Sites and molecular mechanisms of modulation of Na(v)1.2 channels by Fyn tyrosine kinase.
ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated sodium channels are important targets for modulation of electrical excitability by neurotransmitters and neurotrophins acting through protein phosphorylation. Fast inactivation of Na(V)1.2 channels is regulated via tyrosine phosphorylation by Fyn kinase and dephosphorylation by receptor phosphoprotein tyrosine phosphatase-beta, which are associated in a signaling complex. Here we have identified the amino acid residues on Na(V)1.2 channels that coordinate binding of Fyn kinase and mediate inhibition of sodium currents by enhancing fast inactivation. Fyn kinase binds to a Src homology 3 (SH3)-binding motif in the second half of the intracellular loop connecting domains I and II (L(I-II)) of Na(V)1.2, and mutation of that SH3-binding motif prevents Fyn binding and Fyn enhancement of fast inactivation of sodium currents. Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation sites by mutagenesis and functional expression revealed a multisite regulatory mechanism. Y66 and Y1893, which are in consensus sequences appropriate for binding to the Fyn SH2 domain after phosphorylation, are both required for optimal binding and regulation by Fyn. Y730, which is located near the SH3-binding motif in L(I-II), and Y1497 and Y1498 in the inactivation gate in L(III-IV), are also required for optimal regulation. Phosphorylation of these sites likely promotes fast inactivation. Fast inactivation of the closely related Na(V)1.1 channels is not modulated by Fyn, and these channels do not contain an SH3-binding motif in L(I-II). Subtype-selective modulation by tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation provides a mechanism for differential regulation of sodium channels by neurotrophins and tyrosine phosphorylation in unmyelinated axons and dendrites, where Na(V)1.2 channels are expressed in brain neurons.
Project description:The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.6 plays unique roles in the nervous system, but its functional properties and neuromodulation are not as well established as for Na(V)1.2 channels. We found no significant differences in voltage-dependent activation or fast inactivation between Na(V)1.6 and Na(V)1.2 channels expressed in non-excitable cells. In contrast, the voltage dependence of slow inactivation was more positive for Na(v)1.6 channels, they conducted substantially larger persistent sodium currents than Na(v)1.2 channels, and they were much less sensitive to inhibition by phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. Resurgent sodium current, a hallmark of Na(v)1.6 channels in neurons, was not observed for Na(V)1.6 expressed alone or with the auxiliary beta(4) subunit. The unique properties of Na(V)1.6 channels, together with the resurgent currents that they conduct in neurons, make these channels well-suited to provide the driving force for sustained repetitive firing, a crucial property of neurons.
Project description:Fyn-deficient mice display increased AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) activity as a result of Fyn-dependent regulation of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) in skeletal muscle. Mutation of Fyn-specific tyrosine sites in LKB1 results in LKB1 export into the cytoplasm and increased AMPK activation site phosphorylation. This study characterizes the structural elements responsible for the physical interaction between Fyn and LKB1. Effects of point mutations in the Fyn SH2/SH3 domains and in the LKB1 proline-rich motif on 1) Fyn and LKB1 binding, 2) LKB1 subcellular localization and 3) AMPK phosphorylation were investigated in C2C12 muscle cells. Additionally, novel LKB1 proline-rich motif mimicking cell permeable peptides were generated to disrupt Fyn/LKB1 binding and investigate the consequences on AMPK activity in both C2C12 cells and mouse skeletal muscle. Mutation of either Fyn SH3 domain or the proline-rich motif of LKB1 resulted in the disruption of Fyn/LKB1 binding, re-localization of 70% of LKB1 signal in the cytoplasm and a 2-fold increase in AMPK phosphorylation. In vivo disruption of the Fyn/LKB1 interaction using LKB1 proline-rich motif mimicking cell permeable peptides recapitulated Fyn pharmacological inhibition. We have pinpointed the structural elements within Fyn and LKB1 that are responsible for their binding, demonstrating the functionality of this interaction in regulating AMPK activity.
Project description:The Crk and Crk-like (CrkL) adaptor proteins play important roles in numerous signaling pathways, bridging tyrosine kinase substrates to downstream signaling effectors by virtue of their phosphotyrosine-binding SH2 domains and their effector-binding SH3 domains. Critical to understanding the diverse roles of Crk/CrkL is the identification of tissue- and signal-specific tyrosine phosphorylated substrates to which they are recruited and the tissue-specific effector proteins they chaperone into signaling complexes. Crk and CrkL are known biochemically and genetically to be essential mediators of Reelin/Disabled-1 (Dab1) signaling, which governs proper mammalian brain development. Multimeric Reelin clusters its receptors as well as the receptor-bound intracellular scaffolding protein Dab1. Clustering induces Fyn/Src-dependent Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation, which recruits Crk/CrkL and SH3-bound effectors. Previously, 21 Crk/CrkL-SH3 binding proteins were identified from diverse cell types. We present here the proteomic identification of 101 CrkL-SH3 binding proteins from embryonic murine brain. The identified proteins are enriched in the Crk/CrkL-SH3 binding motif and signaling activities regulating cell adhesion and motility. These results suggest Reelin-induced Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation may generate a multifaceted signaling scaffold containing a rich array of Crk/CrkL-SH3 binding effectors and may explain a growing diversity of cellular activities suggested to be influenced by Reelin/Dab1 signaling.
