KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription on glucose starvation requires HP1 in cells, including triple-negative breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is very aggressive and lacks specific therapeutic targets. Ribosome RNAs (rRNAs) are central components of ribosomes and transcribed in nucleoli, and the level of rRNA transcription greatly affects ribosome production and cell proliferation. We have reported that an epigenetic protein, KDM2A, exists in nucleoli and reduces rRNA transcription on glucose starvation. However, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the KDM2A-dependent regulation mechanism of rRNA transcription. In this study, we turned our attention to the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A. We found that KDM2A had multiple regions for its nucleolar localization, and one of the regions was directly bound by heterochromatin protein 1? (HP1?) using valine 801 in the LxVxL motif of KDM2A. A knockdown of HP1? or a point mutation of valine 801 in KDM2A decreased the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A, and suppressed the reduction of rRNA transcription on glucose starvation. These results uncovered a novel function of HP1?: the regulation of rRNA transcription, and suggested that HP1? stimulates the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A to support the KDM2A-dependent regulation of rRNA transcription. HP1? was expressed in cancer cells in all breast carcinoma tissues examined, including TNBC tissues. A knockdown of HP1? in a TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231 cells, reduced the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A, and suppressed the reductions of rRNA transcription and cell proliferation on glucose starvation. These results suggest that the KDM2A-dependent regulation of rRNA transcription requires HP1?, and thus may be applicable to the treatment of TNBC.
Project description:The rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis is the transcription of ribosomal RNA, which is controlled by environmental conditions. The JmjC enzyme KDM2A/JHDM1A/FbxL11 demethylates mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3, but its function is unclear. Here, we show that KDM2A represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA. KDM2A was localized in nucleoli and bound to the ribosomal RNA gene promoter. Overexpression of KDM2A repressed the transcription of ribosomal RNA in a demethylase activity-dependent manner. When ribosomal RNA transcription was reduced under starvation, a cell-permeable succinate that inhibited the demethylase activity of KDM2A prevented the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription. Starvation reduced the levels of mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks on the rDNA promoter, and treatment with the cell-permeable succinate suppressed the reduction of the marks during starvation. The knockdown of KDM2A increased mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks, and suppressed the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription under starvation. These results show a novel mechanism by which KDM2A activity is stimulated by starvation to reduce ribosomal RNA transcription.
Project description:Environmental conditions control rRNA transcription. Previously, we found that serum and glucose deprivation induces KDM2A-mediated H3K36me2 demethylation in the rRNA gene (rDNA) promoter and reduces rRNA transcription in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. However, the molecular mechanism and biological significance are still unclear. In the present study, we found that glucose starvation alone induced the KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription. The treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, reduced rRNA transcription and H3K36me2 in the rDNA promoter, both of which were completely dependent on KDM2A in low concentrations of 2-deoxy-d-glucose, that is, mild starvation conditions. The mild starvation induced these KDM2A activities through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) but did not affect another AMPK effector of rRNA transcription, TIF-IA. In the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, the mild starvation also reduced rRNA transcription in a KDM2A-dependent manner. We detected KDM2A in breast cancer tissues irrespective of their estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status, including triple-negative cancer tissues. In both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, mild starvation reduced cell proliferation, and KDM2A knockdown suppressed the reduction of cell proliferation. These results suggest that under mild glucose starvation AMPK induces KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription to control cell proliferation.
Project description:Nucleoli are prominent nuclear structures assembled and organized around actively transcribed ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The nucleolus has emerged as a platform for the organization of chromatin enriched for repressive histone modifications associated with repetitive DNA. NPM1 is a nucleolar protein required for the maintenance of genome stability. However, the role of NPM1 in nucleolar chromatin dynamics and ribosome biogenesis remains unclear. We found that normal fibroblasts and cancer cells depleted of NPM1 displayed deformed nucleoli and a striking rearrangement of perinucleolar heterochromatin, as identified by immunofluorescence staining of trimethylated H3K9, trimethylated H3K27, and heterochromatin protein 1? (HP1?/CBX3). By co-immunoprecipitation we found NPM1 associated with HP1? and core and linker histones. Moreover, NPM1 was required for efficient tethering of HP1?-enriched chromatin to the nucleolus. We next tested whether the alterations in perinucleolar heterochromatin architecture correlated with a difference in the regulation of rDNA. U1242MG glioma cells depleted of NPM1 presented with altered silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions, coupled to a modest decrease in H3K9 di- and trimethylation at the rDNA promoter. rDNA transcription and cell proliferation were sustained in these cells, indicating that altered organization of heterochromatin was not secondary to inhibition of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, knockdown of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A markedly enhanced rDNA transcription in NPM1-depleted U1242MG cells. In summary, this study highlights a function of NPM1 in the spatial organization of nucleolus-associated heterochromatin.
