Impaired Skeletal Muscle Kynurenine Metabolism in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Loss of peripheral muscle oxidative phenotype, cognitive impairment, and depression are well-recognized systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Kynurenine (KYN), known to be associated with disturbed mental health, can be metabolized in muscle by kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT) 1-4. These KATs are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) coactivator-1? (PGC1?). We hypothesize that impaired PGC1? signaling in COPD is associated with reduced muscle KAT expression and increased KYN plasma levels. METHODS:Retrospective collected and metabolically phenotyped muscle tissue and blood obtained from 29 well-characterized COPD patients and 15 healthy controls were analyzed. KYN was measured in plasma and KAT1-4 expression and major constituents of PGC1? signaling were assessed in quadriceps muscle biopsies. RESULTS:Circulating KYN levels were increased in COPD. Furthermore, both gene and protein expression levels of KAT4 were reduced in muscle tissue from COPD patients. Finally, in the whole group (even when controlled for airflow obstruction) and in each subgroup separately, KAT4 gene expression correlated significantly with constituents of the PGC1? signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:These data support our hypothesis that KYN plasma levels are elevated in COPD through impaired KYN clearance in muscle. Our findings show a pathway via which exercise training and/or nutritional modulation may improve physical and mental health in COPD patients.
Project description:The enzyme kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) catalyses the conversion of kynurenine (KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA). Although the isozymes KAT1-4 have been identified, KYNA is mainly produced by KAT2 in brain tissues. KNYA is an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and ?-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and accumulation of KYNA in the brain has been associated with the pathology of schizophrenia. Therefore, KAT2 could be exploited as a therapeutic target for the management of schizophrenia. Although currently available KAT2 inhibitors irreversibly bind to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), inhibition via this mechanism may cause adverse side effects because of the presence of other PLP-dependent enzymes. Therefore, we identified novel selective KAT2 inhibitors by screening approximately 13,000 molecules. Among these, glycyrrhizic acid (GL) and its analogues, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and carbenoxolone (CBX), were identified as KAT2 inhibitors. These compounds were highly selective for KAT2 and competed with its substrate KYN, but had no effects on the other 3 KAT isozymes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in complex structures that were predicted in docking calculations, GL, GA and CBX were located on the same surface as the aromatic ring of KYN. These results indicate that GL and its analogues are highly selective and competitive inhibitors of KAT2.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:A growing body of data indicates that the kynurenine pathway may play a role in the pathogenesis of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS). Kynurenic aminotransferase (KAT) is an important kynurenine pathway enzyme, catalyzing kynurenine (KYN) into kynurenic acid (KYNA). This study investigated as to whether genetic variations in KAT are associated with PDS. METHODS:A cohort of 360 Chinese women scheduled to undergo cesarean delivery was enrolled into this study. PDS was determined by an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ? 13. A total of eight KAT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and their association with PDS investigated. Serum concentrations of KYN, KYNA, and quinolinic acid (QUIN) in women with or without PDS were also measured. This allowed the determination of the KYNA/KYN ratio, which is reflective of KAT activity. RESULTS:Postpartum depressive symptoms incidence was 7.2%. Advanced maternal age, lower education, antenatal depression, and postpartum blues were risk factors for PDS (p < .05). Women with PDS, versus non-PDS, had heightened KYN levels one day prior to surgery (ante-d1) (p < .05), as well as having significantly lower KYNA and higher QUIN levels at postnatal day three (post-d3) (p < .05). Women with, versus without, PDS also had a significantly higher QUIN/KYNA ratio at post-d3 (p < .05). KAT activity was significantly lower in women with, versus without, PDS at ante-d3 (p < .05). No significant association was evident between the KAT SNPs and PDS. CONCLUSION:Our data support a role for alterations in the kynurenine pathway in the pathogenesis of PDS, although no significant association was found for the eight tested KAT SNPs with PDS.
Project description:The kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) catabolism links immune system activation with neurotransmitter signaling. The KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia. We tested the extent to which: (1) brain KP enzyme mRNAs, (2) brain KP metabolites, and (3) plasma KP metabolites differed on the basis of elevated cytokines in schizophrenia vs. control groups and the extent to which plasma KP metabolites were associated with cognition and brain volume in patients displaying elevated peripheral cytokines. KP enzyme mRNAs and metabolites were assayed in two independent postmortem brain samples from a total of 71 patients with schizophrenia and 72 controls. Plasma KP metabolites, cognition, and brain volumes were measured in an independent cohort of 96 patients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls. Groups were stratified based on elevated vs. normal proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), kynurenine (KYN)/TRP ratio, KYNA levels, and mRNA for enzymes, tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) and kynurenine aminotransferases (KATI/II), were significantly increased in the high cytokine schizophrenia subgroup. KAT mRNAs significantly correlated with mRNA for glial fibrillary acidic protein in patients. In plasma, the high cytokine schizophrenia subgroup displayed an elevated KYN/TRP ratio, which correlated inversely with attention and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volume. This study provides further evidence for the role of inflammation in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and suggests a molecular mechanism through which inflammation could lead to schizophrenia. Proinflammatory cytokines may elicit conversion of TRP to KYN in the periphery and increase the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA via increased KAT mRNA and possibly more enzyme synthesis activity in brain astrocytes, leading to DLPFC volume loss, and attention impairment in schizophrenia.
