Exogenous hydrogen sulfide mitigates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation through promoting autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could mitigate NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation through promoting autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway in L02 cells. L02 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of oleic acid (OA), then cell viability and the protein expression of NLRP3 and pro-caspase-1 were detected by MTT and western blot, respectively, to determine appropriate OA concentration in this study. The cells were divided into four groups: the cells in the control group were cultured with RPMI-1640 for 24.5?h; the cells in the OA group were cultured with RPMI-1640 for 0.5?h, then were stimulated with 1.2?mmol/l OA for 24?h; the cells in the NaHS+OA group were pretreated with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) for 0.5?h before exposure to OA for 24?h; and the cells in the NaHS group were treated with NaHS 0.5?h, then were cultured with RPMI-1640 for 24?h. Subsequently, the cells in every group were collected and the protein expression of NLRP3, procaspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, P62, LC3, Beclin1, T-AMPK, P-AMPK, T-mTOR, P-mTOR and the level of IL-1? were detected by western blot and ElISA, respectively. Exogenous H2S reduced the level of NLRP3, caspase-1, P62, IL-1? and the ratio of P-mTOR/T-mTOR induced by OA and increased the ratio of LC3 II/I and the protein expression of Beclin1 suppressed by OA. This study demonstrates for the first time that H2S might suppress NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation induced by OA through promoting autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway. It provides a theoretical basis for the further study of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of H2S.
Project description:Hyperglycemia (HG) reduces AMPK activation leading to impaired autophagy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment improves HG-induced renovascular remodeling however, its mechanism remains unclear. Activation of LKB1 by the formation of heterotrimeric complex with STRAD and MO25 is known to activate AMPK. We hypothesized that in HG; H2S induces autophagy and modulates matrix synthesis through AMPK-dependent LKB1/STRAD/MO25 complex formation. To address this hypothesis, mouse glomerular endothelial cells were treated with normal and high glucose in the absence or presence of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor. HG decreased the expression of H2S regulating enzymes CBS and CSE, and autophagy markers Atg5, Atg7, Atg3 and LC3B/A ratio. HG increased galectin-3 and periostin, markers of matrix accumulation. Treatment with NaHS to HG cells increased LKB1/STRAD/MO25 formation and AMPK phosphorylation. Silencing the encoded genes confirmed complex formation under normoglycemia. H2S-mediated AMPK activation in HG was associated with upregulation of autophagy and diminished matrix accumulation. We conclude that H2S mitigates adverse remodeling in HG by induction of autophagy and regulation of matrix metabolism through LKB1/STRAD/MO25 dependent pathway.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The manner in which hydrogen sulfide (H2S) suppresses neuroinflammation is poorly understood. We investigated whether H2S polarized microglia to an anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).<h4>Results</h4>Three structurally unrelated H2S donors (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiocyclopentene-3-thione [ADT-OH], (p-methoxyphenyl) morpholino-phosphinodithioic acid [GYY4137], and sodium hydrosulfide [NaHS]) enhanced AMPK activation in BV2 microglial cells in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The overexpression of the H2S synthase cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) in BV2 cells enhanced endogenous H2S production and AMPK activation regardless of LPS stimulation. On LPS stimulation, overexpression of both ADT-OH and CBS promoted M2 polarization of BV2 cells, as evidenced by suppressed M1 and elevated M2 signature gene expression. The promoting effects of ADT-OH on M2 polarization were attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor or AMPK knockdown. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?) are upstream kinases that activate AMPK. ADT-OH activated AMPK in Hela cells lacking LKB1. In contrast, both the CaMKK? inhibitor and siRNA abolished ADT-OH activation of AMPK in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, the CaMKK? inhibitor and siRNA blunted ADT-OH suppression on M1 gene expression and enhancement of M2 gene expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, ADT-OH promoted M2 polarization of primary microglia in an AMPK activation- and CaMKK?-dependent manner. Finally, in an LPS-induced in vivo neuroinflammation model, both ADT-OH and NaHS enhanced AMPK activation in the brain area where microglia were over-activated on LPS stimulation. Furthermore, ADT-OH suppressed M1 and promoted M2 gene expression in this in vivo model.<h4>Innovation and conclusion</h4>CaMKK?-dependent AMPK activation is an unrecognized mechanism underlying H2S suppression on neuroinflammation.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>NLRP3 inflammasome may play a key role in OA pathogenesis. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a homeostatic CXC chemokine. Since the role of SDF-1 in OA has not been explored, this study aimed to examine the effect of SDF-1 on NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis in synoviocytes from OA joints.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Human synovium was obtained from OA patients for isolation of primary synoviocytes and a murine model of collagenase-induced OA was established for testing intra-articular injections of SDF-1. Immunoblotting assays were used to examine the effects and underlying mechanism of action of SDF-1 on NLRP3 inflammasome and synoviocyte pyroptosis in synoviocytes. Inhibitors of AMPK and PI3K-mTOR were utilized to investigate the key signaling pathways involved in SDF-1-mediated OA inflammasome formation and pyroptosis.<h4>Results</h4>Synoviocytes from OA joints exhibited significantly higher expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and biomarkers of synoviocyte pyroptosis relative to healthy individuals. This was confirmed in the collagenase-induced OA model, where OA synoviocytes had a significantly lower SDF-1 expression than healthy ones. SDF-1 treatment in synoviocytes of OA patients and collagenase-induced OA led to significant downregulation in the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and synoviocyte pyroptosis biomarkers. Inhibition of the AMPK signaling pathway significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of SDF-1 on NLRP3 inflammasome expression of OA synoviocytes. However, blocking the SDF-1-activated PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway could still suppress the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and synoviocyte pyroptosis biomarkers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SDF-1 ameliorates NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis in OA synoviocytes through activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Therefore, SDF-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for OA.
Project description:Stress aging of myocardial cells participates in the mechanism of myocardial fibrosis (MF). Previous studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can improve MF, however the specific internal mechanism remains still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether H2S can improve myocardial cell aging induced by high glucose and myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats by activating autophagy through SIRT6/AMPK. We observed that HG (high glucose, 33 mM) induced down-regulation of endogenous H2S-producing enzyme CSE protein expression, increased cell senescence, down-regulation of autophagy-related proteins Beclin1, Atg5, Atg12, Atg16L1, and inhibition of SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. H2S (NaHS: 400 ?M) could up-regulate CSE protein expression, inhibit cell senescence, activate autophagy and SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway. On the contrary, no above phenomena was achieved upon addition of CSE inhibitor PAG (dl-propargylglycine: mmol/L). In order to further elucidate the relationship between H2S and SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway, dorsomorphin dihydrochloride (Dor), an inhibitor of AMPK signaling pathway, was added to observe the reversal of H2S's inhibitory effect on myocardial cell aging. At the same, streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to build an animal model of diabetic SD rats. The results showed that myocardial collagen fibers were significantly deposited, myocardial tissue senescent cells were significantly increased and the expression of CSE protein was down-regulated, while SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway and cell autophagy were significantly inhibited. H2S-treated (NaHS; 56 ?mol/kg) could significantly reverse the above phenomenon. In conclusion, these findings suggest that exogenous H2S can inhibit myocardial cell senescence and improve diabetic myocardial fibrosis by activating CSE and autophagy through SIRT6/AMPK signaling pathway.
Project description:Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48?h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7?). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7?. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD.
Project description:Aims:Insulin and glucocorticoids play crucial roles in skeletal muscle protein turnover. Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres are more susceptible to atrophy than slow-twitch oxidative fibres. Based on accumulating evidence, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator of this process. The regulatory effect of H2S on protein synthesis in fast-twitch fibres was evaluated. Results:A NaHS (sodium hydrosulfide) injection simultaneously increased the diameter of M. pectoralis major (i.e., fast-twitch glycolytic fibres) and activated the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) pathway. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited protein synthesis, downregulated mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) protein in myoblasts. The precursor of H2S, L-cysteine, completely abolished the inhibitory effects of DEX. The CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) completely abrogated the effects of RU486 on blocking the suppressive effects of DEX. The H2S donor NaHS increased the H2S concentrations and abrogated the inhibitory effects of DEX on protein synthesis. Insulin increased protein synthesis and upregulated CSE expression. However, PAG abrogated the stimulatory effects of insulin on protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR/p70S6K pathway. Innovation:These results demonstrated that CSE/H2S regulated protein synthesis in fast-twitch muscle fibres, and glucocorticoids and insulin regulated protein synthesis in an endogenous CSE/H2S system-dependent manner. Conclusions:The results from the present study suggest that the endogenous CSE/H2S system regulates fast-twitch glycolytic muscle degeneration and regeneration.
