Bioavailability of Sulforaphane Following Ingestion of Glucoraphanin-Rich Broccoli Sprout and Seed Extracts with Active Myrosinase: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitor Administration.
ABSTRACT: We examined whether gastric acidity would affect the activity of myrosinase, co-delivered with glucoraphanin (GR), to convert GR to sulforaphane (SF). A broccoli seed and sprout extract (BSE) rich in GR and active myrosinase was delivered before and after participants began taking the anti-acid omeprazole, a potent proton pump inhibitor. Gastric acidity appears to attenuate GR bioavailability, as evidenced by more SF and its metabolites being excreted after participants started taking omeprazole. Enteric coating enhanced conversion of GR to SF, perhaps by sparing myrosinase from the acidity of the stomach. There were negligible effects of age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, vegetable consumption, and bowel movement frequency and quality. Greater body mass correlated with reduced conversion efficiency. Changes in the expression of 20 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated as possible pharmacodynamic indicators. When grouped by their primary functions based on a priori knowledge, expression of genes associated with inflammation decreased non-significantly, and those genes associated with cytoprotection, detoxification and antioxidant functions increased significantly with bioavailability. Using principal components analysis, component loadings of the changes in gene expression confirmed these groupings in a sensitivity analysis.
Project description:Glucoraphanin from broccoli and its sprouts and seeds is a water soluble and relatively inert precursor of sulforaphane, the reactive isothiocyanate that potently inhibits neoplastic cellular processes and prevents a number of disease states. Sulforaphane is difficult to deliver in an enriched and stable form for purposes of direct human consumption. We have focused upon evaluating the bioavailability of sulforaphane, either by direct administration of glucoraphanin (a glucosinolate, or ?-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfate), or by co-administering glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase to catalyze its conversion to sulforaphane at economic, reproducible and sustainable yields. We show that following administration of glucoraphanin in a commercially prepared dietary supplement to a small number of human volunteers, the volunteers had equivalent output of sulforaphane metabolites in their urine to that which they produced when given an equimolar dose of glucoraphanin in a simple boiled and lyophilized extract of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, when either broccoli sprouts or seeds are administered directly to subjects without prior extraction and consequent inactivation of endogenous myrosinase, regardless of the delivery matrix or dose, the sulforaphane in those preparations is 3- to 4-fold more bioavailable than sulforaphane from glucoraphanin delivered without active plant myrosinase. These data expand upon earlier reports of inter- and intra-individual variability, when glucoraphanin was delivered in either teas, juices, or gelatin capsules, and they confirm that a variety of delivery matrices may be equally suitable for glucoraphanin supplementation (e.g. fruit juices, water, or various types of capsules and tablets).
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults.Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 ?mol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-?mol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ?3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21).We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials.
Project description:Myrosinase is an enzyme present in many functional foods and spices, particularly in Cruciferous vegetables. It hydrolyses glucosinolates which thereafter rearrange into bioactive volatile constituents (isothiocyanates, nitriles). We aimed to develop a simple reversible method for on-gel detection of myrosinase. Reagent composition and application parameters for native PAGE and SDS-PAGE gels were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to detect myrosinase (or sulfatase) on-gel: the detection solution contains methyl red which gives intensive red bands where the HSO?- is enzymatically released from the glucosinolates. Subsequently, myrosinase was successfully distinguished from sulfatase by incubating gel bands in a derivatization solution and examination by LC-ESI-MS: myrosinase produced allyl isothiocyanate (detected in conjugate form) while desulfo-sinigrin was released by sulfatase, as expected. After separation of 80 µg protein of crude extracts of Cruciferous vegetables, intensive color develops within 10 min. On-gel detection was found to be linear between 0.031?0.25 U (pure Sinapis alba myrosinase, R² = 0.997). The method was successfully applied to detection of myrosinase isoenzymes from horseradish, Cruciferous vegetables and endophytic fungi of horseradish as well. The method was shown to be very simple, rapid and efficient. It enables detection and partial characterization of glucosinolate decomposing enzymes without protein purification.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the acidity of gastric contents could be an important factor in regulating jejunal flora. AIMS: To investigate the effects of omeprazole induced changes in gastric pH on jejunal flora and bile acid metabolism. METHODS: Twenty one patients with gastric ulcer and 19 healthy volunteers were studied. Deconjugation of bile acids was detected using a bile acid breath test. Jejunal fluid was aspirated using a double lumen tube with a rubber cover on the tip and deconjugation was examined using thin layer chromatography. Fat malabsorption was detected by a triolein breath test. RESULTS: In the bile acid breath test, expired breath samples from all patients and healthy volunteers showed significantly greater 14CO2 specific activity after omeprazole treatment (20 mg/day) than before treatment. Bacterial overgrowth was found in the jejunal fluid and gastric juice of both ulcer patients and healthy volunteers after omeprazole treatment. The following species were identified: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, enterococcus, Lactobacillus bifidus, Bacteroides vulgatus, B uniformis, Eubacterium lentum, Eu parvum, and Corynebacterium granulosum. All of these species, except E coli and C albicans, deconjugate bile acids. There was a significant correlation between 14CO2 activity and gastric pH, both before and after omeprazole treatment in both groups. The triolein breath test revealed impaired fat absorption in both groups after omeprazole treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Both patients with gastric ulcer and healthy volunteers exhibited increased deconjugation of bile acids caused by bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum and fat malabsorption after omeprazole treatment. The bacterial over-growth consisted of both anaerobes and aerobes with deconjugation ability and was probably associated with an omeprazole induced shift to neutral pH in the gastric juice.
