3, and 5). Our results expand gene-level NSD2 PPI networks and provide a basis for the treatment of NSD2-related developmental diseases.
Project description:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by dysmorphic facies, congenital heart defects, intellectual/developmental disability, and increased risk for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In this report, we describe a stillborn girl with WHS and a large CDH. A literature review revealed 15 cases of WHS with CDH, which overlap a 2.3-Mb CDH critical region. We applied a machine-learning algorithm that integrates large-scale genomic knowledge to genes within the 4p16.3 CDH critical region and identified FGFRL1 , CTBP1 , NSD2 , FGFR3 , CPLX1 , MAEA , CTBP1-AS2 , and ZNF141 as genes whose haploinsufficiency may contribute to the development of CDH.
Project description:In an attempt to define the distinctive Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype, and to map its specific clinical manifestations, a total of eight patients carrying a 4p16.3 microdeletion were analyzed for their clinical phenotype and their respective genotypes. The extent of each individual deletion was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization, with a cosmid contig spanning the genomic region from MSX1 (distal half of 4p16.1) to the subtelomeric locus D4S3359. The deletions were 1.9-3.5 Mb, and all were terminal. All the patients presented with a mild phenotype, in which major malformations were usually absent. It is worth noting that head circumference was normal for height in two patients (those with the smallest deletions [1.9 and 2.2 Mb]). The currently accepted WHS critical region (WHSCR) was fully preserved in the patient with the 1.9-Mb deletion, in spite of a typical WHS phenotype. The deletion in this patient spanned the chromosome region from D4S3327 (190 b4 cosmid clone included) to the telomere. From a clinical point of view, the distinctive WHS phenotype is defined by the presence of typical facial appearance, mental retardation, growth delay, congenital hypotonia, and seizures. These signs represent the minimal diagnostic criteria for WHS. This basic phenotype maps distal to the currently accepted WHSCR. Here, we propose a new critical region for WHS, and we refer to this region as "WHSCR-2." It falls within a 300-600-kb interval in 4p16.3, between the loci D4S3327 and D4S98-D4S168. Among the candidate genes already described for WHS, LETM1 (leucine zipper/EF-hand-containing transmembrane) is likely to be pathogenetically involved in seizures. On the basis of genotype-phenotype correlation analysis, dividing the WHS phenotype into two distinct clinical entities, a "classical" and a "mild" form, is recommended for the purpose of proper genetic counseling.
Project description:Senescent cells may possess the intrinsic programs of metabolic and epigenomic remodeling, but the molecular mechanism remains to be clarified. Using an RNAi-based screen of chromatin regulators, we found that knockdown of the NSD2/WHSC1/MMSET methyltransferase induced cellular senescence that augmented mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation in primary human fibroblasts. Transcriptome analysis showed that loss of NSD2 downregulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes in a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-mediated manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further revealed that NSD2 was enriched at the gene bodies of actively transcribed genes, including cell cycle-related genes, and that loss of NSD2 decreased the levels of histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) at these gene loci. Consistent with these findings, oncogene-induced or replicative senescent cells showed reduced NSD2 expression together with lower H3K36me3 levels at NSD2-enriched genes. In addition, we found that NSD2 gene was upregulated by serum stimulation and required for the induction of cell cycle-related genes. Indeed, in both mouse and human tissues and human cancer cell lines, the expression levels of NSD2 were positively correlated with those of cell cycle-related genes. These data reveal that NSD2 plays a pivotal role in epigenomic maintenance and cell cycle control to prevent cellular senescence.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) (OMIM 194190) is a multiple congenital anomalies/intellectual disability syndrome. It is caused by partial loss of genetic material from the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome.<h4>Methods</h4>We studied the phenotype-genotype correlation.<h4>Results</h4>We present the clinical manifestations and cytogenetic results of 10 unrelated Egyptian patients with 4p deletions. Karyotyping, FISH and MLPA was performed for screening for microdeletion syndromes. Array CGH was done for two patients. All patients exhibited the cardinal clinical manifestation of WHS. FISH proved deletion of the specific WHS locus in all patients. MLPA detected microdeletion of the specific locus in two patients with normal karyotypes, while array CGH, performed for two patients, has delineated the extent of the deleted segments and the involved genes. LETM1, the main candidate gene for the seizure phenotype, was found deleted in the two patients tested by array CGH; nevertheless, one of them did not manifest seizures. The study emphasized the previous.<h4>Conclusion</h4>WHS is a contiguous gene syndrome resulting from hemizygosity of the terminal 2 Mb of 4p16.3 region. The Branchial fistula, detected in one of our patients is a new finding that, to our knowledge, was not reported.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. METHODS:Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. RESULTS:We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. CONCLUSIONS:We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence.