DNA methylation and inflammation marker profiles associated with a history of depression.
ABSTRACT: Depression is a common and disabling disorder, representing a major social and economic health issue. Moreover, depression is associated with the progression of diseases with an inflammatory etiology including many inflammatory-related disorders. At the molecular level, the mechanisms by which depression might promote the onset of these diseases and associated immune-dysfunction are not well understood. In this study we assessed genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in whole blood-derived DNA obtained from individuals with a self-reported history of depression (n?=?100) and individuals without a history of depression (n?=?100) using the Illumina 450K microarray. Our analysis identified six significant (Šidák corrected P?
Project description:Depression is a common and disabling disorder, representing a major social and economic health issue. Moreover, depression is associated with the progression of diseases with an inflammatory etiology including many inflammatory-related disorders. At the molecular level, the mechanisms by which depression might promote the onset of these diseases and associated immune-dysfunction are not well understood. In this study we assessed genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in whole blood-derived DNA obtained from individuals with a self-reported history of depression (n=100) and individuals without a history of depression (n=100) using the Illumina 450K microarray. Our analysis identified 6 significant (Sidak corrected P < 0.05) depression-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs); the top-ranked DMR was located in exon 1 of the LTB4R2 gene (Sidak corrected P = 1.27 x 10-14). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression were generated and known biological markers of inflammation, telomere length (TL) and IL-6, were measured in DNA and serum samples respectively. Next, we employed a systems-level approach to identify networks of co-methylated loci associated with a history of depression, in addition to depression PRS, TL and IL-6 levels. Our analysis identified one depression-associated co-methylation module (P = 0.04). Interestingly, the depression-associated module was highly enriched for pathways related to immune function and was also associated with TL and IL-6 cytokine levels. In summary, our genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of individuals with and without a self-reported history of depression identified several candidate DMRs of potential relevance to the pathogenesis of depression and its associated immune-dysfunction phenotype. Overall design: DNA from whole blood from 194 individuals
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening might be improved by using a measure of prior risk to modulate screening intensity or the faecal immunochemical test threshold. Intermediate molecular biomarkers could aid risk prediction by capturing both known and unknown risk factors. METHODS:We sampled normal bowel mucosa from the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum of 317 individuals undergoing colonoscopy. We defined cases as having a personal history of colorectal polyp(s)/cancer, and controls as having no history of colorectal neoplasia. Molecular analyses were performed for: telomere length (TL); global methylation; and the expression of genes in molecular pathways associated with colorectal tumourigenesis. We also calculated a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on CRC susceptibility polymorphisms. RESULTS:Bowel TL was significantly longer in cases than controls, but was not associated with blood TL. PRS was significantly and independently higher in cases. Hypermethylation showed a suggestive association with case:control status. No gene or pathway was differentially expressed between cases and controls. Gene expression often varied considerably between bowel locations. CONCLUSIONS:PRS and bowel TL (but not blood TL) may be clinically-useful predictors of CRC risk. Sample collection to assess these biomarkers is feasible in clinical practice, especially where population screening uses flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
Project description:Childhood adversity affects later health, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Although there is some evidence from animal models and case-control studies of a role for DNA methylation, evidence from human population-based studies is limited. In two cohorts (mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC, n?=?780 and women from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, NSHD, n?=?552), we assessed the association of seven adverse childhood experiences (ACEs: parental physical illness, parental mental illness, parental death, parental separation, suboptimal maternal bonding, childhood illness and child maltreatment) as well as their combination (ACE score) with genome-wide DNA methylation levels measured using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in peripheral blood at mean age 47 years (ALSPAC) and in buccal cells at age 53 years (NSHD). CpG sites with a genome-wide false discovery rate (FDR) below 0.05 and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with one-step Šidák correction p-values below 0.05 in each cohort were examined in the other cohort. No individual CpG sites replicated across cohorts. However, nine DMRs replicated across cohorts respectively associated with the ACE score (one region), parental mental illness (two regions), parental physical illness (three regions) and parental death (three regions). These observations indicate that some adverse childhood experiences, notably those related to parental health, may leave imprints on peripheral DNA methylation that persist to mid-life.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS:DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158). RESULTS:MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing (? = 0.15, P = 0.044) and surgency (? = 0.19, P = 0.018) behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression. Higher methylation levels at the intergenic MEG3-IG methylation regions were associated with surgency (? = 0.28, P = 0.0003) and PEG3 was positively related to externalizing (? = 0.20, P = 0.01) and negative affectivity (? = 0.18, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION:While the small sample size limits inference, these pilot data support gene-specific associations between epigenetic differences in regulatory regions of imprinted domains at birth and later infant temperament.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely detected in women of reproductive age. Prenatal PFAS exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes in children. We hypothesized that DNA methylation changes may result from prenatal PFAS exposure and may be linked to offspring cardio-metabolic phenotype.<h4>Objectives</h4>We estimated associations of prenatal PFAS with DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood. We evaluated associations of methylation at selected sites with neonatal cardio-metabolic indicators.<h4>Methods</h4>Among 583 mother-infant pairs in a prospective cohort, five PFAS were quantified in maternal serum (median 27 wk of gestation). Umbilical cord blood DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) were evaluated at a false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05 and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified using comb-p (Šidák-adjusted p<0.05). We estimated associations between methylation at candidate DMPs and DMR sites and the following outcomes: newborn weight, adiposity, and cord blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and leptin.<h4>Results</h4>Maternal serum PFAS concentrations were below the median for females in the U.S. general population. Moderate to high pairwise correlations were observed between PFAS concentrations (?=0.28-0.76). Methylation at one DMP (cg18587484), annotated to the gene <i>TJAP1</i>, was associated with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) at FDR<?0.05. Comb-p detected between 4 and 15 DMRs for each PFAS. Associated genes, some common across multiple PFAS, were implicated in growth (<i>RPTOR</i>), lipid homeostasis (<i>PON1</i>, <i>PON3</i>, <i>CIDEB</i>, <i>NR1H2</i>), inflammation and immune activity (<i>RASL11B</i>, <i>RNF39</i>), among other functions. There was suggestive evidence that two PFAS-associated loci (cg09093485, cg09637273) were associated with cord blood triglycerides and birth weight, respectively (FDR<?0.1).<h4>Discussion</h4>DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood was associated with maternal serum PFAS concentrations during pregnancy, suggesting potential associations with offspring growth, metabolism, and immune function. Future research should explore whether DNA methylation changes mediate associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and child health outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6888.