Project description:Liquid-liquid phase separation of proteins and nucleic acids into membraneless organelles (MLOs) spatially organizes cellular components and reactions. The RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNPA2) carries mRNA targets in MLOs called transport granules in neurons and oligodendrocytes. At sites of local translation, hnRNPA2 is phosphorylated by the tyrosine protein kinase Fyn, releasing the mRNA for translation. Fyn recognizes targets through its SH3 domain (Fyn-SH3). However, hnRNPA2 lacks canonical SH3-binding sequences, raising the question of how Fyn-SH3 binds hnRNPA2 in phase-separated transport granules. Here, we characterize the structural details of the interaction of the hnRNPA2 low-complexity domain (LC) with Fyn-SH3 and the effect of Fyn-SH3 on hnRNPA2 phase separation. We combined in vitro microscopy and solution NMR spectroscopy to evaluate assembly of hnRNPA2 and Fyn-SH3 into in vitro phase-separated granules and probe the structural details of their interaction. We observed that Fyn-SH3 induces hnRNPA2 LC phase separation and that Fyn-SH3 is incorporated into in vitro hnRNPA2 LC granules. Moreover, we identified hnRNPA2 LC interaction sites on the surface of Fyn-SH3. Our data offer a structural view of how hnRNPA2 LC may interact with Fyn. To our knowledge, our study provides the first example of a single globular domain inducing phase separation of a disordered MLO scaffold protein.
Project description:T cell receptor zeta (TcRzeta)/CD3 ligation initiates a signaling cascade that involves src kinases p56(lck) and zeta-associated protein 70, leading to the phosphorylation of substrates such as TcRzeta, Vav, SH2-domain-containing leukocyte protein 76 (SLP-76), cbl, and p120/130. FYN binding protein (FYB or p120/130) associates with p59(fyn), the TcRzeta/CD3 complex, and becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to receptor ligation. In this study, we report the cDNA cloning of human and murine FYB and show that it is restricted in expression to T cells and myeloid cells and possesses an overall unique hydrophilic sequence with several tyrosine-based motifs, proline-based type I and type II SH3 domain binding motifs, several putative lysine/glutamic acid-rich nuclear localization motifs, and a SH3-like domain. In addition to binding the src kinase p59(fyn), FYB binds specifically to the hematopoietic signaling protein SLP-76, an interaction mediated by the SLP-76 SH2 domain. In keeping with this, expression of FYB augmented interleukin 2 secretion from a T cell hybridoma, DC27.10, in response to TcRzeta/CD3 ligation. FYB is therefore a novel hematopoietic protein that acts as a component of the FYN and SLP-76 signaling cascades in T cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Voltage-operated sodium channels constitute major target sites for local anaesthetic-like action. The clinical use of local anaesthetics is still limited by severe side effects, in particular, arrhythmias and convulsions. These side effects render the search for new local anaesthetics a matter of high interest. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We have investigated the effects of three halogenated structural analogues of propofol on voltage-operated human skeletal muscle sodium channels (Na(V)1.4) and the effect of one compound (4-chloropropofol) on neuronal sodium channels (Na(V)1.2) heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cell line 293. KEY RESULTS: 4-Iodo-, 4-bromo- and 4-chloropropofol reversibly suppressed depolarization-induced whole-cell sodium inward currents with high potency. The IC(50) for block of resting channels at -150 mV was 2.3, 3.9 and 11.3 microM in Na(V)1.4, respectively, and 29.2 microM for 4-chloropropofol in Na(V)1.2. Membrane depolarization inducing inactivation strongly increased the blocking potency of all compounds. Estimated affinities for the fast-inactivated channel state were 81 nM, 312 nM and 227 nM for 4-iodopropofol, 4-bromopropofol and 4-chloropropofol in Na(V)1.4, and 450 nM for 4-chloropropofol in Na(V)1.2. Recovery from fast inactivation was prolonged in the presence of drug leading to an accumulation of block during repetitive stimulation at high frequencies (100 Hz). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Halogenated propofol analogues constitute a novel class of sodium channel-blocking drugs possessing almost 100-fold higher potency compared with the local anaesthetic and anti-arrhythmic drug lidocaine. Preferential drug binding to inactivated channel states suggests that halogenated propofol analogues might be especially effective in suppressing ectopic discharges in a variety of pathological conditions.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects B lymphocytes and induces mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of HCV infection-mediated B cell disorders remains obscure. To identify the possible role for HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein in B cells, we generated the stable B cell lines expressing Myc-His tagged NS5A. Immunoprecipitation study in the presence or absence of pervanadate (PV) implied that NS5A was tyrosine phosphorylated by pervanadate (PV) treatment of the cells. Therefore we examined pull-down assay by using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins of various Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, which associates with phosphotyrosine within a specific amino acid sequence. The results showed that NS5A specifically bound to SH2 domain of Fyn from PV-treated B cells in addition to Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Substitution of Arg(176) to Lys in the SH2 domain of Fyn abrogated this interaction. Deletion mutational analysis demonstrated that N-terminal region of NS5A was not required for the interaction with the SH2 domain of Fyn. Tyr(334) was identified as a tyrosine phosphorylation site in NS5A. Far-western analysis revealed that SH2 domain of Fyn directly bound to NS5A. Fyn and NS5A were colocalized in the lipid raft. These results suggest that NS5A directly binds to the SH2 domain of Fyn in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. Lastly, we showed that the expression of NS5A in B cells increased phosphorylation of activation loop tyrosine in the kinase domain of Fyn. NS5A containing ligand for both SH2 and SH3 domains enhances an aberrant autophosphorylation and kinase activity of Fyn in B cells.
