Seroprevalence of leptospirosis and Japanese encephalitis in swine in ten provinces of Vietnam.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease with a global distribution, affecting a wide range of mammalian animals and humans. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the major vector-borne zoonotic disease in the Asia-Pacific region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of serovar-specific Leptospira and JE in swine from 10 provinces in Vietnam. METHODS:Samples were initially collected for swine influenza surveillance from March to April 2017 at large-scale farms (with at least 50 sows and/or 250 fattening pigs) with pigs that tested positive for influenza in the previous surveillance period (2015-16). FINDINGS:A total of 2,000 sera samples were analyzed from 10 provinces. Overall, the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 21.05% (95% CI: 19.28-22.90) using a cut-off titer of ? 1:100. The apparent prevalence of JE was 73.45% (95% CI: 71.46-75.37) while the true prevalence was slightly higher (74.46%, 95% credible interval: 73.73-86.41). We found a relatively high presence of leptospirosis and JE in pigs kept on large farms. Prevalence was comparable with other studies suggesting opportunistic testing of samples collected for other surveillance purposes can be a valuable tool to better understand and prevent the potential transmission of these zoonotic diseases from pigs to people in Vietnam. CONCLUSION:Our study provides evidence to veterinarians and animal health professionals for evidence-based practice such as diagnosis, vaccination and zoonotic control. Further investigation into the possible role of different domestic animals, wildlife species or environmental factors is needed to identify the potential risk factors and transmission routes in Vietnam.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Vietnam, lack of animal health information is considered a major challenge for pig production. The main objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalences of five pathogens [porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and leptospirosis] and to better characterize the farm movements through a survey. RESULTS:A total of 600 samples were collected from 120 farms from Bac Giang and Nghe An. Among unvaccinated herds, the highest seroprevalence was found for JE with 73.81% (95% CI: 68.39-78.74) in Bac Giang and 53.51% (95% CI 47.68-59.27) in Nghe An. Seroprevalences for PCV2 and M.hyo were 49.43% (95% CI: 45.06-53.80) and 46.06% (95% CI: 41.48-50.69) among unvaccinated animals. Accumulative co-infections for JE (86.25%) showed the highest level followed by M. hyo (66.25%) and PCV2 (62.50%). Three co-infections with JE had the highest positive rate (28.75%) followed by four co-infections (25.0%). Medium farms had relatively higher herd prevalences for all pathogens, except from leptospirosis. Overall, farmers exported/imported their pigs at the most 1-2 times every 6 months. Some respondents (5% for exportation and 20% for importation) had moved pigs more than 6 times over the last 6?months. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provided another pool of evidence that showed that PCV2, PRRS and H. hyo are endemic in pigs in Vietnam. Given the economic impacts of these pathogens elsewhere, the findings confirm the need for studies to evaluate the association between antibody response and clinical relevance as well as to assess the economic impact of co-infections at farm level. We also found that high seroprevalences of JE and leptospirosis were detected in pigs. From a pubic health point of view, it is crucial to raise public awareness especially for high risk occupations (mainly pig farm workers).
Project description:While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial sector and to make recommendations for disease control.
Project description:(1) Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmentally mediated saprophytic pathogen that can cause severe disease in humans. It is well known that B. pseudomallei survives in tropical moist soil environments worldwide, but melioidosis is gaining recognition as a public and veterinary health issue in Vietnam. The contribution of animals to human disease is unknown, necessitating further investigation. (2) Methods: Swine sera were collected from two populations, one grazing and one commercially farmed, from three provinces in Vietnam. ELISAs utilizing B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS), outer polysaccharide (OPS), and Hcp1 protein were used to screen serum samples. Positive samples were mapped to the commune level. Seroprevalence calculations and pig population estimates were used to approximate number of swine exposures per commune. (3) Results: Grazing pigs from Hoa Binh had significantly higher seropositivity levels (11.4%, 95% CI: 9.7-13.1) compared to farmed pigs from Ha Tinh and Nghe An (4%, 95% CI: 3.3-4.7). Average swine seropositivity rates were ~6.3% (95% CI: 5-7.9), higher than previously identified in Vietnam (~0.88%). (4) Conclusions: Initial serological sampling identified a significant number of seropositive and potential melioidosis infections occurring in swine in Vietnam. This work is a critical step in understanding the role swine may play in the epidemiology of human melioidosis in Vietnam.
Project description:Swine are an important intermediate host for emergence of pandemic influenza. Vietnam is the largest swine producer in South East Asia. Systematic virological and serological surveillance of swine influenza viruses was carried out in Northern Vietnam from May 2013 to June 2014 with monthly sampling of pigs in local and large collective slaughterhouses and in a live pig market. Influenza A seroprevalence in the local slaughterhouses and in the large collective slaughterhouse was 48.7% and 29.1%, respectively. Seventy-seven influenza A viruses were isolated, all from the large collective slaughterhouse. Genetic analysis revealed six virus genotypes including H1N1 2009 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) viruses, H1N2 with H1 of human origin, H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 reassortants, and triple-reassortant H3N2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of swine and human H1N1pdm09 viruses showed evidence of repeated spill-over from humans to swine rather than the establishment of H1N1pdm09 as long-term distinct lineage in swine. Surveillance at the large collective slaughterhouse proved to be the most efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable method of surveillance for swine influenza viruses in Vietnam.