Project description:Background:Complex interaction of genetic defects with environmental factors seems to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Accumulating data implicate a potential role of disturbed tryptophan metabolism in IBD. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a derivative of tryptophan (TRP) along the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, displays cytoprotective and immunomodulating properties, whereas 3-OH-KYN is a cytotoxic compound, generating free radicals. Methods:The expression of lymphocytic mRNA encoding enzymes synthesizing KYNA (KAT I-III) and serum levels of TRP and its metabolites were evaluated in 55 patients with IBD, during remission or relapse [27 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 28 patients with Crohn's disease (CD)] and in 50 control individuals. Results:The increased expression of KAT1 and KAT3 mRNA characterized the entire cohorts of patients with UC and CD, as well as relapse-remission subsets. Expression of KAT2 mRNA was enhanced in patients with UC and in patients with CD in remission. In the entire cohorts of UC or CD, TRP levels were lower, whereas KYN, KYNA and 3-OH-KYN were not altered. When analysed in subsets of patients with UC and CD (active phase-remission), KYNA level was significantly lower during remission than relapse, yet not versus control. Functionally, in the whole groups of patients with UC or CD, the TRP/KYN ratio has been lower than control, whereas KYN/KYNA and KYNA/3-OH-KYN ratios were not altered. The ratio KYN/3-OH-KYN increased approximately two-fold among all patients with CD; furthermore, patients with CD with relapse, manifested a significantly higher KYNA/3-OH-KYN ratio than patients in remission. Conclusion:The presented data indicate that IBD is associated with an enhanced expression of genes encoding KYNA biosynthetic enzymes in lymphocytes; however, additional mechanisms appear to influence KYNA levels. Higher metabolic conversion of serum TRP in IBD seems to be followed by the functional shift of KYN pathway towards the arm producing KYNA during exacerbation. We propose that KYNA, possibly via interaction with aryl hydrocarbon receptor or G-protein-coupled orphan receptor 35, may serve as a counter-regulatory mechanism, decreasing cytotoxicity and inflammation in IBD. Further longitudinal studies evaluating the individual dynamics of TRP and KYN pathway in patients with IBD, as well as the nature of precise mechanisms regulating KYNA synthesis, should be helpful in better understanding the processes underlying the observed changes.
Project description:Kynurenine aminotransferase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhKAT), which is a homodimeric protein, catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine (KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA). We analyzed the transaminase reaction mechanisms of this protein with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), KYN and ?-ketoglutaric acid (2OG) or oxaloacetic acid (OXA). 2OG significantly inhibited KAT activities in kinetic analyses, suggesting that a KYNA biosynthesis is allosterically regulated by 2OG. Its inhibitions evidently were unlocked by KYN. 2OG and KYN functioned as an inhibitor and activator in response to changes in the concentrations of KYN and 2OG, respectively. The affinities of one subunit for PLP or 2OG were different from that of the other subunit, as confirmed by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry, suggesting that the difference of affinities between subunits might play a role in regulations of the KAT reaction. Moreover, we identified two active and allosteric sites in the crystal structure of PhKAT-2OG complexes. The crystal structure of PhKAT in complex with four 2OGs demonstrates that two 2OGs in allosteric sites are effector molecules which inhibit the KYNA productions. Thus, the combined data lead to the conclusion that PhKAT probably is regulated by allosteric control machineries, with 2OG as the allosteric inhibitor.
Project description:Significant body of evidence suggests that abnormal kynurenic acid (KYNA) level is involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders. In the brain, KYNA is synthesized from kynurenine (KYN) by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs), predominantly by KAT II isoenzyme. Blockage of ionotropic glutamate (GLU) receptors is a main cellular effect of KYNA. High KYNA levels have been linked with psychotic symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animals and humans. As immunological imbalance and impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission are one of the crucial processes in neurological pathologies, we aimed to analyze the effect of anti-inflammatory agents, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): celecoxib, niflumic acid, and parecoxib, on KYNA synthesis and KAT II activity in rat brain in vitro. The influence of COX-2 inhibitors was examined in rat brain cortical slices and on isolated KAT II enzyme. Niflumic acid and parecoxib decreased in a dose-dependent manner KYNA production and KAT II activity in rat brain cortex in vitro, whereas celecoxib was ineffective. Molecular docking results suggested that niflumic acid and parecoxib interact with an active site of KAT II. In conclusion, niflumic acid and parecoxib are dual COX-2 and KAT II inhibitors.
