Data of in vivo screening of antiulcer activity for methanolic extract of Vernonia elaeagnifolia DC.
ABSTRACT: The data present in this article is related to evaluation of standardized methanolic extract of Vernonia elaeagnifolia aerial parts [MEVE], a species of Asteraceae family for antiulcer potential. Antiulcer activity of MEVE (200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) was evaluated with ethanol and aspirin induced ulcer models and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The antioxidant potential of MEVE was evaluated with nitric oxide radicals, hydroxyl radical and H2O2 radical scavenging assay against standard ascorbic acid to correlate antioxidant and antiulcerogenic action. MEVE significantly protects the gastric mucosa against the ethanol and aspirin induced ulcer and pylorus ligation induced ulcer challenge. MEVE had shown significant [normal control: p < 0.0001, disease control: p < 0.0001, standard: p < 0.0001] decrease in the ulcer index produced by all three models in rats as compared to the standard drug omeprazole [20 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.]. The present data suggest that aerial parts of Vernonia elaeagnifolia possess significant antiulcer activity, which may attributed to its antioxidant mechanism of action.
Project description:Peptic ulceration is among the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders characterized by pepsin and gastric acid mediated mucosal damage, as result of imbalance between defensive and offensive processes. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the antiulcer potentials of Polygonum hydropiper crude methanolic ectract (Ph.Cr) in aspirin induced ulcerogenesis using pylorus ligated rat model. In-vitro urease and Proteus mirabilis inhibitory potentials were evaluated using standard protocols. All fractions were analyzed using GC-MS to identify major components. The aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rat model was associated with significant changes in the mean ulcer score [F(5, 30) = 7.141, P = 0.0002], gastric juice volume [F(5, 30) = 8.245, P < 0.0001], gastric juice pH [F(5, 30) = 5.715, P = 0.0008], free acidity [F(5, 30) = 4.544, P = 0.0033], total acidity [F(5, 30) = 2.740, P = 0.0373], and pepsin concentration [F(5, 30) = 2.335, P = 0.0664]. Pre-treatment with Ph.Cr at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose exhibited marked gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect in the aspirin induced pyloric ligation ulcerogenesis model at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg as indicated by ulcerative biochemical parameters. In urease inhibition assay, leaves essential oil (Ph.Lo), saponins (Ph.Sp), and chloroform extract (Ph.Chf) exhibited highest activities with IC50 of 90, 98, and 520 μg/ml, respectively. Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), and Ph.Cr showed MICs of 25, 30, 32.25, and 40.50 μg/ml, respectively against P. mirabilis. Several compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis of samples. Significant in-vivo antiulcer, urease inhibitory as well as anti-proteus potentials of P. hydropiper solvent extracts, signify its potential use for the management of peptic ulcers and may provide scientific bases for the traditional uses of the plant.
Project description:Background:Peptic ulcer disease causes significant mortality and morbidity. Plant kingdom provides a useful source for the development of new antiulcer agents. Croton macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat peptic ulcer in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of C. macrostachyus root extracts in rodents using different models. Methods:The crude extract was obtained by cold maceration in 80% methanol and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and distilled water. The antiulcer activity was evaluated using pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model in Sprague Dawley rats and acidified ethanol-induced ulcer model in Swiss albino mice. The test groups received three doses (100, 200, and 400?mg/kg) of the crude extract and fractions for 7?days before induction of ulcer. Positive controls received omeprazole 30?mg/kg for the pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model and sucralfate 100?mg/kg for the acidified ethanol-induced ulcer model. Negative controls received vehicle (2% tween 80). Results:The crude hydromethanolic extract of C. macrostachyus showed significant (p < 0.05) antiulcer activity on both pyloric ligation and HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer in rats and mice. It has antisecretary effect (p < 0.001) as well. All three administered doses of chloroform fraction (p < 0.05) and only higher doses of ethyl acetate fraction (p < 0.05) possessed significant antiulcer activity. In contrast, the aqueous fraction did not have significant antiulcer effect at all tested doses. Conclusion:The present study demonstrated that the crude extract, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fractions possessed significant dose-dependent antiulcer activity.
