Dirac plasmon-assisted asymmetric hot carrier generation for room-temperature infrared detection.
ABSTRACT: Due to the low photon energy, detection of infrared photons is challenging at room temperature. Thermoelectric effect offers an alternative mechanism bypassing material bandgap restriction. In this article, we demonstrate an asymmetric plasmon-induced hot-carrier Seebeck photodetection scheme at room temperature that exhibits a remarkable responsivity of 2900 VW-1, detectivity of 1.1 × 109 Jones along with a fast response of ~100 ns in the technologically relevant 8-12 µm band. This is achieved by engineering the asymmetric electronic environment of the generated hot carriers on chemical vapor deposition grown large area nanopatterned monolayer graphene, which leads to a temperature gradient of 4.7 K across the device terminals for an incident power of 155 nW, thereby enhancing the photo-thermoelectric voltage by manifold compared to previous reports. The results presented outline a strategy for uncooled, tunable, and multispectral infrared detection.
Project description:The self-powered and ultra-broadband photodetectors based on photothermoelectric (PTE) effect are promising for diverse applications such as sensing, environmental monitoring, night vision and astronomy. The sensitivity of PTE photodetectors is determined by the Seebeck coefficient and the rising temperature under illumination. Previous PTE photodetectors mostly rely on traditional thermoelectric materials with Seebeck coefficients in the range of 100??V?K-1, and array structures with multiple units are usually employed to enhance the photodetection performance. Herein, we demonstrate a reduced SrTiO3 (r-STO) based PTE photodetector with sensitivity up to 1.2?V?W-1 and broadband spectral response from 325?nm to 10.67??m. The high performance of r-STO PTE photodetector is attributed to its intrinsic high Seebeck coefficient and phonon-enhanced photoresponse in the long wavelength infrared region. Our results open up a new avenue towards searching for novel PTE materials beyond traditional thermoelectric materials for low-cost and high-performance photodetector at room temperature.
Project description:Dual-band photodetection in mid- and near-wave infrared spectral bands is of scientific interest and technological importance. Most of the state-of-the-art mid-infrared photodetectors normally operate at low temperature and/or suffer from toxicity and high cost due to limitations of material properties and device structures. The capability of surface plasmons in confining electromagnetic waves into extremely small volume provides an opportunity for improving the performance for room temperature operation. Here, we report an n-InAsSb/n-GaSb heterostructure photodiode integrated with plasmonic two-dimensional subwavelength hole array (2DSHA) for room temperature two band photodetection. We demonstrate that with a properly designed 2DSHA, room temperature detectivities of the heterostructure device can be enhanced to ~1.4?×?109 Jones and ~1.5?×?1011 Jones for the two bands peaked at 3.4 ?m and 1.7 ?m, respectively. In addition, we study the photocurrent enhancement in both photoconductor and heterojunction modes in the same integrated structure. The demonstration of single 2DSHA enhanced heterojunction photodiode brings a step closer to high sensitivity room temperature devices and systems which require multiband absorption.
Project description:Metamaterials have recently established a new paradigm for enhanced light absorption in state-of-the-art photodetectors. Here, we demonstrate broadband, highly efficient, polarization-insensitive, and gate-tunable photodetection at room temperature in a novel metadevice based on gold/graphene Sierpinski carpet plasmonic fractals. We observed an unprecedented internal quantum efficiency up to 100% from the near-infrared to the visible range with an upper bound of optical detectivity of 1011 Jones and a gain up to 106, which is a fingerprint of multiple hot carriers photogenerated in graphene. Also, we show a 100-fold enhanced photodetection due to highly focused (up to a record factor of |E/E0| ? 20 for graphene) electromagnetic fields induced by electrically tunable multimodal plasmons, spatially localized in self-similar fashion on the metasurface. Our findings give direct insight into the physical processes governing graphene plasmonic fractal metamaterials. The proposed structure represents a promising route for the realization of a broadband, compact, and active platform for future optoelectronic devices including multiband bio/chemical and light sensors.
Project description:Uncooled infrared detectors have enabled the rapid growth of thermal imaging applications. These detectors are predominantly bolometers, reading out a pixel's temperature change due to infrared radiation as a resistance change. Another uncooled sensing method is to transduce the infrared radiation into the frequency shift of a mechanical resonator. We present here highly sensitive resonant infrared sensors, based on thermo-responsive shape memory polymers. By exploiting the phase-change polymer as transduction mechanism, our approach provides 2 orders of magnitude improvement of the temperature coefficient of frequency. Noise equivalent temperature difference of 22 mK in vacuum and 112 mK in air are obtained using f/2 optics. The noise equivalent temperature difference is further improved to 6 mK in vacuum by using high-Q silicon nitride membranes as substrates for the shape memory polymers. This high performance in air eliminates the need for vacuum packaging, paving a path towards flexible non-hermetically sealed infrared sensors.
Project description:Vanadium oxide is a key sensing material for bolometric photodetection, thanks to its strong temperature dependence of resistivity close to room temperature. Here we demonstrate the photodetection of a stoichiometric vanadium dioxide thin film integrated with silver nanorods. The nanorods convert light into heat, consequently suppressing the resistivity of vanadium dioxide via localised surface plasmon resonance. Incorporation of this thermo-plasmonic effect into bolometric photodetection allows for wavelength and polarisation sensitivity. This work opens the path to a broad family of photodetection functionalities for vanadium dioxide-based microbolometers.
