Switching of INCENP paralogs controls transitions in mitotic chromosomal passenger complex functions.
ABSTRACT: A single inner centromere protein (INCENP) found throughout eukaryotes modulates Aurora B kinase activity and chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) localization, which is essential for timely mitotic progression. It has been proposed that INCENP might act as a rheostat to regulate Aurora B activity through mitosis, with successively higher activity threshold levels for chromosome alignment, the spindle checkpoint, anaphase spindle transfer and finally spindle elongation and cytokinesis. It remains mechanistically unclear how this would be achieved. Here, we reveal that the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, possesses two INCENP paralogs, which display distinct localizations and subfunctionalization in order to complete M-phase. INCENPa was localized on chromosome arms and centromeres by prometaphase, and modulated Aurora B activity to mediate H3S10/S28 phosphorylation, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly and transfer of the CPC to the central spindle. Polo-like kinase (Plk1) recruitment to CDK1 phosphorylated INCENPa was crucial for INCENPa-Aurora B enrichment on centromeres. The second paralog, INCENPb was enriched on centromeres from prometaphase, and relocated to the central spindle at anaphase onset. In the absence of INCENPa, meiotic spindles failed to form, and homologous chromosomes did not segregate. INCENPb was not required for early to mid M-phase events but became essential for the activity and localization of Aurora B on the central spindle and midbody during cytokinesis in order to allow abscission to occur. Together, our results demonstrate that INCENP paralog switching on centromeres modulates Aurora B kinase localization, thus chronologically regulating CPC functions during fast embryonic divisions in the urochordate O. dioica. Abbreviations: CCAN: constitutive centromere-associated network; CENPs: centromere proteins; cmRNA: capped messenger RNA; CPC: chromosomal passenger complex; INCENP: inner centromere protein; Plk1: polo-like kinase 1; PP1: protein phosphatase 1; PP2A: protein phosphatase 2A; SAC: spindle assembly checkpoint; SAH: single α-helix domain.
Project description:Cell division is orchestrated by a complex protein network that aims to maintenance of genomic stability. Visualisation of mitotic protein-protein associations in space and time has been limited due to the lack of proper biochemical and easy-to-use imaging tools. Here we report adaptation of the in situ proximity ligation assay (is-PLA) to study mitotic protein interactions with spatio-temporal resolution. We examined the composition of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) at various mitotic phases and after chemical treatments using is-PLA with antibodies against the core CPC subunits Aurora B, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin. Our results support the notion that the core CPC functions as a single structural unit at centromeres in early mitosis and at central spindle after the onset of anaphase. Treatment of cells with the Aurora B inhibitor ZM447439 diminished the is-PLA signals at centromeres suggesting that Aurora B activity contributes to structural maintenance and/or proper subcellular localization of the core CPC. Is-PLA-based analysis of interaction between INCENP and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) proposes that the kinase co-travels with CPC during late mitosis. The data illustrates both the strengths and limitations of the is-PLA in the analysis of mitotic macromolecule associations at sub-organelle level.
Project description:Incenp is an essential mitotic protein that, together with Aurora B, Survivin, and Borealin, forms the core of the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC). The CPC regulates various mitotic processes and functions to maintain genomic stability. The proper subcellular localization of the CPC and its full catalytic activity require the presence of each core subunit in the complex. We have investigated the mitotic tasks of the CPC using a function blocking antibody against Incenp microinjected into cells at different mitotic phases. This method allowed temporal analysis of CPC functions without perturbation of complex assembly or activity prior to injection. We have also studied the dynamic properties of Incenp and Aurora B using fusion protein photobleaching. We found that in early mitotic cells, Incenp and Aurora B exhibit dynamic turnover at centromeres, which is prevented by the anti-Incenp antibody. In these cells, the loss of centromeric CPC turnover is accompanied by forced mitotic exit without the execution of cytokinesis. Introduction of anti-Incenp antibody into early anaphase cells causes abnormalities in sister chromatid separation through defects in anaphase spindle functions. In summary, our data uncovers new mitotic roles for the CPC in anaphase and proposes that CPC turnover at centromeres modulates spindle assembly checkpoint signaling.