Project description:Massive alcohol drinking can lead to gastric ulcer. In the present study we investigated the gastroprotective effect of Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and Hesperidin (H) in ethanol (EtOH) induced oxidative stress and peptic ulcer in rats.Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 each: control, EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH + various doses of CSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), EtOH + Hesperidin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and EtOH + Omeprazole (OM, 20 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CSPE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) during 2 h. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats with a single dose of ethanol (EtOH). Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdhyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and Thiol groups (-SH) content in stomach and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and gluthation peroxidise (GPx) were measured. Furthermore, histopathological examinations were performed.The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving oxidative stress markers level such as MDA (121 ± 4.45 nmol/mg proteins) and H2O2 (24.62 ± 1.04 μmol/mg proteins), increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α level), as well as the expression of COX-2 in the ethanol group. However, a significant depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed, such as, GPx (72%), SOD (57.5%), CAT (41.6%) and -SH (50%). The lesions were associated with severe histopathological damage. The both Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and hesperidin significantly protect against all gastric damages caused by ethanol administration in rats.We propose that CSPE and hesperidin exhibit protective effects in EtOH-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in to part its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied intracellular mediators.
Project description:The carrot plant <i>(Daucus carota</i>) and its components are traditionally reported for the management of gastric ulcers. This study was performed to evaluate the role of carrot when administered concurrently with a conventional antiulcer treatment, pantoprazole, in alleviating gastric and duodenal ulcers in female experimental animals. The study involved standard animal models to determine the ulcer preventive effect using pylorus ligation, ethanol, and stress induced acute gastric ulcer models and duodenal ulcer models involving cysteamine. Acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models were used to evaluate the ulcer healing effect. Carrot fruit (500 mg/kg) and its co-administration with pantoprazole produced significant protection in an ethanol- and stress-induced acute gastric ulcer and cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer. The healing of the acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer was also augmented with this combination. Both total proteins and mucin contents were significantly increased in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. Similarly, in pylorus ligation, the pepsin content of gastric juice, total acidity, and free acidity were reduced. Overall, both ulcer preventive effects and ulcer healing properties of the pantoprazole were significantly enhanced in animals who received the co-administration of carrot fruit (500 mg/kg).
Project description:The protective effect of pig skin gelatin water extracts (PSW) and the low molecular weight hydrolysates of PSW generated via enzymatic hydrolysis with Flavourzyme® 1000L (LPSW) against scopolamine-induced impairment of cognitive function in mice was determined. Seventy male ICR mice weighing 20-25 g were randomly assigned to seven groups: Control (CON); scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally (i.p.); tetrahydroaminoacridine 10 [THA 10, tacrine; 10 mg/kg B.W. per oral (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.)]; PSW 10 (10 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.); PSW 40 (40 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.); LPSW 100 (100 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.); LPSW 400 (400 mg/kg B.W. (p.o.) with SCO (i.p.). All treatment groups, except CON, received scopolamine on the day of the experiment. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of LPSW 400 at 1 mg/mL was 154.14 ?M Trolox equivalent. Administration of PSW and LPSW for 15 weeks did not significantly affect on physical performance of mice. LPSW 400 significantly increased spontaneous alternation, reaching the level observed for THA and CON. The latency time of animals receiving LPSW 400 was higher than that of mice treated with SCO alone in the passive avoidance test, whereas it was shorter in the water maze test. LPSW 400 increased acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreased ACh esterase activity (p<0.05). LPSW 100 and LPSW 400 reduced monoamine oxidase-B activity. These results indicated that LPSW at 400 mg/kg B.W. is a potentially strong antioxidant and contains novel components for the functional food industry.
Project description:Gastric ulcers are among the most broadly perceived illnesses affecting individuals. Alcohol consumption is the main cause of gastric ulceration. This study assessed the protective effects of Salvadora persica (SP) extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and elucidated the conceivable underlying mechanisms involved. For this purpose, 40 rats were allotted into 4 equal groups (control, ethanol- (EtOH-) treated, and SP-treated "SP200 and SP400" groups). The control and EtOH-treated groups were given phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and both the SP200 and SP400 groups were given SP extract dissolved in PBS at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg b.w., respectively. All treatments were given orally for 7 constitutive days. On the 8th day, all rats were fasted for 24?h followed by oral gavage of PBS in the control group and chilled absolute ethanol solution (5?ml/kg b.w.) in the EtOH- and SP-treated groups to induce gastric lesions. One hour later, the rats were sacrificed and the stomachs were harvested. Gross and microscopic examinations of the EtOH-treated group showed severe gastric hemorrhagic necrosis, submucosal edema, destruction of epithelial cells, and reduced glycoprotein content at the mucus surface. These pathological lesions were defeated by SP extract treatment. Administration of SP extract modulated the oxidative stress and augmented the antioxidant defenses. The elevated ethanol-expressed tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) genes, as well as bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were diminished in the SP-treated group. Curiously, SP extract upregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) gene expression comparable to that of the EtOH-treated rats. Aggregately, SP exerted antiulcer activities in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat models via modulation of oxidant/antioxidant status, mitigation of proinflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis, as well as remodeling of both NOS isoforms.