Project description:Infrared light detection and sensing is deeply embedded in modern technology and human society and its development has always been benefitting from the discovery of various photoelectric materials. The rise of two-dimensional materials, thanks to their distinct electronic structures, extreme dimensional confinement and strong light-matter interactions, provides a material platform for next-generation infrared photodetection. Ideal infrared detectors should have fast respond, high sensitivity and air-stability, which are rare to meet at the same time in one two-dimensional material. Herein we demonstrate an infrared photodetector based on two-dimensional Bi2O2Se crystal, whose main characteristics are outstanding in the whole two-dimensional family: high sensitivity of 65 AW-1 at 1200 nm and ultrafast photoresponse of ~1 ps at room temperature, implying an intrinsic material-limited bandwidth up to 500 GHz. Such great performance is attributed to the suitable electronic bandgap and high carrier mobility of two-dimensional oxyselenide.
Project description:Bismuth-telluride-based solid solutions are the best commercial thermoelectric materials near room temperature. For their n-type polycrystalline compounds, the maximum figures of merit (zTs) are often less than 1.0 due to the degraded carrier mobility resulting from the loss of texture. Herein, a liquid-phase hot deformation procedure, during which the Bi2(Te,Se)3 ingots are directly hot deformed with the extrusion of liquid eutectic phase, is performed to enhance the thermoelectric performance of n-type Bi2(Te,Se)3 alloys. The deformation-induced dynamic recrystallization is remarkably suppressed due to the reduction of nucleation sites and the release of deformation stress by liquid phase, contributing to a weakened carrier scattering and enhanced carrier mobility. The liquid eutectic phase also facilitates the rotation of grains and enhanced (000l) texture, further improving carrier mobility. In addition, the dense dislocations and lattice distortion introduced into the matrix reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. As a result, a high zT value of 1.1 at 400 K is obtained, about 75% increment over the normal one-step hot deformed alloys. This work not only demonstrates a simple and efficient technique for achieving superior n-type Bi2Te3-based materials, but also elucidates the important role of liquid eutectic phase in hot deformation.
Project description:Thin-film semiconductors enhance black phosphorus mid-infrared light emissionLayering thin films of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides with thin-film black phosphorus enhances its ability to emit mid-infrared (MIR) light, which could facilitate MIR light emission investigations and applications. Xiaolong Chen of China’s Southern University of Science and Technology and colleagues layered thin flakes of black phosphorus (BP) with one or the other of a monolayer of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) or a thin film of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Thin-film BP is considered a promising MIR material, with potential applications in MIR photodetection and optical modulation. WSe2 efficiently transferred light energy to the BP, enhancing its MIR photoluminescence by up to 192%. On the other hand, the interface created by layering BP with MoS2 enabled the formation of a MIR light-emitting diode at room temperature.
Project description:Narrow bandgap semiconductor-based photodetectors often suffer from high room-temperature noise and are therefore operated at low temperatures. Here, a hybrid poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): HgTe quantum dot (QD) phototransistor is reported, which exhibits high sensitivity and fast photodetection up to 2400 nm wavelength range at room temperature. The active layer of the phototransistor consists of HgTe QDs well dispersed in a P3HT matrix. Fourier-transform infrared spectra confirm that chemical grafting between P3HT and HgTe QDs is realized after undergoing prolonged coblend stirring and a ligand exchange process. Thanks to the shifting of the charge transport into the P3HT and the partial passivation of the surface traps of HgTe QDs in the blend, the P3HT: HgTe QD hybrid phototransistor shows significantly improved gate-voltage tuning, 15 times faster response, and ?80% reduction in the noise level compared to a pristine HgTe QD control device. More than 1011 Jones specific detectivity (estimated from the noise spectral density measured at 1 kHz) is achieved at room temperature, and the response time (measured at 22 mW cm-2 illumination intensity) of the device is less than 1.5 µs. That is comparable to commercial epitaxially grown IR photodetectors operated in the same wavelength range.
Project description:The use of micro-/nanoelectromechanical resonators for the room temperature detection of electromagnetic radiation at infrared frequencies has recently been investigated, showing thermal detection capabilities that could potentially outperform conventional microbolometers. The scaling of the device thickness in the nanometer range and the achievement of high infrared absorption in such a subwavelength thickness, without sacrificing the electromechanical performance, are the two key challenges for the implementation of fast, high-resolution micro-/nanoelectromechanical resonant infrared detectors. In this paper, we show that by using a virtually massless, high-electrical-conductivity, and transparent graphene electrode, floating at the van der Waals separation of a few angstroms from a piezoelectric aluminum nitride nanoplate, it is possible to implement ultrathin (460 nm) piezoelectric nanomechanical resonant structures with improved electromechanical performance (>50% improved frequency×quality factor) and infrared detection capabilities (>100× improved infrared absorptance) compared with metal-electrode counterparts, despite their reduced volumes. The intrinsic infrared absorption capabilities of a submicron thin graphene-aluminum nitride plate backed with a metal electrode are investigated for the first time and exploited for the first experimental demonstration of a piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical resonant thermal detector with enhanced infrared absorptance in a reduced volume. Moreover, the combination of electromagnetic and piezoelectric resonances provided by the same graphene-aluminum nitride-metal stack allows the proposed device to selectively detect short-wavelength infrared radiation (by tailoring the thickness of aluminum nitride) with unprecedented electromechanical performance and thermal capabilities. These attributes potentially lead to the development of uncooled infrared detectors suitable for the implementation of high performance, miniaturized and power-efficient multispectral infrared imaging systems.