Project description:The coordinated activities at centromeres of two key cell cycle kinases, Polo and Aurora B, are critical for ensuring that the two sister kinetochores of each chromosome are attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles prior to chromosome segregation at anaphase. Initial attachments of chromosomes to the spindle involve random interactions between kinetochores and dynamic microtubules, and errors occur frequently during early stages of the process. The balance between microtubule binding and error correction (e.g., release of bound microtubules) requires the activities of Polo and Aurora B kinases, with Polo promoting stable attachments and Aurora B promoting detachment. Our study concerns the coordination of the activities of these two kinases in vivo. We show that INCENP, a key scaffolding subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which consists of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin/Dasra B, also interacts with Polo kinase in Drosophila cells. It was known that Aurora A/Bora activates Polo at centrosomes during late G2. However, the kinase that activates Polo on chromosomes for its critical functions at kinetochores was not known. We show here that Aurora B kinase phosphorylates Polo on its activation loop at the centromere in early mitosis. This phosphorylation requires both INCENP and Aurora B activity (but not Aurora A activity) and is critical for Polo function at kinetochores. Our results demonstrate clearly that Polo kinase is regulated differently at centrosomes and centromeres and suggest that INCENP acts as a platform for kinase crosstalk at the centromere. This crosstalk may enable Polo and Aurora B to achieve a balance wherein microtubule mis-attachments are corrected, but proper attachments are stabilized allowing proper chromosome segregation.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) coordinates chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. The enzymatic core of this complex (Aurora-B) is guided through the mitotic cell by its companion chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin and Borealin/Dasra-B, thereby allowing it to act at the right place at the right time. Here, we addressed the individual contributions of INCENP, Survivin and Borealin to the proper functioning of this complex. We show that INCENP has an important role in stabilizing the complex, and that Borealin acts to promote binding of Survivin to INCENP. Importantly, when Survivin is directly fused to INCENP, this hybrid can restore CPC function at the centromeres and midbody, even in the absence of Borealin and the centromere-targeting domain of INCENP. Thus, Survivin is an important mediator of centromere and midbody docking of Aurora-B during mitosis.
Project description:Oogenesis in the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, occurs in a large coenocyst in which vitellogenesis precedes oocyte selection in order to adapt oocyte production to nutrient conditions. The animal has expanded Cyclin-Dependant Kinase 1 (CDK1) and Cyclin B paralog complements, with several expressed during oogenesis. Here, we addressed functional redundancy and specialization of CDK1 and cyclin B paralogs during oogenesis and early embryogenesis through spatiotemporal analyses and knockdown assays. CDK1a translocated from organizing centres (OCs) to selected meiotic nuclei at the beginning of the P4 phase of oogenesis, and its knockdown impaired vitellogenesis, nurse nuclear dumping, and entry of nurse nuclei into apoptosis. CDK1d-Cyclin Ba translocated from OCs to selected meiotic nuclei in P4, drove meiosis resumption and promoted nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). CDK1d-Cyclin Ba was also involved in histone H3S28 phosphorylation on centromeres and meiotic spindle assembly through regulating Aurora B localization to centromeres during prometaphase I. In other studied species, Cyclin B3 commonly promotes anaphase entry, but we found O. dioica Cyclin B3a to be non-essential for anaphase entry during oogenic meiosis. Instead, Cyclin B3a contributed to meiotic spindle assembly though its loss could be compensated by Cyclin Ba.
Project description:The chromosome passenger complex (CPC) is a master regulator of mitosis. Inner centromere protein (INCENP) acts as a scaffold regulating CPC localization and activity. During early mitosis, the N-terminal region of INCENP forms a three-helix bundle with Survivin and Borealin, directing the CPC to the inner centromere where it plays essential roles in chromosome alignment and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The C-terminal IN box region of INCENP is responsible for binding and activating Aurora B kinase. The central region of INCENP has been proposed to comprise a coiled coil domain acting as a spacer between the N- and C-terminal domains that is involved in microtubule binding and regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Here we show that the central region (213 residues) of chicken INCENP is not a coiled coil but a ? 32-nm-long single ?-helix (SAH) domain. The N-terminal half of this domain directly binds to microtubules in vitro. By analogy with previous studies of myosin 10, our data suggest that the INCENP SAH might stretch up to ? 80 nm under physiological forces. Thus, the INCENP SAH could act as a flexible "dog leash," allowing Aurora B to phosphorylate dynamic substrates localized in the outer kinetochore while at the same time being stably anchored to the heterochromatin of the inner centromere. Furthermore, by achieving this flexibility via an SAH domain, the CPC avoids a need for dimerization (required for coiled coil formation), which would greatly complicate regulation of the proximity-induced trans-phosphorylation that is critical for Aurora B activation.
