β-Peltoboykinolic Acid from Astilbe rubra Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transitions in Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cells.
ABSTRACT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, novel plant-based natural, active compounds have been sought for the treatment of fibrotic EMT. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of Astilbe rubra on TGF-β1-induced EMT in lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549). A. rubra was subjected to extraction using 70% ethanol (ARE), and ethanol extracts of the aerial part and that of the rhizome were further partitioned using various solvents. Protein expression and cell motility were investigated to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ARE on EMT. EMT occurred in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1, but was prevented by co-treatment with ARE. The dichloromethane fractions showed the strongest inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-induced EMT. β-Peltoboykinolic acid was isolated from the dichloromethane fractions of A. rubra by activity-oriented isolation. β-Peltoboykinolic acid not only attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT, but also the overproduction of extracellular matrix components including type I collagen and fibronectin. The Smad pathway activated by TGF-β1 was inhibited by co-treatment with β-peltoboykinolic acid. Taken together, these results indicate that β-peltoboykinolic acid from A. rubra and dichloromethane fractions shows potential as an antifibrotic agent in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process that allows epithelial cells to assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype. EMT is considered as a therapeutic target for several persistent inflammatory airway diseases related to tissue remodeling. Herein, we investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Src in TGF-β1-induced EMT. A549 cells, primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs), and inferior nasal turbinate organ cultures were exposed to 4-phenylbutylic acid (4PBA) or PP2 and then stimulated with TGF-β1. We found that E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, and α-SMA expression was increased in nasal polyps compared to inferior turbinates. TGF-β1 increased the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin, and α-SMA and ER stress markers (XBP-1s and GRP78), an effect that was blocked by PBA or PP2 treatment. 4-PBA and PP2 also blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on migration of A549 cells and suppressed TGF-β1-induced expression of EMT markers in PNECs and organ cultures of inferior turbinate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 4PBA inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT via the c-Src pathway in A549 cells, PNECs, and inferior turbinate organ cultures. These results suggest an important role for ER stress and a diverse role for TGF-β1 in upper airway chronic inflammatory disease such as CRS.
Project description:IL-27 is a multifunctional cytokine that has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Although IL-27 has been shown to potently inhibit lung fibrosis, the detailed mechanism of IL-27 in this process is poorly understood. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We assessed the effects of IL-27 on TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells.A549 cells (a human AEC cell line) were incubated with TGF-β1, IL-27, or both TGF-β1 and IL-27, and changes in E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin and a-SMA levels were measured using real-time PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. The related proteins in the JAK/STAT and TGF-β/Smad signalling pathways were examined by western blot.IL-27 increased the expression of epithelial phenotypic markers, including E-cadherin and β-catenin, and inhibited mesenchymal phenotypic markers, including vimentin and a-SMA in A549 cells. Moreover, TGF-β1-induced EMT was attenuated by IL-27. Furthermore, we found that TGF-β1 activated the phosphorylation of JAK1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, Smad1, Smad3 and Smad5, and IL-27 partially inhibited these changes in this process. When cells were treated with the STAT3 specific inhibitor wp1006 and the Smad3 specific inhibitor SIS3, the inhibition of EMT by IL-27 was significantly strengthened.Our results suggest that IL-27 attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells in the absence or presence of TGF-β1 through the JAK/STAT and TGF-β/Smad signalling pathways.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:Heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are involved in the metastasis-related network. Our previous study demonstrated that hnRNP K is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism of hnRNP K involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the function and mechanism of hnRNP K interacted with microtubule-associated protein 1B light chain (MAP 1B-LC1) in TGF-β1-induced EMT. METHODS:Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of hnRNP K in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). GST-pull down and immunofluorescence were performed to demonstrate the association between MAP 1B-LC1 and hnRNP K. Immunofluorescence, transwell assay and western blot was used to study the function and mechanism of the interaction of MAP 1B-LC1 with hnRNP K during TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. RESULTS:hnRNP K were highly expressed in NSCLC, and NSCLC with higher expression of hnRNP K were more frequently rated as high-grade tumors with poor outcome. MAP 1B-LC1 was identified and validated as one of the proteins interacting with hnRNP K. Knockdown of MAP 1B-LC1 repressed E-cadherin downregulation, vimentin upregulation and actin filament remodeling, decreased cell migration and invasion during TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. hnRNP K increased microtubule stability via interacting with MAP 1B-LC1 and was associated with acetylated ɑ-tubulin during EMT. CONCLUSION:hnRNP K can promote the EMT process of lung cancer cells induced by TGF-β1 through interacting with MAP 1B-LC1. The interaction of MAP 1B/LC1 with hnRNP K may improve our understanding on the mechanism of TGF-β1-induced EMT in lung cancer.