Project description:The developmentally regulated myelin basic proteins (MBPs), which arise from the golli (gene of oligodendrocyte lineage) complex, are highly positively charged, intrinsically disordered, multifunctional proteins having several alternatively spliced isoforms and posttranslational modifications, and they play key roles in myelin compaction. The classic 18.5-kDa MBP isoform has a proline-rich region comprising amino acids 92-99 (murine sequence -T(92)PRTPPPS(99)-) that contains a minimal SH3 ligand domain. We have previously shown that 18.5-kDa MBP binds to several SH3 domains, including that of Fyn, a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases involved in a number of signaling pathways during CNS development. To determine the physiological role of this binding as well as the role of phosphorylation of Thr92 and Thr95, in the current study we have produced several MBP variants specifically targeting phosphorylation sites and key structural regions of MBP's SH3 ligand domain. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have demonstrated that, compared with the wild-type protein, these variants have lower affinity for the SH3 domain of Fyn. Moreover, overexpression of N-terminal-tagged GFP versions in immortalized oligodendroglial N19 and N20.1 cell cultures results in aberrant elongation of membrane processes and increased branching complexity and inhibits the ability of MBP to decrease Ca(2+) influx. Phosphorylation of Thr92 can also cause MBP to traffic to the nucleus, where it may participate in additional protein-protein interactions. Coexpression of MBP with a constitutively active form of Fyn kinase resulted in membrane process elaboration, a phenomenon that was abolished by point amino acid substitutions in MBP's SH3 ligand domain. These results suggest that MBP's SH3 ligand domain plays a key role in intracellular protein interactions in vivo and may be required for proper membrane elaboration of developing oligodendrocytes and, further, that phosphorylation of Thr92 and Thr95 can regulate this function.
Project description:Fyn is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that belongs to a highly conserved kinase family, Src family kinases. Fyn plays an important role in inflammatory processes and neuronal functions. To generate a synthetic affinity reagent that can be used to probe Fyn, a phage-display library of fibronectin type III monobodies was affinity selected with the Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain of Fyn and three binders were isolated. One of the three binders, G9, is specific in binding to the SH3 domain of Fyn, but not to the other members of the Src family (i.e. Blk, Fgr, Hck, Lck, Lyn, Src and Yes), even though they share 51-81% amino acid identity. The other two bind principally to the Fyn SH3 domain, with some cross-reactivity to the Yes SH3 domain. The G9 binder has a dissociation constant of 166±6nM, as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, and binds only to the Fyn SH3 domain out of 150 human SH3 domains examined in an array. Interestingly, although the G9 monobody lacks proline in its randomized BC and FG loops, it binds at the same site on the SH3 domain as proline-rich ligands, as revealed by competition assays. The G9 monobody, identified in this study, may be used as a highly selective probe for detecting and purifying cellular Fyn kinase.
Project description:Na+ channel recovery from inactivation limits the maximal rate of neuronal firing. However, the properties of presynaptic Na+ channels are not well established because of the small size of most CNS boutons. Here we study the Na+ currents of the rat calyx of Held terminal and compare them with those of postsynaptic cells. We find that presynaptic Na+ currents recover from inactivation with a fast, single-exponential time constant (24 degrees C, tau of 1.4-1.8 ms; 35 degrees C, tau of 0.5 ms), and their inactivation rate accelerates twofold during development, which may contribute to the shortening of the action potential as the terminal matures. In contrast, recordings from postsynaptic cells in brainstem slices, and acutely dissociated, reveal that their Na+ currents recover from inactivation with a double-exponential time course (tau(fast) of 1.2-1.6 ms; tau(slow) of 80-125 ms; 24 degrees C). Surprisingly, confocal immunofluorescence revealed that Na+ channels are mostly absent from the calyx terminal but are instead highly concentrated in an unusually long (approximately 20-40 microm) unmyelinated axonal heminode. Outside-out patch recordings confirmed this segregation. Expression of Na(v)1.6 alpha-subunit increased during development, whereas the Na(v)1.2alpha-subunit was not present. Serial EM reconstructions also revealed a long pre-calyx heminode, and biophysical modeling showed that exclusion of Na+ channels from the calyx terminal produces an action potential waveform with a shorter half-width. We propose that the high density and polarized locus of Na+ channels on a long heminode are critical design features that allow the mature calyx of Held terminal to fire reliably at frequencies near 1 kHz.