Niclosamide reverses adipocyte induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells via suppression of the interleukin-6/STAT3 signalling axis.
ABSTRACT: The microenvironment of breast cancer comprises predominantly of adipocytes. Adipocytes drive cancer progression through the secretion adipocytokines. Adipocytes induce epithelial mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells through paracrine IL-6/Stat3 signalling. Treatment approaches that can target adipocytes in the microenvironment and abrogate paracrine signals that drive breast cancer growth and metastasis are urgently needed. Repositioning of old drugs has become an effective approach for discovering new cancer drugs. In this study, niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelminthic drug was evaluated for its anti-breast cancer activity and its ability to inhibit adipocytes induced EMT. Niclosamide potently inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion at low concentration and induced significant apoptosis at high concentrations in human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7. Additionally, niclosamide reversed adipocyte-induced EMT with a correlated inhibition of IL-6/Stat3 activation and downregulation of EMT-TFs TWIST and SNAIL. Moreover, niclosamide markedly impaired MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 migration and invasion. We further found that the inhibitory effects of niclosamide on MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 motility was closely related to destabilization of focal adhesion complex formation. With decreased co-localization of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylated paxillin (pPAX). Collectively, these results demonstrate that niclosamide could be used to inhibit adipocyte-induced breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Project description:Hypoxia is an element of the tumour microenvironment that impacts upon numerous cellular factors linked to clinical aggressiveness in cancer. One such factor, Snail, a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been implicated in key tumour biological processes such as invasion and metastasis. In this study we set out to investigate regulation of EMT in hypoxia, and the importance of Snail in cell migration and clinical outcome in breast cancer.Four breast cancer cell lines were exposed to 0.1% oxygen and expression of EMT markers was monitored. The migratory ability was analysed following Snail overexpression and silencing. Snail expression was assessed in 500 tumour samples from premenopausal breast cancer patients, randomised to either 2 years of tamoxifen or no adjuvant treatment.Exposure to 0.1% oxygen resulted in elevated levels of Snail protein, along with changes in vimentin and E-cadherin expression, and in addition increased migration of MDA-MB-468 cells. Overexpression of Snail increased the motility of MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas silencing of the protein resulted in decreased migratory propensity of MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, nuclear Snail expression was associated with tumours of higher grade and proliferation rate, but not with disease recurrence. Interestingly, Snail negativity was associated with impaired tamoxifen response (P=0.048).Our results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Snail expression but generally not a migratory phenotype, suggesting that hypoxic cells are only partially pushed towards EMT. Furthermore, our study supports the link between Snail and clinically relevant features and treatment response.
Project description:Objective: Although it is well known that adipocyte significantly affects breast cancer progression, its mechanism has not been fully understood. Here, we analyzed the effect of adipocytes on breast cancer progression including cell proliferation and migration. Materials and Methods: We treated the conditioned media obtained from mouse 3T3-L1-derived or human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC)-derived adipocytes to breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. And then, cells viability and proliferation were analyzed using MTT assays and colony forming assays, respectively. Also mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and proteins expression in main signal pathway were analyzed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Results: Adipocyte-derived conditioned media increased the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells while little effects in a human normal immortalized mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A. In addition, adipocyte-derived conditioned media induced phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR and upregulated the expression of target genes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway including IL6, IL1?, IL1? and TNF? in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, BEZ235 a dual inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR significantly decreased the adipocyte-mediated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Conclusion: Adipocyte-derived conditioned media enhance the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, supporting the importance of heterotypic interactions between breast cancer cells and adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Signaling by urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) can cause epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cultured breast cancer cells. In this report, we show that uPAR signaling can also induce cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties. Ectopic overexpression of uPAR in human MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells promoted the emergence of a CD24(-)/CD44(+) phenotype, characteristic of CSCs, while increasing the cell surface abundance of integrin subunits ?1/CD29 and ?6/CD49f that represent putative mammary gland stem cell biomarkers. uPAR overexpression increased mammosphere formation in vitro and tumor formation in an immunocompromized severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of orthotopic breast cancer. Hypoxic conditions that are known to induce EMT in MDA-MB-468 cells also increased cell surface ?1/CD29, mimicking the effects of uPAR overexpression. Antagonizing uPAR effector signaling pathways reversed the increase in cell surface integrin expression. Whereas uPAR overexpression did not induce EMT in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, CSC-like properties were nevertheless still induced along with an increase in tumor initiation and growth in the orthotopic setting in SCID mice. Notably, in MCF-7 cell mammospheres, which display a well-defined acinus-like structure with polarized expression of E-cadherin and ?1-integrin, cell collapse into the central cavity was decreased by uPAR overexpression, suggesting that uPAR signaling may stabilize epithelial morphology. In summary, our findings show that uPAR signaling can induce CSC-like properties in breast cancer cells, either concomitantly with or separately from EMT.