Project description:The therapeutic options for pulmonary fibrosis (PF), a progressive interstitial disease of the lung, are extremely limited. Studies have shown that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) functions as a central mediating process that contributes to PF. Also, low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF), a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, has been reported to have antifibrotic characteristics that can help to alleviate kidney fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β1-mediated EMT. Thus we hypothesized that LMWF might be an attractive candidate for alleviating PF. Eighty C57BL/6 mice and A549 cells were respectively involved in our vivo and vitro experiments. The lung fibrosis was primarily assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome stain, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio and hydroxyproline content. TGF-β1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence, and the expression of EMT markers and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling were mainly based on immunostaining, real-time PCR and Western blot. As expected, our vivo models showed that LMWF was associated with improved lung fibrotic histopathology and significantly reduced lung hydroxyproline content. Levels of TGF-β1 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue decreased than it had been before treatment. Immunostaining, real-time PCR, and Western blot demonstrated that the lung EMT phenotype was attenuated and ERK signaling downregulated after LMWF administration. The vitro experiments resulted in a similar pharmacologic inhibitory effect of TGF-β1-induced EMT with downregulated ERK signaling. Collectively, our results preliminary suggested that LMWF could attenuate bleomycin-induced PF by inhibiting TGF-β1-induced EMT through ERK signaling.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a notable mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) has been used to induce EMT; however, there is a lack of information regarding the role of TGF-β1 in mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In the present study, EMT was induced in A549 lung cancer cells using TGF-β1 (TGF-β1-treated group) and MET was induced sequentially from the TGF-β1-treated group by removing the TGF-β1 (MET/return group). Untreated A549 lung cancer cells were used as a control. Characteristic features, including cancer stem cell markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)24, CD44 and CD133], cell proliferation and migration and diverse intracellular mechanisms, were observed in all groups. Using western blot analysis, the TGF-β1-treated group demonstrated increased vimentin and reduced E-cadherin expression, whereas the MET/return group demonstrated the opposite trend. Among cancer stem cell markers, the population of CD24low cells was reduced in the TGF-β1-treated group. Furthermore, the G2/M phase cell cycle population, cisplatin-sensitivity, and cell proliferation and migration ability were increased in the TGF-β1-treated group. These features were unaltered in the MET/return group when compared to the TGF-β1-treated group. Immunoblotting revealed an increase in the levels of SMAD3, phosphorylated SMAD3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and caspase-3, and a decrease in active caspase-3 levels in the TGF-β1-treated group. Increased caspase-3 and reduced active caspase-3 levels were observed in the MET/return group, similar to those in the TGF-β1-treated group; however, levels of other signalling proteins were unchanged compared with the control group. EMT induced by TGF-β1 was not preserved; however, stemness-associated properties (CD24 expression, caspase-3 expression, cell proliferation and cisplatin-resistance) were sustained following removal of TGF-β1.
Project description:The RNA-binding protein Rbfox3 is a well-known splicing regulator that is used as a marker for post-mitotic neurons in various vertebrate species. Although recent studies indicate a variable expression of Rbfox3 in non-neuronal tissues, including lung tissue, its cellular function in lung cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the number of RBFOX3-positive cells in tumorous lung tissue is lower than that in normal lung tissue. As the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is important in cancer progression, we investigated its role in RBFOX3 expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. TGF-β1 treatment inhibited RBFOX3 expression at the transcriptional level. Further, RBFOX3 depletion led to a change in the expression levels of a subset of proteins related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as E-cadherin and Claudin-1, during TGF-β1-induced EMT. In immunofluorescence microscopic analysis, mesenchymal morphology was more prominent in RBFOX3-depleted cells than in control cells. These findings show that TGF-β-induced RBFOX3 inhibition plays an important role in EMT and propose a novel role for RBFOX3 in cancer progression.
Project description:Epithelial cancer cells can undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a complex genetic program that enables cells to break free from the primary tumor, breach the basement membrane, invade through the stroma and metastasize to distant organs. Myoferlin (MYOF), a protein involved in plasma membrane function and repair, is overexpressed in several invasive cancer cell lines. Depletion of myoferlin in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231MYOFKD) reduced migration and invasion and caused the cells to revert to an epithelial phenotype. To test if this mesenchymal-epithelial transition was durable, MDA-231MYOFKD cells were treated with TGF-β1, a potent stimulus of EMT. After 48 hr with TGF-β1, MDA-231MYOFKD cells underwent an EMT. TGF-β1 treatment also decreased directional cell motility toward more random migration, similar to the highly invasive control cells. To probe the potential mechanism of MYOF function, we examined TGF-β1 receptor signaling. MDA-MB-231 growth and survival has been previously shown to be regulated by autocrine TGF-β1. We hypothesized that MYOF depletion may result in the dysregulation of TGF-β1 signaling, thwarting EMT. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined production of endogenous TGF-β1 and observed a decrease in TGF-β1 protein secretion and mRNA transcription. To determine if TGF-β1 was required to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype, TGF-β receptor signaling was inhibited with a small molecule inhibitor, resulting in decreased expression of several mesenchymal markers. These results identify a novel pathway in the regulation of autocrine TGF-β signaling and a mechanism by which MYOF regulates cellular phenotype and invasive capacity of human breast cancer cells.