Project description:Emerging studies have demonstrated the important physiological and pathophysiological roles of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as a gasotransmitter for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-associated neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. However, the effects of H2S on neuroinflammation after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), especially on the NLRP3 inflammasome, remain unknown.We employed a Sprague-Dawley rat of collagenase-induced ICH in the present study. The time course of H2S content and the spatial expression of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) after ICH, the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S after ICH, the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S on NLRP3 inflammasome activation under P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) overexpression after ICH, and the involvement of the P2X7R in the mechanism by which microglia-derived H2S prevented NLRP3 inflammasome activation were investigated.We found ICH induced significant downregulation of endogenous H2S production in the brain, which may be the result of decreasing in CBS, the predominant cerebral H2S-generating enzyme. Administration of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), a CBS-specific agonist, or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a classical exogenous H2S donor, not only restored brain and plasma H2S content but also attenuated brain oedema, microglial accumulation and neurological deficits at 1 day post-ICH by inhibiting the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome cascade. Endogenous H2S production, which was derived mainly by microglia and above treatments, was verified by adenovirus-overexpressed P2X7R and in vitro primary microglia studies.These results indicated endogenous H2S synthesis was impaired after ICH, which plays a pivotal role in the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome-associated neuroinflammatory response in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury. Maintaining appropriate H2S concentrations in the central nervous system may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for managing post-ICH secondary brain injury and associated neurological deficits.
Project description:Instability and excessive use of the knee joint can cause osteoarthritis (OA). Reasonable exercise can enhance the stability of the knee joint and prevent and relieve the occurrence and development of OA. As a key switch for inflammation, P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) has attracted much attention in studies of OA. Exercise can regulate P2X7 expression and activation. However, the role of P2X7 in exercise-based prevention and treatment of OA is unknown. We previously showed that moderate-intensity exercise can significantly alleviate OA symptoms. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the effects of exercise on P2X7 expression and activation in chondrocytes. Micro-computed tomography, hematoxylin, and eosin staining, Toluidine Blue O staining, immunohistochemistry, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling experiments showed that P2X7 expression was lower in the moderate-intensity exercise group than in the inflammation and low- and high-intensity exercise groups. Additionally, chondrocyte death, cartilage destruction, and the degree and severity of pyroptosis were significantly reduced, whereas autophagy levels were significantly increased in the moderate-intensity exercise group. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, lactate dehydrogenase release, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cell fluorescence, western blot, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that moderate activation of P2X7 promoted autophagy through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and promoted autolysosome targeting for degradation of the inflammasome component NLRP3, thereby inhibiting pyroptosis. Additionally, the use of AMPK and mTOR activators and inhibitors indicated that the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway, as the downstream of P2X7, played a key role in delaying the occurrence and development of OA. We propose that moderate-intensity exercise promoted chondrocyte autophagy through the P2X7/AMPK/mTOR signal axis to alleviate pyroptosis. Our findings provide novel insights into the positive and preventative effects of exercise on OA.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase ?, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase ? inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes.
Project description:Aims. The study was designed to explore whether hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) generation changed in D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced ageing, the possible effects of exogenous H2S supplementation, and related mechanisms. Results. In D-gal-induced senescent mice, both H2S and NO levels in the heart, liver, and kidney tissues were decreased significantly. A similar trend was observed in D-gal-challenged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Sustained H2S donor (NaHS) treatment for 2 months elevated H2S and NO levels in these mice, and during this period, the D-gal-induced senescent phenotype was reversed. The protective effect of NaHS is associated with a decrease in reactive oxygen species levels and an increase in antioxidants, such as glutathione, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Increased expression of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in the heart, liver, and kidney tissues was observed in the NaHS-treated groups. NaHS supplementation also significantly postponed D-gal-induced HUVEC senescence. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulphide production in both ageing mice and endothelial cells is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related dysfunction by inducing endogenous H2S and NO production and reducing oxidative stress. Restoring endogenous H2S production may contribute to healthy ageing, and H2S may have antiageing effects.