Project description:Nucleoli have attracted interest for their role as cellular stress sensors and as potential targets for cancer treatment. The effect of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in nucleoli on rRNA transcription and nucleolar organisation appears to depend on the agent used to introduce DSBs, DSB frequency and the presence (or not) of DSBs outside the nucleoli. To address the controversy, we targeted nucleoli with carbon ions at the ion microbeam SNAKE. Localized ion irradiation with 1-100 carbon ions per point (about 0.3-30?Gy per nucleus) did not lead to overall reduced ribonucleotide incorporation in the targeted nucleolus or other nucleoli of the same cell. However, both 5-ethynyluridine incorporation and Parp1 protein levels were locally decreased at the damaged nucleolar chromatin regions marked by ?H2AX, suggesting localized inhibition of rRNA transcription. This locally restricted transcriptional inhibition was not accompanied by nucleolar segregation, a structural reorganisation observed after inhibition of rRNA transcription by treatment with actinomycin D or UV irradiation. The presented data indicate that even multiple complex DSBs do not lead to a pan-nucleolar response if they affect only a subnucleolar region.
Project description:Calpain-2 belongs to a family of pleiotropic Cys-proteases with modulatory rather than degradative functions. Calpain (CAPN) overexpression has been controversially correlated with poor prognosis in several cancer types, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the mechanisms of substrate-recognition, calpain-2 regulation/deregulation and specific functions in CRC remain elusive. Herein, calpain subcellular distribution was studied as a key event for substrate-recognition and consequently, for calpain-mediated function. We describe a new localization for calpain-2 in the nucleoli of CRC cells. Calpain-2 nucleolar distribution resulted dependent on its enzymatic activity and on the mutational status of KRAS. In KRASWT/- cells serum-starvation induced CAPN2 expression, nucleolar accumulation and increased binding to the rDNA-core promoter and intergenic spacer (IGS), concomitant with a reduction in pre-rRNA levels. Depletion of calpain-2 by specific siRNA prevented pre-rRNA down-regulation after serum removal. Conversely, ribosomal biogenesis proceeded in the absence of serum in unresponsive KRASG13D/- cells whose CAPN2 expression, nucleolar localization and rDNA-occupancy remained unchanged during the time-course of serum starvation. We propose here that nucleolar calpain-2 might be a KRAS-dependent sensor to repress ribosomal biogenesis in growth limiting conditions. Under constitutive activation of the pathway commonly found in CRC, calpain-2 is deregulated and tumor cells become insensitive to the extracellular microenvironment.
Project description:Chromosome breakage elicits transient silencing of ribosomal RNA synthesis, but the mechanisms involved remained elusive. Here we discover an in trans signalling mechanism that triggers pan-nuclear silencing of rRNA transcription in response to DNA damage. This is associated with transient recruitment of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1), a central regulator of DNA damage responses, into the nucleoli. We further identify TCOF1 (also known as Treacle), a nucleolar factor implicated in ribosome biogenesis and mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome, as an interaction partner of NBS1, and demonstrate that NBS1 translocation and accumulation in the nucleoli is Treacle dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that Treacle-mediated NBS1 recruitment into the nucleoli regulates rRNA silencing in trans in the presence of distant chromosome breaks.
