ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is a key downstream mediator of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signalling pathways and plays a major role in liver metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IRS2 had an impact on the hepatic fibrotic process associated with cholestatic injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was performed in wild-type (WT) and Irs2-deficient (IRS2KO) female mice. Histological and biochemical analyses, together with fibrogenic and inflammatory responses were evaluated in livers from mice at 3, 7 and 28 days following BDL. We also explored whether activation of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induced by IGF1 was modulated by IRS2. IRS2KO mice displayed reduced disruption of liver histology, such hepatocyte damage and excess deposition of extracellular matrix components, compared with WT mice at 3 and 7 days post-BDL. However, no histological differences between genotypes were found at 28 days post-BDL. The less pro-inflammatory profile of bile acids accumulated in the gallbladder of IRS2KO mice after BDL corresponded with the reduced expression of pro-inflammatory markers in these mice. Stable silencing of IRS2 or inhibition of ERK1/2 reduced the activation of human LX2 cells and also reduced induction of MMP9 upon IGF1 stimulation. Furthermore, hepatic MMP9 expression was strongly induced after BDL in WT mice, but only a slight increase was found in mice lacking IRS2. Our results have unravelled the signalling pathway mediated by IGF1R-IRS2-ERK1/2-MMP9 as a key axis in regulating HSC activation, which might be therapeutically relevant for targeting liver fibrosis.
Project description:Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 knockout (KO) mice had attenuated liver injury 24?h after bile duct ligation (BDL), which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger BA pool size than sham-operated wildtype (WT) mice, but 24?h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic BA accumulation and smaller BA pool size. After 14 days BDL, Sort1 KO mice showed significantly lower hepatic BA concentration and reduced expression of inflammatory and fibrotic marker genes, but similar degree of liver fibrosis compared with WT mice. Unbiased quantitative proteomics revealed that Sort1 KO mice had increased hepatic BA sulfotransferase 2A1, but unaltered phase-I BA metabolizing cytochrome P450s or phase-III BA efflux transporters. Consistently, Sort1 KO mice showed elevated plasma sulfated taurocholate after BDL. Finally, we found that liver Sort1 was repressed after BDL, which may be due to BA activation of farnesoid x receptor. In conclusion, we report a role of Sort1 in the regulation of hepatic BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in mice. The mechanisms underlying increased hepatic BA elimination in Sort1 KO mice after BDL require further investigation.
Project description:Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter ?/?) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis.
Project description:The intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is induced in mouse liver after bile duct ligation (BDL) and plays a key role in neutrophil-mediated liver injury in BDL mice. ICAM-1 has been shown to interact with cytoskeletal ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins that also interact with the PDZ protein, Na(+) /H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1/EBP50). In NHERF-1(-/-) mice, ERM proteins are significantly reduced in brush-border membranes from kidney and small intestine. ERM knockdown reduces ICAM-1 expression in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha. Here we show that NHERF-1 assembles ERM proteins, ICAM-1 and F-actin into a macromolecule complex that is increased in mouse liver after BDL. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, both sham-operated and BDL NHERF-1(-/-) mice have lower levels of activated ERM and ICAM-1 protein in the liver accompanied by significantly reduced hepatic neutrophil accumulation, serum alanine aminotransferase, and attenuated liver injury after BDL. However, total bile acid concentrations in serum and liver of sham and BDL NHERF-1(-/-) mice were not significantly different from WT controls, although hepatic tetrahydroxylated bile acids and Cyp3a11 messenger RNA levels were higher in NHERF-1(-/-) BDL mice.NHERF-1 participates in the inflammatory response that is associated with BDL-induced liver injury. Deletion of NHERF-1 in mice leads to disruption of the formation of ICAM-1/ERM/NHERF-1 complex and reduction of hepatic ERM proteins and ICAM-1, molecules that are up-regulated and are essential for neutrophil-mediated liver injury in cholestasis. Further study of the role of NHERF-1 in the inflammatory response in cholestasis and other forms of liver injury should lead to discovery of new therapeutic targets in hepatic inflammatory diseases.