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of overall breast cancer. A lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 receptor) makes TNBC more aggressive and metastatic. Wnt signaling is one of the important pathways in the cellular process; in TNBC it is aberrantly regulated, which leads to the progression and metastasis. In this study, we designed a therapeutic strategy using a combination of a low dose of paclitaxel and a Wnt signaling inhibitor (XAV939), and examined the effect of the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment on diverse breast cancer lines including TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and BT549) and ER+ve cell lines (MCF-7 and T-47D). The combination treatment of paclitaxel (20 nM) and XAV939 (10 µM) exerted a comparable therapeutic effect on MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT549, MCF-7, and T-47D cell lines, relative to paclitaxel with a high dose (200 nM). The paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment induced apoptosis by suppressing Bcl-2 and by increasing the cleavage of caspases-3 and PARP. In addition, the in vivo results of the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment in a mice model with the MDA-MB-231 xenograft further confirmed its therapeutic effect. Furthermore, the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment reduced the expression of β-catenin, a key molecule in the Wnt pathway, which led to suppression of the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and angiogenic proteins both at mRNA and protein levels. The expression level of E-cadherin was raised, which potentially indicates the inhibition of EMT. Importantly, the breast tumor induced by pristane was significantly reduced by the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment. Overall, the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 regimen was found to induce apoptosis and to inhibit Wnt signaling, resulting in the suppression of EMT and angiogenesis. For the first time, we report that our combination approach using a low dose of paclitaxel and XAV939 could be conducive to treating TNBC and an external carcinogen-induced breast cancer.
Project description:Breast cancer is second most prevalent cancer in women, and the second only to lung cancer in cancer-related deaths. It is a heterogeneous disease and has several subtypes based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hormone receptor-positive and HER2-enriched cancers can be targeted using hormone and HER2-targeting therapies such as trastuzumab or lapatinib. However, triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) do not express any of the receptors and therefore are resistant to most targeted therapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapies are the only viable option available for the treatment of TNBCs. Recently, cardiac glycosides (CGs) have emerged as potential anticancer agents that impart their antiproliferative effect by targeting multiple pathways. In this study our aim was to evaluate anticancer effects of two naturally occurring CGs, Convallatoxin (CT) and Peruvoside (PS), on ER+ and TNBCs cells. CT and PS demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells, which was further supported by loss of colony formation on drug treatment. CT and PS arrested MCF-7 cells in the G0/G1 phase and reduced the viability of MCF-7-derived mammospheres (MMs). Interestingly, while CT and PS imparted cell death in TNBCs cells from both Caucasians (MDA-MB-231 cells) and African Americans (MDA-MB-468 cells) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, the drugs were much more potent in MDA-MB-468 as compared with TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Both drugs significantly inhibited migration and invasion of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. An assessment of intracellular pathways indicated that both drugs were able to modulate several key cellular pathways such as EMT, cell cycle, proliferation and cell death in both cell types. Our data suggest a promising role for CGs in breast cancer treatment specifically in targeting TNBCs derived from African Americans, and provides impetus for further investigation of the anticancer potential of this class of drugs.
Project description:The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes tumor migration and invasion by downregulating epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and upregulating mesenchymal markers such as vimentin. Cathepsin L (Cat L) is a cysteine protease that can proteolytically activate CCAAT displacement protein/cut homeobox transcription factor (CUX1). We hypothesized that nuclear Cat L may promote EMT via CUX1 and that this could be antagonized with the Cat L-specific inhibitor Z-FY-CHO. Mesenchymal prostate (ARCaP-M and ARCaP-E overexpressing Snail) and breast (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 overexpressing Snail) cancer cells expressed lower E-cadherin activity, higher Snail, vimentin, and Cat L activity, and a p110/p90 active CUX1 form, compared to epithelial prostate (ARCaP-E and ARCaP-Neo) and breast (MCF-7 and MCF-7 Neo) cancer cells. There was increased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter in mesenchymal cells compared to epithelial prostate and breast cells. Treatment of mesenchymal cells with the Cat L inhibitor Z-FY-CHO led to nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of Cat L, decreased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter, reversed EMT, and decreased cell migration/invasion. Overall, our novel data suggest that a positive feedback loop between Snail-nuclear Cat L-CUX1 drives EMT, which can be antagonized by Z-FY-CHO. Therefore, Z-FY-CHO may be an important therapeutic tool to antagonize EMT and cancer progression.