Project description:Background:Gastric ulcer (GU) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can be induced by many factors. Finding an effective treatment method that contains fewer side effects is important. 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 is a kind of protopanaxadiol and has shown superior antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in many studies, especially cancer studies. In this study, we examined the treatment efficacy of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on GU. Methods:Three kinds of GU models, including an alcohol GU model, a pylorus-ligated GU model, and an acetic acid GU model, were used. Mouse endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in blood and epidermal growth factor (EGF), superoxide dismutase, and NO levels in gastric mucosa were evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of gastric mucosa and immunohistochemical staining of ET-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and epidermal growth factor receptors were studied. Ulcer index (UI) scores and UI ratios were also analyzed to demonstrate the GU conditions in different groups. Furthermore, Glide XP from Schrödinger was used for molecular docking to clarify the interactions between 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and EGF and NOS2. Results:20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 significantly decreased the UI scores and UI ratios in all the three GU models, and it demonstrated antiulcer effects by decreasing the ET-1 and NOS2 levels and increasing the NO, superoxide dismutase, EGF, and epidermal growth factor receptor levels. In addition, high-dose 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 showed satisfactory gastric mucosa protection effects. Conclusion:20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 can inhibit the formation of GU and may be a potential therapeutic agent for GU.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular events. The prevalence of gastroduodenal injuries and the risk factor profile including gastroprotective drug therapy needs to be clarified in Japanese patients taking daily aspirin for cardioprotection. METHODS: This Management of Aspirin-induced Gastro-Intestinal Complications (MAGIC) study was conducted with a prospective nationwide, multicenter, real-world registry of Japanese patients at high-risk of cardiovascular diseases who were taking regular aspirin (75-325 mg) for 1 month or more. All patients underwent endoscopic examination for detection of gastroduodenal ulcer and mucosal erosion. The risk factor profiles including the concurrent drug therapy were compared for those patients with gastroduodenal problems and those without. RESULTS: Gastroduodenal ulcer and erosion were detected in 6.5, and 29.2% of the 1,454 patients receiving aspirin, respectively. H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk for ulcer: OR 1.83 (1.18-2.88 p = 0.0082). Risk of erosion was lower with enteric-coated aspirin than with buffered aspirin: odds ratio (OR) 0.47 (0.32-0.70, p = 0.0002). Patients receiving proton pump inhibitors had lower risks for both gastroduodenal ulcer and erosion: OR 0.34 (0.15-0.68, p = 0.0050) and 0.32 (0.22-0.46, p < 0.0001), respectively. However, those receiving histamine 2-receptor antagonists had reduced risks for erosion but not for ulcer: OR 0.49 (0.36-0.68, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Gastroduodenal ulcer and erosion are common in Japanese patients taking low dose aspirin for cardioprotection. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the risk of gastroduodenal mucosal injury.
Project description:Osyris quadripartita (OQ) Salzm. ex Decne. has been used to treat peptic ulcer disease in Ethiopian folk medicine, but its efficacy has not been validated. The present study was therefore carried out to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of 80% methanol leaf extract of OQ in rats. The effect of OQ extract on gastric ulcer in rats in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced models was studied using single dosing (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and repeated dosing (200 mg/kg for 10 and 20 days) approaches. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and sucralfate (100 mg/kg) were used as the standard drugs. Depending on the model, outcome measures were volume and pH of gastric fluid, total acidity, ulcer score, percent inhibition of ulcer score, ulcer index as well as percent inhibition of ulcer index. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc test, and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. OQ significantly (P<0.001) reduced gastric ulcer index by 55.82% and 62.11%, respectively, in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced ulcer models at the 400 mg/kg dose, which is comparable to the standard drugs. Ten and 20 days pre-treatment with OQ200 exhibited significant (P<0.001) ulcer inhibition by 66.48% and 68.36% (pylorus ligation-induced model) as well as 71.48% and 85.35% (ethanol-induced model), respectively. OQ possesses both dose-dependent and time-dependent anti-ulcer effect in the two models. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) is estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg for the crude hydroalcoholic extract, and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, and saponins were present. The findings of this study confirmed that OQ has anti-ulcer pharmacologic activity due to one or more of the secondary metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its anti-ulcer use in Ethiopian folk medicine. Further investigations on isolation of specific phytochemicals and elucidating mechanisms of action are needed.
Project description:Double pylorus is an uncommon clinical condition that can be acquired or congenital. Most acquired cases arise as a complication of peptic ulcer disease and less commonly from other conditions such as gastric malignancy. We present a case of double pylorus in a cirrhotic patient diagnosed during surveillance endoscopy for esophageal varices.