Project description:We have recently shown that loss of ?-catenin prevents the development of cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis after bile duct ligation (BDL) due to loss of the inhibitory farnesoid X receptor (FXR)/?-catenin complex, which results in decreased hepatic bile acids (BAs) through activation of FXR. To further understand the role of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in regulating BA metabolism and cholestasis, we performed BDL on mice in which hepatocyte Wnt signaling is deficient but ?-catenin is intact (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP]5/6 knockout [DKO]) as well as mice that have enhanced hepatocyte ?-catenin expression (serine 45 mutated to aspartic acid [S45D] transgenic [TG] mice). Despite decreased biliary injury after BDL, hepatic injury, fibrosis, and inflammation were comparable in DKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Notably, the FXR/?-catenin complex was maintained in DKO livers after BDL, coincident with significantly elevated hepatic BA levels. Similarly, TG mice did not display accelerated injury or increased mortality despite overexpression of ?-catenin. There was no augmentation of FXR/?-catenin association in TG livers; this resulted in equivalent hepatic BAs in WT and TG mice after BDL. Finally, we analyzed the effect of BDL on ?-catenin activity and identified an increase in periportal cytoplasmic stabilization and association with T-cell factor 4 that correlated with increased expression of distinct downstream target genes. Conclusion: Localization of ?-catenin and expression of Wnt-regulated genes were altered in liver after BDL; however, neither elimination of Wnt/?-catenin signaling nor overexpression of ?-catenin in hepatocytes significantly impacted the phenotype or progression of BA-driven cholestatic injury.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a critical role in initiating the progression of inflammatory and fibrotic liver diseases, including cholestatic hepatitis. Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a secretory antioxidase that protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the intracellular compartments and extracellular space. In this study, we examined the in vivo net effects of PRDX4 overexpression in a murine model of cholestasis. To induce cholestatic liver injury, we subjected C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) or human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice to sham or bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery for seven days. Our results showed that the liver necrosis area was significantly suppressed in Tg BDL mice with a reduction in the severity of liver injuries. Furthermore, PRDX4 overexpression markedly reduced local and systemic oxidative stress generated by BDL. In addition, suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile ducts, and less fibrosis were also found in the liver of Tg BDL mice, along with a reduced mortality rate after BDL surgery. Interestingly, the composition of the hepatic bile acids (BAs) was more beneficial for Tg BDL mice than for WT BDL mice, suggesting that PRDX4 overexpression may affect BA metabolism during cholestasis. These features indicate that PRDX4 plays an important role in protecting against liver injury following BDL and might be a promising therapeutic modality for cholestatic diseases.
Project description:Cholestasis is associated with accumulation of bile acids and lipids, and liver injury. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic nuclear receptors that coordinate protective hepatic responses to potentially toxic stimuli, including bile acids. We investigated the role of these receptors in the regulation of bile acid and lipid metabolism in a bile duct ligation (BDL) model of cholestasis applied to receptor knockout mice. Hepatic damage from bile acid accumulation was increased in both CAR knockout (CARKO) and PXR knockout mice, but bile acid concentrations were lower in CARKO mice. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was elevated in CARKO mice, and serum total cholesterol increased less in CARKO or PXR knockout mice than WT mice after BDL. Gene expression analysis of the BDL knockout animals demonstrated that, in response to cholestasis, PXR and CAR both repressed and induced the specific hepatic membrane transporters Oatp-c (organic anion transporting polypeptide C) and Oatp2 (Na+-dependent organic anion transporter 2), respectively. Induction of the xenobiotic transporter multidrug resistance protein 1 in cholestasis was independent of either PXR or CAR, in contrast to the known pattern of induction of multidrug resistance protein 1 by xenobiotics. These results demonstrate that CAR and PXR influence cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis, as well as multiple detoxification pathways, and suggest their potential role as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cholestasis and lipid disorders.
Project description:A 'locally acting' IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) isoform has been recently identified in the skeletal muscle and neural tissues where it accelerates injury repair. No information exist on the expression and function of IGF1 isoforms in the liver. We investigated IGF1 isoforms in rat hepatocytes and cholangiocytes and evaluated their involvement in cell proliferation or damage induced by experimental cholestasis (bile duct ligation, BDL) or hydrophobic bile salts. IGF1 isoforms were analyzed by real-time PCR by using beta-actin as internal reference. In both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, the 'locally acting' IGF1 isoform (XO6108) and 'circulating' IGF1 isoform (NM_178866) represented respectively 44 and 52% of the total IGF1. Basal mRNAs for both 'locally acting' and 'circulating' IGF1 isoforms were higher (P<0.05) in hepatocytes than cholangiocytes. After BDL for 3 h, the 