Project description:In both human subjects and rodent models, Helicobacter infection leads to a decrease in Shh expression in the stomach. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is highly expressed in the gastric corpus and its loss correlates with gastric atrophy. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines induce gastric atrophy by inhibiting Shh expression.Shh-LacZ reporter mice were infected with Helicobacter felis for 3 and 8 weeks. Changes in Shh expression were monitored using beta-galactosidase staining and immunohistochemistry. Gastric acidity was measured after infection, and interleukin (IL)-1beta was quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mice were injected with either IL-1beta or omeprazole before measuring Shh mRNA expression and acid secretion. Organ cultures of gastric glands from wild-type or IL-1R1 null mice were treated with IL-1beta then Shh expression was measured. Primary canine parietal or mucous cells were treated with IL-1beta. Shh protein was determined by immunoblot analysis. Changes in intracellular calcium were measured by Fura-2.All major cell lineages of the corpus including surface pit, mucous neck, zymogenic, and parietal cells expressed Shh. Helicobacter infection reduced gastric acidity and inhibited Shh expression in parietal cells by 3 weeks. IL-1beta produced during Helicobacter infection inhibited gastric acid, intracellular calcium, and Shh expression through the IL-1 receptor. Suppression of parietal cell Shh expression by IL-1beta and omeprazole was additive. IL-1beta did not suppress Shh expression in primary gastric mucous cells.IL-1beta suppresses Shh gene expression in parietal cells by inhibiting acid secretion and subsequently the release of intracellular calcium.
Project description:Myrosinase, which is present in cruciferous plant species, plays an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosides such as glucosinolates and is involved in plant defense. Brassicaceae myrosinases are diverse although they share common ancestry, and structural knowledge about myrosinases from cabbage (Brassica oleracea) was needed. To address this, we constructed a three-dimensional model structure of myrosinase based on Sinapis alba structures using Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server (I-TASSER) webserver, and refined model coordinates were evaluated with ProQ and Verify3D. The resulting model was predicted with ?/? fold, ten conserved N-glycosylation sites, and three disulfide bridges. In addition, this model shared features with the known Sinapis alba myrosinase structure. To obtain a better understanding of myrosinase-sinigrin interaction, the refined model was docked using Autodock Vina with crucial key amino acids. The key nucleophile residues GLN207 and GLU427 were found to interact with sinigrin to form a hydrogen bond. Further, 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to examine myrosinase-sinigrin complex stability, revealing that residue GLU207 maintained its hydrogen bond stability throughout the entire simulation and structural orientation was similar to that of the docked state. This conceptual model should be useful for understanding the structural features of myrosinase and their binding orientation with sinigrin.
Project description:The ability of a specialized herbivore to overcome the chemical defense of a particular plant taxon not only makes it accessible as a food source but may also provide metabolites to be exploited for communication or chemical defense. Phyllotreta flea beetles are adapted to crucifer plants (Brassicales) that are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the so-called "mustard-oil bomb." Tissue damage caused by insect feeding brings glucosinolates into contact with the plant enzyme myrosinase, which hydrolyzes them to form toxic compounds, such as isothiocyanates. However, we previously observed that Phyllotreta striolata beetles themselves produce volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Here, we show that P. striolata adults selectively accumulate glucosinolates from their food plants to up to 1.75% of their body weight and express their own myrosinase. By combining proteomics and transcriptomics, a gene responsible for myrosinase activity in P. striolata was identified. The major substrates of the heterologously expressed myrosinase were aliphatic glucosinolates, which were hydrolyzed with at least fourfold higher efficiency than aromatic and indolic glucosinolates, and ?-O-glucosides. The identified beetle myrosinase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and has up to 76% sequence similarity to other ?-glucosidases. Phylogenetic analyses suggest species-specific diversification of this gene family in insects and an independent evolution of the beetle myrosinase from other insect ?-glucosidases.