Project description:The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the principal route of L-tryptophan (TRP) catabolism leading to the production of kynurenine (KYN), the neuroprotectants, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and picolinic acid (PIC), the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO-2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO-2) initiate the first step of the KP. IDO-1 and TDO-2 induction in tumors are crucial mechanisms implicated to play pivotal roles in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterisation of the KP in 1) cultured human glioma cells and 2) plasma from patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Our data revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-?) stimulation significantly potentiated the expression of the KP enzymes, IDO-1 IDO-2, kynureninase (KYNU), kynurenine hydroxylase (KMO) and significantly down-regulated 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) and kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I) expression in cultured human glioma cells. This significantly increased KP activity but significantly lowered the KYNA/KYN neuroprotective ratio in human cultured glioma cells. KP activation (KYN/TRP) was significantly higher, whereas the concentrations of the neuroreactive KP metabolites TRP, KYNA, QUIN and PIC and the KYNA/KYN ratio were significantly lower in GBM patient plasma (n = 18) compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of the KP in glioma pathophysiology and highlight a potential role of KP products as novel and highly attractive therapeutic targets to evaluate for the treatment of brain tumors, aimed at restoring anti-tumor immunity and reducing the capacity for malignant cells to produce NAD(+), which is necessary for energy production and DNA repair.
Project description:Kynurenic acid (KA) is a tryptophan (Trp) metabolite that is synthesised in a branch of kynurenine (KYN) pathway. KYN aminotransferase (KAT) catalyses deamination of KYN, yielding KA. Although KA synthesis is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans, the cellular benefits of synthesising KA are unclear. In this study, we constructed a KAT-null yeast mutant defective in KA synthesis to clarify the cellular function of KA. Amino acid sequence analysis and LC/MS quantification of KA revealed that Aro8 and Aro9 are the major KATs. KA was significantly decreased in the aro8? aro9? double mutant. We found that aro8? aro9? cells did not exhibit obvious defects in growth or oxidative stress response when proper amounts of amino acids are supplied in the media. We further found that aro8? aro9? cells were sensitive to excess Trp. The Trp sensitivity was not rescued by addition of KA, suggesting that Trp sensitivity is not due to the loss of KA. In conclusion, we propose that KAT activity is required for detoxification of Trp by converting it to the less toxic KA.
Project description:Kynurenine aminotransferase 3 (KAT3) catalyzes the transamination of Kynurenine to kynurenic acid, and is identical to cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 (CCBL2) and glutamine transaminase L (GTL). GTL was previously purified from the rat liver and considered as a liver type glutamine transaminase. However, because of the substrate overlap and high sequence similarity of KAT3 and KAT1, it was difficult to assay the specific activity of each KAT and to study the enzyme localization in animals.KAT3 transcript and protein levels as well as enzyme activity in the liver and kidney were analyzed by regular reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real time RT-PCR, biochemical activity assays combined with a specific inhibition assay, and western blotting using a purified and a highly specific antibody, respectively.This study concerns the comparative biochemical characterization and localization of KAT 3 in the mouse. The results showed that KAT3 was present in both liver and kidney of the mouse, but was much more abundant in the kidney than in the liver. The mouse KAT3 is more efficient in transamination of glutamine with indo-3-pyruvate or oxaloacetate as amino group acceptor than the mouse KAT1.Mouse KAT3 is a major glutamine transaminase in the kidney although it was named a liver type transaminase.Our data highlights KAT3 as a key enzyme for studying the nephrotoxic mechanism of some xenobiotics and the formation of chemopreventive compounds in the mouse kidney. This suggests tissue localizations of KAT3/GTL/CCBL2 in other animals may be carefully checked.
Project description:Kynurenine aminotransferase isozymes (KATs 1-4) are members of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme family, which catalyse the permanent conversion of l-kynurenine (l-KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA), a known neuroactive agent. As KATs are found in the mammalian brain and have key roles in the kynurenine pathway, involved in different categories of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, the KATs are prominent targets in the quest to treat neurodegenerative and cognitive impairment disorders. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting these enzymes would produce effects beneficial to patients with these conditions, as abnormally high levels of KYNA are observed. KAT-1 and KAT-3 share the highest sequence similarity of the isozymes in this family, and their active site pockets are also similar. Importantly, KAT-2 has the major role of kynurenic acid production (70%) in the human brain, and it is considered therefore that suitable inhibition of this isozyme would be most effective in managing major aspects of CNS diseases. Human KAT-2 inhibitors have been developed, but the most potent of them, chosen for further investigations, did not proceed in clinical studies due to the cross toxicity caused by their irreversible interaction with PLP, the required cofactor of the KAT isozymes, and any other PLP-dependent enzymes. As a consequence of the possibility of extensive undesirable adverse effects, it is also important to pursue KAT inhibitors that reversibly inhibit KATs and to include a strategy that seeks compounds likely to achieve substantial interaction with regions of the active site other than the PLP. The main purpose of this treatise is to review the recent developments with the inhibitors of KAT isozymes. This treatise also includes analyses of their crystallographic structures in complex with this enzyme family, which provides further insight for researchers in this and related studies.