Project description:During cell division, chromosome segregation is orchestrated by the interaction of spindle microtubules with the centromere. Accurate attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore requires the chromosomal passenger of Aurora B kinase complex with borealin, INCENP and survivin (SUR). The current working model argues that SUR is responsible for docking Aurora B to the centromere whereas its precise role in Aurora B activation has been unclear. Here, we show that Aurora B kinase activation requires SUR priming phosphorylation at Ser20 which is catalyzed by polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). Inhibition of PLK1 kinase activity or expression of non-phosphorylatable SUR mutant prevents Aurora B activation and correct spindle microtubule attachment. The PLK1-mediated regulation of Aurora B kinase activity was examined in real-time mitosis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based reporter and quantitative analysis of native Aurora B substrate phosphorylation. We reason that the PLK1-mediated priming phosphorylation is critical for orchestrating Aurora B activity in centromere which is essential for accurate chromosome segregation and faithful completion of cytokinesis.
Project description:Proper connections between centromeres and spindle microtubules are of critical importance in ensuring accurate segregation of the genome during cell division. Using an in vitro approach based on the sequence-specific budding yeast centromere, we identified a complex of the chromosomal passenger proteins Bir1 and Sli15 (Survivin and INCENP) that links centromeres to microtubules. This linkage does not require Ipl1/Aurora B kinase, whose targeting and activation are controlled by Bir1 and Sli15. Ipl1 is the tension-dependent regulator of centromere-microtubule interactions that ensures chromosome biorientation on the spindle. Elimination of the linkage between centromeres and microtubules mediated by Bir1-Sli15 phenocopies mutations that selectively cripple Ipl1 kinase activation. These findings lead us to propose that the Bir1-Sli15-mediated linkage, which bridges centromeres and microtubules and includes the Aurora kinase-activating domain of INCENP family proteins, is the tension sensor that relays the mechanical state of centromere-microtubule attachments into local control of Ipl1 kinase activity.
Project description:The function of the Aurora B kinase at centromeres and the central spindle is crucial for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, respectively. Herein, we have investigated the regulation of human Aurora B by its complex partners inner centromere protein (INCENP) and survivin. We found that overexpression of a catalytically inactive, dominant-negative mutant of Aurora B impaired the localization of the entire Aurora B/INCENP/survivin complex to centromeres and the central spindle and severely disturbed mitotic progression. Similar results were also observed after depletion, by RNA interference, of either Aurora B, INCENP, or survivin. These data suggest that Aurora B kinase activity and the formation of the Aurora B/INCENP/survivin complex both contribute to its proper localization. Using recombinant proteins, we found that Aurora B kinase activity was stimulated by INCENP and that the C-terminal region of INCENP was sufficient for activation. Under identical assay conditions, survivin did not detectably influence kinase activity. Human INCENP was a substrate of Aurora B and mass spectrometry identified three consecutive residues (threonine 893, serine 894, and serine 895) containing at least two phosphorylation sites. A nonphosphorylatable mutant (TSS893-895AAA) was a poor activator of Aurora B, demonstrating that INCENP phosphorylation is important for kinase activation.
Project description:Accurate segregation of the replicated genome requires chromosome biorientation on the spindle. Biorientation is ensured by Aurora B kinase (Ipl1), a member of the four-subunit chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). Localization of the CPC to the inner centromere is central to the current model for how tension ensures chromosome biorientation: kinetochore-spindle attachments that are not under tension remain close to the inner centromere and are destabilized by Aurora B phosphorylation, whereas kinetochores under tension are pulled away from the influence of Aurora B, stabilizing their microtubule attachments. Here we show that an engineered truncation of the Sli15 (known as INCENP in humans) subunit of budding yeast CPC that eliminates association with the inner centromere nevertheless supports proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. Truncated Sli15 suppresses the deletion phenotypes of the inner-centromere-targeting proteins survivin (Bir1), borealin (Nbl1), Bub1 and Sgo1 (ref. 6). Unlike wild-type Sli15, truncated Sli15 localizes to pre-anaphase spindle microtubules. Premature targeting of full-length Sli15 to microtubules by preventing Cdk1 (also known as Cdc28) phosphorylation also suppresses the inviability of Bir1 deletion. These results suggest that activation of Aurora B kinase by clustering either on chromatin or on microtubules is sufficient for chromosome biorientation.