'locally acting' IGF1 isoform decreased threefold (P<0.05) in hepatocytes but remained stable in cholangiocytes with respect to sham-controls. After 1 week of BDL, hepatocytes displayed a further fivefold decrease of 'locally acting' IGF1 mRNA. In contrast, cholangiocytes showed an eightfold increase of the 'locally acting' IGF1 mRNA. The effect of 3 h of BDL on IGF1 isoforms was reproduced in vitro by incubation with glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC). The cytotoxic effects (inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis) of GCDC on isolated cholangiocytes were more pronounced after selective silencing (SiRNA) of 'locally acting' than 'circulating' IGF1 isoform. Rat hepatocytes and cholangiocytes express the 'locally acting' IGF1 isoform, which decreased during cell damage and increased during cell proliferation. The 'locally acting' IGF1 was more active than the 'circulating' isoform in protecting cholangiocytes from GCDC-induced cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that, besides muscle and neural tissues, also in liver cells the 'locally acting' IGF1 isoform is important in modulating response to damage.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Growth hormone (GH) not only supports hepatic metabolism but also protects against hepatocyte cell death. Hnf6 (or Oc1) belonging to the Onecut family of hepatocyte transcription factors known to regulate differentiated hepatic function, is a GH-responsive gene. We evaluate if GH mediates Hnf6 activity to attenuate hepatic apoptotic injury.<h4>Methods</h4>We used an animal model of hepatic apoptosis by bile duct ligation (BDL) with Hnf6 -/- (KO) mice in which hepatic Hnf6 was conditionally inactivated. GH was administered to adult wild type WT and KO mice for the 7 days of BDL to enhance Hnf6 expression. In vitro, primary hepatocytes derived from KO and WT liver were treated with LPS and hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed with and without GH treatment.<h4>Results</h4>In WT mice, GH treatment enhanced Hnf6 expression during BDL, inhibited Caspase -3, -8 and -9 responses and diminished hepatic apoptotic and fibrotic injury. GH-mediated upregulation of Hnf6 expression and parallel suppression of apoptosis and fibrosis in WT BDL liver were abrogated in KO mice. LPS activated apoptosis and suppressed Hnf6 expression in primary hepatocytes. GH/LPS co-treatment enhanced Hnf6 expression with corresponding attenuation of apoptosis in WT-derived hepatocytes, but not in KO hepatocytes. ChiP-on-ChiP and electromobility shift assays of KO and WT liver nuclear extracts identified Ciap1 (or Birc2) as an Hnf6-bound target gene. Ciap1 expression patterns closely follow Hnf6 expression in the liver and in hepatocytes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>GH broad protective actions on hepatocytes during liver injury are effected through Hnf6, with Hnf6 transcriptional activation of Ciap1 as an underlying molecular mediator.
Project description:Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ostalpha-Ostbeta) is a heteromeric bile acid and sterol transporter that facilitates the enterohepatic and renal-hepatic circulation of bile acids. Hepatic expression of this basolateral membrane protein is increased in cholestasis, presumably to facilitate removal of toxic bile acids from the liver. In this study, we show that the cholestatic phenotype induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) is reduced in mice genetically deficient in Ostalpha. Although Ostalpha(-/-) mice have a smaller bile acid pool size, which could explain lower serum and hepatic levels of bile acids after BDL, gallbladder bilirubin and urinary bile acid concentrations were significantly greater in Ostalpha(-/-) BDL mice, suggesting additional alternative adaptive responses. Livers of Ostalpha(-/-) mice had higher messenger RNA levels of constitutive androstane receptor (Car) than wild-type BDL mice and increased expression of Phase I enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11), Phase II enzymes (Sult2a1, Ugt1a1), and Phase III transporters (Mrp2, Mrp3). Following BDL, the bile acid pool size increased in Ostalpha(-/-) mice and protein levels for the hepatic basolateral membrane export transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3) and Mrp4, and for the apical bilirubin transporter, Mrp2, were all increased. In the kidney of Ostalpha(-/-) mice after BDL, the apical bile acid uptake transporter Asbt is further reduced, whereas the apical export transporters Mrp2 and Mrp4 are increased, resulting in a significant increase in urinary bile acid excretion.These findings indicate that loss of Ostalpha provides protection from liver injury in obstructive cholestasis through adaptive responses in both the kidney and liver that enhance clearance of bile acids into urine and through detoxification pathways most likely mediated by the nuclear receptor Car.
Project description:Blockade of growth hormone (GH), decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) action and increased insulin sensitivity are associated with life extension and an apparent slowing of the aging process. We examined expression of genes involved in insulin action, IR, IRS1, IRS2, IGF1, IGF1R, GLUT4, PPARs and RXRs in the hearts of normal and GHR-/- (KO) mice fed ad libitum or subjected to 30% caloric restriction (CR). CR increased the cardiac expression of IR, IRS1, IGF1, IGF1R and GLUT4 in normal mice and IRS1, GLUT4, PPARalpha and PPARbeta/delta in GHR-KO animals. Expression of IR, IRS1, IRS2, IGF1, GLUT4, PPARgamma and PPARalpha did not differ between GHR-KO and normal mice. These unexpected results suggest that CR may lead to major modifications of insulin action in the heart, but high insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice is not associated with alterations in the levels of most of the examined molecules related to intracellular insulin signaling.