Project description:Hypoxia is a feature of the microenvironment of many cancers and can trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process by which cells acquire a more invasive phenotype with enriched survival. A remodeling of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced Ca(2+) signaling via purinergic receptors is associated with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. Here, we assessed ATP-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in a model of hypoxia-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 cells. Like EGF, hypoxia treatment (1% O2) was also associated with a significant reduction in the sensitivity of MDA-MB-468 cells to ATP (EC50 of 0.5 ?M for normoxic cells versus EC50 of 5.8 ?M for hypoxic cells). Assessment of mRNA levels of a panel of P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors following hypoxia revealed a change in levels of a suite of purinergic receptors. P2X4, P2X5, P2X7, P2Y1 and P2Y11 mRNAs decreased with hypoxia, whereas P2Y6 mRNA increased. Up-regulation of P2Y6 was a common feature of both growth factor- and hypoxia-induced models of EMT. P2Y6 levels were also significantly increased in basal-like breast tumors compared to other subtypes and breast cancer patients with higher P2Y6 levels showed reduced overall survival rates. P2Y6 siRNA-mediated silencing and the P2Y6 pharmacological inhibitor MRS2578 reduced hypoxia-induced vimentin protein expression in MDA-MB-468 cells. P2Y6 inhibition also reduced the migration of mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The up-regulation of P2Y6 appears to be a common feature of the mesenchymal phenotype of breast cancer cells and inhibition of this receptor may represent a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:In addition to their well-defined roles in replenishing depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) reserves, molecular components of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry pathway regulate breast cancer metastasis. A process implicated in cancer metastasis that describes the conversion to a more invasive phenotype is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study we show that EGF-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is associated with a reduction in agonist-stimulated and store-operated Ca(2+) influx, and that MDA-MB-468 cells prior to EMT induction have a high level of non-stimulated Ca(2+) influx. The potential roles for specific Ca(2+) channels in these pathways were assessed by siRNA-mediated silencing of ORAI1 and transient receptor potential canonical type 1 (TRPC1) channels in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. Non-stimulated, agonist-stimulated and store-operated Ca(2+) influx were significantly inhibited with ORAI1 silencing. TRPC1 knockdown attenuated non-stimulated Ca(2+) influx in a manner dependent on Ca(2+) influx via ORAI1. TRPC1 silencing was also associated with reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and changes in the rate of Ca(2+) release from the ER associated with the inhibition of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (time to peak [Ca(2+)](CYT) = 188.7 ± 34.6 s (TRPC1 siRNA) versus 124.0 ± 9.5 s (non-targeting siRNA); P<0.05). These studies indicate that EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is associated with a pronounced remodeling of Ca(2+) influx, which may be due to altered ORAI1 and/or TRPC1 channel function. Our findings also suggest that TRPC1 channels in MDA-MB-468 cells contribute to ORAI1-mediated Ca(2+) influx in non-stimulated cells.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most difficult breast cancers to treat because there is no targeted treatment, and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy is the standard of care for patients with TNBC. We herein reported that ionizing radiation (IR) induced Wnt3a, LRP6 and ?-catenin expression and consequently activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling in TNBC MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578T cells. Moreover, depletion of ?-catenin by shRNA sensitized TNBC cells to IR, whereas treatment of Wnt3a protein or overexpression of ?-catenin resulted in radioresistance of TNBC cells. Niclosamide, a potent inhibitor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, not only inhibited constitutive Wnt/?-catenin signaling, but also blocked IR-induced Wnt/?-catenin signaling in TNBC cells. In addition, niclosamide sensitized TNBC cells to IR, prevented Wnt3a-induced radioresistance, and overcame ?-catenin-induced radioresistance in TNBC cells. Importantly, animals treated with the combination of niclosamide and ?-ray local tumor irradiation had significant inhibition of MDA-MB-231 tumor growth compared with treated with local tumor irradiation alone. These findings indicate that Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of radioresistance of TNBC cells, and that niclosamide had significant radiosensitizing effects by inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin signaling in TNBC cells. Our study also provides rationale for further preclinical and clinical evaluation of niclosamide in TNBC management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) is highly expressed in certain types of tumors and functions in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and growth. However, it is still not clear regarding the roles of Sema4D in breast cancer. This study was designed to explore the effects of Sema4D on proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, invasion, migration, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The expression level of Sema4D was investigated in MCF10A, 184A1, HCC1937, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, BT474, MCF-7, and T47D breast cancer cell lines by Western blotting analysis. Sema4D downregulation or overexpression was established by infection with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or Sema4D. To evaluate the effects of Sema4D on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, methods including MTT assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell experiments were applied. BALB/c nude mice were injected with MDA-MB-231 cells, which were respectively infected with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D, Sema4D shRNA, and GFP, followed by tumor angiogenesis assay. RESULTS:Sema4D was expressed at higher levels in breast cancer cell lines compared with the normal human breast epithelial cell lines, especially in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Cell proliferation ability was remarkably inhibited in Sema4D downregulated condition, whereas the proportions of cells in the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis increased in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, the invasion and migration abilities of these cells were obviously reduced. Xenograft growth as well as angiogenesis was inhibited when infected with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D shRNA in vivo. CONCLUSION:Downregulation of Sema4D had notable influence on cell proliferation ability, invasion, migration, and apoptosis of both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, infection with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D shRNA obviously inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in BALB/c nude mice. Our results showed that Sema4D may represent a novel therapeutic target for human breast cancer.