Project description:Heterochromatin plays an essential role in the preservation of epigenetic information, the transcriptional repression of repetitive DNA elements and inactive genes, and the proper segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Here we identify KDM2A, a JmjC-domain containing histone demethylase, as a heterochromatin-associated and HP1-interacting protein that promotes HP1 localization to chromatin. We show that KDM2A is required to maintain the heterochromatic state, as determined using a candidate-based approach coupled to an in vivo epigenetic reporter system. Remarkably, a parallel and independent siRNA screen also detected a role for KDM2A in epigenetic silencing. Moreover, we demonstrate that KDM2A associates with centromeres and represses transcription of small non-coding RNAs that are encoded by the clusters of satellite repeats at the centromere. Dissecting the relationship between heterochromatin and centromeric RNA transcription is the basis of ongoing studies. We demonstrate that forced expression of these satellite RNA transcripts compromise the heterochromatic state and HP1 localization to chromatin. Finally, we show that KDM2A is required to sustain centromeric integrity and genomic stability, particularly during mitosis. Since the disruption of epigenetic control mechanisms contributes to cellular transformation, these results, together with the low levels of KDM2A found in prostate carcinomas, suggest a role for KDM2A in cancer development.
Project description:Functional genomic elements are marked by characteristic DNA and histone modification signatures. How combinatorial chromatin modification states are recognized by epigenetic reader proteins and how this is linked to their biological function is largely unknown. Here we provide a detailed molecular analysis of chromatin recognition by the lysine demethylase KDM2A. Using biochemical approaches we identify a nucleosome interaction module within KDM2A consisting of a CXXC type zinc finger, a PHD domain and a newly identified Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) interaction motif that mediates direct binding between KDM2A and HP1. This nucleosome interaction module enables KDM2A to decode nucleosomal H3K9me3 modification in addition to CpG methylation signals. The multivalent engagement with DNA and HP1 results in a nucleosome binding circuit in which KDM2A can be recruited to H3K9me3-modified chromatin through HP1, and HP1 can be recruited to unmodified chromatin by KDM2A. A KDM2A mutant deficient in HP1-binding is inactive in an in vivo overexpression assay in zebrafish embryos demonstrating that the HP1 interaction is essential for KDM2A function. Our results reveal a complex regulation of chromatin binding for both KDM2A and HP1 that is modulated by DNA- and H3K9-methylation, and suggest a direct role for KDM2A in chromatin silencing.
Project description:The transcription factor c-Myc has a critical role in cell proliferation and growth. The control of ribosome biogenesis by c-Myc through the regulation of transcription mediated by all three RNA polymerases is essential for c-Myc-driven proliferation. Specifically, in the nucleolus, c-Myc has been shown to be recruited to ribosomal DNA and activate RNA polymerase (pol) I-mediated transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In addition, c-Myc accumulates in nucleoli upon inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting nucleolar localization also has a role in c-Myc proteolysis. Nucleophosmin (NPM), a predominantly nucleolar protein, is also critical in ribosome biogenesis and, like c-Myc, is found overexpressed in many types of tumors. Previously, we demonstrated that NPM directly interacts with c-Myc and controls c-Myc-induced hyperproliferation and transformation. Here, we show that NPM is necessary for the localization of c-Myc protein to nucleoli, whereas c-Myc nucleolar localization is independent of p53, Mdm2 and ARF. Conversely, high transient NPM expression enhances c-Myc nucleolar localization, leading to increased c-Myc proteolysis. In addition, NPM is necessary for the ability of c-Myc to induce rRNA synthesis in the nucleolus, and constitutive NPM overexpression stimulates c-Myc-mediated rRNA synthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate an essential role for NPM in c-Myc nucleolar localization and c-Myc-mediated rDNA transcription.
Project description:Animal lifespan is regulated by conserved metabolic signalling pathways and specific transcription factors, but whether these pathways affect common downstream mechanisms remains largely elusive. Here we show that NCL-1/TRIM2/Brat tumour suppressor extends lifespan and limits nucleolar size in the major C. elegans longevity pathways, as part of a convergent mechanism focused on the nucleolus. Long-lived animals representing distinct longevity pathways exhibit small nucleoli, and decreased expression of rRNA, ribosomal proteins, and the nucleolar protein fibrillarin, dependent on NCL-1. Knockdown of fibrillarin also reduces nucleolar size and extends lifespan. Among wildtype C. elegans, individual nucleolar size varies, but is highly predictive for longevity. Long-lived dietary restricted fruit flies and insulin-like-peptide mutants exhibit small nucleoli and fibrillarin expression, as do long-lived dietary restricted and IRS1 knockout mice. Furthermore, human muscle biopsies from individuals who underwent modest dietary restriction coupled with exercise also display small nucleoli. We suggest that small nucleoli are a cellular hallmark of longevity and metabolic health conserved across taxa.