Project description:The 1.6 A resolution structure of the micromolar competitive inhibitor S-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) phenylacetothiohydroximate-O-sulfate bound to Sinapis alba myrosinase, a plant thioglucosidase, is reported. Myrosinase and its substrates, the glucosinolates, are part of the plant's defence system. The sulfate group and the phenyl group of the inhibitor bind to the aglycon-binding site of the enzyme, whereas the N,N-dimethyl group binds to the glucose-binding site and explains the large improvement in binding affinity compared with previous compounds. The structure suggests ways to increase the potency and specificity of the compound by improving the interactions with the hydrophobic pocket of the aglycon-binding site.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>GastroGard, an omeprazole powder paste formulation, is considered the standard treatment for gastric ulcers in horses and is highly effective. Gastrozol, an enteric-coated omeprazole formulation for horses, has recently become available, but efficacy data are controversial and sparse.<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the efficacy of GastroGard and Gastrozol at labeled doses (4 and 1 mg of omeprazole per kg bwt, respectively, PO q24h) in healing of gastric ulcers.<h4>Animals</h4>40 horses; 9.5 ± 4.6 years; 491 ± 135 kg.<h4>Methods</h4>Prospective, randomized, blinded study. Horses with an ulcer score ?1 (Equine Gastric Ulcer Council) were randomly divided into 2 groups and treated for 2 weeks each with GastroGard followed by Gastrozol (A) or vice versa (B). After 2 and 4 weeks, scoring was repeated and compared with baseline. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were measured on the first day of treatment after administration of GastroGard (n = 5) or Gastrozol (n = 5).<h4>Results</h4>Compared with baseline (squamous score (A) 1.65 ± 0.11, (B) 1.98 ± 0.11), ulcer scores at 2 weeks ((A) 0.89 ± 0.11, (B) 1.01 ± 0.11) and 4 weeks ((A) 1.10 ± 0.12, (B) 0.80 ± 0.12) had significantly decreased in both groups (P < .001), independent of treatment (P = .7). Plasma omeprazole concentrations were significantly higher after GastroGard compared with Gastrozol administration (AUCGG = 2856 (1405-4576) ng/mL × h, AUCGZ = 604 (430-1609) ng/mL × h; P = .03). The bioavailability for Gastrozol was 1.26 (95% CI 0.56-2.81) times higher than for GastroGard.<h4>Conclusions and clinical importance</h4>Both Gastrozol and GastroGard, combined with appropriate environmental changes, promote healing of gastric ulcers in horses. However, despite enteric coating of Gastrozol, plasma omeprazole concentrations after single labeled doses were significantly higher with GastroGard.
Project description:Glucosinolates (GLSs) are a well-defined group of specialized metabolites, and like any other plant specialized metabolites, their presence does not directly affect the plant survival in terms of growth and development. However, specialized metabolites are essential to combat environmental stresses, such as pathogens and herbivores. GLSs naturally occur in many pungent plants in the order of Brassicales. To date, more than 200 different GLS structures have been characterized and their distribution differs from species to species. GLSs co-exist with classical and atypical myrosinases, which can hydrolyze GLS into an unstable aglycone thiohydroximate-O-sulfonate, which rearranges to produce different degradation products. GLSs, myrosinases, myrosinase interacting proteins, and GLS degradation products constitute the GLS-myrosinase (GM) system ("mustard oil bomb"). This review discusses the cellular and subcellular organization of the GM system, its chemodiversity, and functions in different cell types. Although there are many studies on the functions of GLSs and/or myrosinases at the tissue and whole plant levels, very few studies have focused on different single cell types. Single cell type studies will help to reveal specific functions that are missed at the tissue and organismal level. This review aims to highlight (1) recent progress in cellular and subcellular compartmentation of GLSs, myrosinases, and myrosinase interacting proteins; (2) molecular and biochemical diversity of GLSs and myrosinases; and (3) myrosinase interaction with its interacting proteins, and how it regulates the degradation of GLSs and thus the biological functions (e.g., plant defense against pathogens). Future prospects may include targeted approaches for engineering/breeding of plants and crops in the cell type-specific manner toward enhanced plant defense and nutrition.