Project description:The emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic virus with a swine origin stressed the importance of improving influenza surveillance in swine populations. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to describe epidemiological features of swine influenza (SI) across the world and identify factors impacting swine influenza virus surveillance.The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published after 1990 containing data on SI on pig and herd-level seroprevalence, isolation and detection rates, and risk factors were included. Meta-regression analyses using seroprevalence and virological rates were performed.A total of 217 articles were included. Low avian influenza (AI) seroprevalence (means pig = 4.1%; herd = 15%) was found, showing that AIV do not readily establish themselves in swine while SIV seroprevalence was usually high across continents (influenza A means pig = 32.6-87.8%; herd = 29.3-100%). Higher pig density and number of pigs per farm were shown by the meta-regression analyses and/or the risk factor articles to be associated with higher SI seroprevalence. Lower seroprevalence levels were observed for countries with low-to-medium GDP. These results suggest that larger industrial farms could be more at risk of SIV circulation. Sampling swine with influenza-like illness (ILI) was positively associated with higher isolation rates; most studies in Europe, Latin and North America were targeting swine with ILI.To improve understanding of SI epidemiology, standardization of the design and reporting of SI epidemiological studies is desirable. Performance of SI surveillance systems in low-to-medium GDP countries should be evaluated to rule out technical issues linked to lower observed SIV prevalence. Targeting certain swine age groups, farming systems and swine with ILI may improve the surveillance cost-effectiveness. However, focusing on pigs with ILI may bias virus detection against strains less virulent for swine but which may be important as pandemic threats.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from swine and human sources are genetically similar. Thus, HEV is of increasing importance to both public and animal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of HEV in a large population of pigs from herds located in different autonomous regions throughout Spain. RESULTS: The presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was analyzed in 1141 swine serum samples (corresponding to 381 pigs younger than 6 months and 760 pigs older than 6 months) collected from 85 herds. Herds were located in 6 provinces in 4 autonomous regions throughout Spain. At least one pig tested positive for anti-HEV IgG in over 80% of herds. Of individual pigs, 20.4% (233/1141) were positive for anti-HEV IgG, with the prevalence being higher in adult pigs than in those under 6 months (30.2% vs. 15.5%). A subset of serum samples taken at 2- to 5-week intervals showed that seroprevalence dropped between 3 and 11 weeks of age, and then rose significantly by the 15th week. Pigs were also examined for the presence of HEV-RNA by RT-PCR. Of pigs tested for the presence of HEV-RNA 18.8% (64/341) were positive, with at least one pig in almost half of the herds testing positive. HEV-RNA amplicons from several positive pigs were sequenced and all were of genotype 3. CONCLUSIONS: HEV was found to be widely distributed among swine farms across Spain, with the prevalence being highest among animals older than 6 months. These results indicate that HEV infection either is or is likely to become endemic in the Spanish swine population.
Project description:Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern in many developing countries and it occurs in sporadic forms in industrialized areas. With the discovery of swine HEV in pigs, which is genetically closely related to human HEV, hepatitis E is considered to be a zoonotic disease. To investigate the circulation of HEV within a distinct area of Lombardy region (Northern Italy), 17 pig farms were subjected to monitoring study by collection of fresh stool samples each represented by ground-pooled specimens. In particular, three distinct types of breeding farms were focused, represented by farrow to weaning, farrow to finish and fattening farms, respectively. Epidemiological data confirm that in Europe the seroprevalence in pigs, more than 9 month of age, ranges from 51.4 to 75%, while in 3-9 months fatteners is about 38%. In France and Italy, the positivity among farms is respectively 30 and 97.4% and the seroprevalence in Italy is 50.2%. Since HEV viremia was typically observed in the early period of life in swine, faeces were collected in boxes containing weaning pigs. For the study, 183 stool samples were collected and amplifications were performed with universal primers specific for the ORF2 region of genome. Twentyeight samples resulted positive to HEV RNA and genotyping demonstrated that they were closely related to HEV strains belonging to genotype 3 and circulating in Europe. Comparison with reference strains from GenBank excluded their similarity to genotype 1, 2 or 4 confirming that genotype 3 strains are circulating in Europe. Since it was demonstrated that swine act as a reservoir for HEV, and since many strains into HEV genotype 3 share a strong molecular similarity to human HEV, it was important to detect the presence of HEV in a restricted area with a very high density of pigs.
Project description:Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8%) and specificity (97.7%) when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8%) were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.
Project description:Leptospirosis, a global neglected zoonotic disease, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Nonspecific symptoms, lack of laboratory confirmation, and underreporting contribute to its neglected disease status. To better understand the distribution of leptospirosis exposure in Thailand, a retrospective leptospirosis seroprevalence study was conducted on repository serum specimens obtained from young Thai men entering the Royal Thai Army during 2007-2008. The overall nationwide leptospirosis IgG seroprevalence among these young Thai men was 28% (95% confidence interval = 26-30%) and the range by province was 10-52% confirming leptospirosis as an endemic disease throughout Thailand. Seroprevalence was highest in individuals with the lowest education from rural areas, and higher seroprevalence was found in the north and south regions contrary to current morbidity reports. Improvement in reporting and surveillance as well as better access to leptospirosis diagnostics will increase leptospirosis awareness and detection and enable more effective public health interventions.