Project description:Purpose:Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) promotes corneal epithelial (CE) cell fate while suppressing mesenchymal properties. TGF-β plays a crucial role in cell differentiation and development, and if dysregulated, it induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As KLF4 and TGF-β regulate each other in a context-dependent manner, we evaluated the role of the crosstalk between KLF4 and TGF-β-signaling in CE homeostasis. Methods:We used spatiotemporally regulated ablation of Klf4 within the adult mouse CE in ternary transgenic Klf4Δ/ΔCE (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/ Krt12rtTA/rtTA/ Tet-O-Cre) mice and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown or lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of KLF4 in human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells to evaluate the crosstalk between KLF4 and TGF-β-signaling components. Expression of TGF-β signaling components and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors was quantified by quantitative PCR, immunoblots, and/or immunofluorescent staining. Results:CE-specific ablation of Klf4 resulted in (1) upregulation of TGF-β1, -β2, -βR1, and -βR2; (2) downregulation of inhibitory Smad7; (3) hyperphosphorylation of Smad2/3; (4) elevated nuclear localization of phospho-Smad2/3 and Smad4; and (5) downregulation of CDK inhibitors p16 and p27. Consistently, shRNA-mediated knockdown of KLF4 in HCLE cells resulted in upregulation of TGF-β1 and -β2, hyperphosphorylation and nuclear localization of SMAD2/3, downregulation of SMAD7, and elevated SMAD4 nuclear localization. Furthermore, overexpression of KLF4 in HCLE cells resulted in downregulation of TGF-β1, -βR1, and -βR2 and upregulation of SMAD7, p16, and p27. Conclusions:Collectively, these results demonstrate that KLF4 regulates CE cell cycle progression by suppressing canonical TGF-β signaling and overcomes the undesirable concomitant decrease in TGF-β-dependent CDK inhibitors p16 and p27 expression by directly upregulating them.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in cellular processes. In the present study, the effects of the long non-coding RNA, SNHG5 was investigated in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) and we also revealed the underlying mechanisms of it. Overexpressed SNHG5 suppressed migration and invasion of LAD cell line A549 in vitro. Transcriptome sequencing analysis supported the inhibitory effects of SNHG5 were associated with cell adhesion molecules. In addition, western blot and immunofluorescence showed that the expression of SNHG5 was associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Furthermore, we determined the effects of SNHG5 in EMT procession of A549 induced by TGF-β1. Consistent with previous results, overexpression of SNHG5 suppressed the migration and invasion, and also the expression of EMT-related transcription factors including Snail, SLUG and ZEB1 in EMT of A549 reduced by TGF-β1. Moreover, qRT-PCR demonstrated expression of SNHG5 was positively correlated with E-cadherin protein expression, but negatively correlated with N-cadherin and Vimentin in LAD tissues. In summary, our study demonstrated that lncRNA SNHG5 could suppress cell migration and invasion of LAD cancer by inhibiting EMT procession, highlighting the potential of SNHG5 as a therapy strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. Overall design: Examination of 6 samples including 3 repeats of SNGH5-overexpressed A549 cells and 3 control repeats.
Project description:Therapies to limit or reverse fibrosis have proven unsuccessful, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of basic mechanisms that drive fibrosis and, in particular, the link between fibrosis and inflammation. It has been shown that pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-driven epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be accentuated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is activated by both TGF-β1 and TNF-α, activating both nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. In this study, we evaluated the potential for TAK1 to modulate the synergistic effect between TGF-β1 and TNF-α in driving EMT. Co-stimulation with TGF-β1 and TNF-α induced an accentuated and extended phosphorylation of TAK1 compared to either alone. TAK1 signaled downstream via nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and Jun N-terminal kinase-2, but independent of Jun N-terminal kinase-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling to drive EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Blocking either TAK1 or Jun N-terminal kinase-2 inhibited EMT. TAK1 phosphorylation was increased in the airway epithelium of patients with fibrotic airway disease. These data identify factors leading to and affected by accentuated and extended TAK1 phosphorylations potential novel therapeutic targets in inflammation-driven fibrotic diseases.