Project description:Up to 13% of women may experience symptoms of depression during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. Depression during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in the child and epigenetic mechanisms could be one of the biological pathways to explain this association. In 844 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to investigate associations between prospectively collected data on maternal depression ascertained by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and DNA methylation in the cord blood of newborn offspring. In individual site analysis, we identified two CpG sites associated with maternal depression in the middle part of pregnancy. In our regional analysis, we identified 39 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Seven DMRs were associated with depression at any time point during pregnancy, 7 associated with depression in mid-pregnancy, 23 were associated with depression in late pregnancy, and 2 DMRs were associated with depression throughout pregnancy. Several of these map to genes associated with psychiatric disease and brain development. We attempted replication in The Generation R Study and could not replicate our results. Although our findings in ALSPAC suggest that maternal depression could be associated with cord blood DNA methylation the results should be viewed as preliminary and hypothesis generating until further replicated in a larger sample.
Project description:Prior studies have reported significant cross-sectional associations between depression or anxiety and shorter telomere lengths, but the temporality of associations is uncertain. Little is known regarding whether shorter telomere length is related to increased risk of developing depression or anxiety. In this study, using the genetic tool of polygenic risk score (PRS), we evaluated the association between genetic predisposition to shorter telomere length and the risks of lifetime clinically significant depression (defined by self-reported clinician/physician diagnosis, antidepressant use, and/or presence of severe depressive symptoms) and of clinically meaningful anxiety symptoms among 17,693 female participants of European ancestry. The weighted PRS of telomere lengths (TLs) combined the dosage of nine alleles that were significantly associated with inter-individual variation in TLs in published genome-wide association studies. Higher score of PRS, corresponding to shorter TL in the literature, was significantly associated with shorter relative TLs (p?=?0.008). However, higher PRS was not associated with the lifetime risk of either depression or anxiety. Furthermore, higher PRS was not associated with long-term patterns of depressive symptom trajectories or specifically with later-life onset of depression or anxiety. In summary, this study did not observe a significant association between genetic predisposition to shorter telomere length and risk of depression and anxiety in a large sample of mid-life and older white women. However, these genetic variants jointly account for a limited proportion of interpersonal variation in leukocyte telomere length. Future studies will need to incorporate more genetic variants to improve the accuracy of predicted power, as such data become available.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The highly improved cognitive function is the most significant change in human evolutionary history. Recently, several large-scale studies reported the evolutionary roles of DNA methylation; however, the role of DNA methylation on brain evolution is largely unknown. RESULTS: To test if DNA methylation has contributed to the evolution of human brain, with the use of MeDIP-Chip and SEQUENOM MassARRAY, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the brain between humans and rhesus macaques. We first identified a total of 150 candidate DMRs by the MeDIP-Chip method, among which 4 DMRs were confirmed by the MassARRAY analysis. All 4 DMRs are within or close to the CpG islands, and a MIR3 repeat element was identified in one DMR, but no repeat sequence was observed in the other 3 DMRs. For the 4 DMR genes, their proteins tend to be conserved and two genes have neural related functions. Bisulfite sequencing and phylogenetic comparison among human, chimpanzee, rhesus macaque and rat suggested several regions of lineage specific DNA methylation, including a human specific hypomethylated region in the promoter of K6IRS2 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a new angle of studying human brain evolution and understanding the evolutionary role of DNA methylation in the central nervous system. The results suggest that the patterns of DNA methylation in the brain are in general similar between humans and non-human primates, and only a few DMRs were identified.
Project description:Family history, a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, can have both genetic and environmental contributions. Shared environment in families as well as epigenetic changes that also may be influenced by shared genetics and environment may also explain familial clustering of cancers. Epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, can change the activity of a DNA segment without a change in the sequence; environmental exposures experienced across the life course can induce such changes. However, genetic-epigenetic interactions, detected as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs; a.k.a. meQTLs) and haplotype-dependent allele-specific methylation (hap-ASM), can also contribute to inter-individual differences in DNA methylation patterns. To identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility, we examined differences in white blood cell DNA methylation in 29 candidate genes in 426 girls (ages 6-13 years) from the LEGACY Girls Study, 239 with and 187 without a breast cancer family history (BCFH). We measured methylation by targeted massively parallel bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) and observed BCFH DMRs in two genes: ESR1 (?4.9%, P = 0.003) and SEC16B (?3.6%, P = 0.026), each of which has been previously implicated in breast cancer susceptibility and pubertal development. These DMRs showed high inter-individual variability in methylation, suggesting the presence of mQTLs/hap-ASM. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms data in the bis-seq amplicon, we found strong hap-ASM in SEC16B (with allele specific-differences ranging from 42% to 74%). These findings suggest that differential methylation in genes relevant to breast cancer susceptibility may be present early in life, and that inherited genetic factors underlie some of these epigenetic differences.