SGEF forms a complex with Scribble and Dlg1 and regulates epithelial junctions and contractility.
ABSTRACT: The canonical Scribble polarity complex is implicated in regulation of epithelial junctions and apical polarity. Here, we show that SGEF, a RhoG-specific GEF, forms a ternary complex with Scribble and Dlg1, two members of the Scribble complex. SGEF targets to apical junctions in a Scribble-dependent fashion and functions in the regulation of actomyosin-based contractility and barrier function at tight junctions as well as E-cadherin-mediated formation of adherens junctions. Surprisingly, SGEF does not control the establishment of polarity. However, in 3D cysts, SGEF regulates the formation of a single open lumen. Interestingly, SGEF's nucleotide exchange activity regulates the formation and maintenance of adherens junctions, and in cysts the number of lumens formed, whereas SGEF's scaffolding activity is critical for regulation of actomyosin contractility and lumen opening. We propose that SGEF plays a key role in coordinating junctional assembly and actomyosin contractility by bringing together Scribble and Dlg1 and targeting RhoG activation to cell-cell junctions.
Project description:Apical-basal polarity is a fundamental property of animal tissues. Drosophila embryos provide an outstanding model for defining mechanisms that initiate and maintain polarity. Polarity is initiated during cellularization, when cell-cell adherens junctions are positioned at the future boundary of apical and basolateral domains. Polarity maintenance then involves complementary and antagonistic interplay between apical and basal polarity complexes. The Scribble/Dlg module is well-known for promoting basolateral identity during polarity maintenance. Here, we report a surprising role for Scribble/Dlg in polarity initiation, placing it near the top of the network-positioning adherens junctions. Scribble and Dlg are enriched in nascent adherens junctions, are essential for adherens junction positioning and supermolecular assembly, and also play a role in basal junction assembly. We test the hypotheses for the underlying mechanisms, exploring potential effects on protein trafficking, cytoskeletal polarity or Par-1 localization/function. Our data suggest that the Scribble/Dlg module plays multiple roles in polarity initiation. Different domains of Scribble contribute to these distinct roles. Together, these data reveal novel roles for Scribble/Dlg as master scaffolds regulating assembly of distinct junctional complexes at different times and places.
Project description:Three groups of evolutionarily conserved proteins have been implicated in the establishment of epithelial cell polarity: the apically-localized proteins of the Par (Par3-Par6-aPKC-Cdc42) and Crumbs groups (Crb3-PALS1-PATJ) and the basolaterally localized proteins of the Dlg group (Dlg1-Scribble-Lgl). During epithelial morphogenesis, these proteins participate in a complex network of interdependent interactions that define the position and functional organization of adherens junctions and tight junctions. However, the biochemical pathways through which they control polarity are poorly understood. In this study, we identify an interaction between endogenous hDlg1 and MPP7, a previously uncharacterized MAGUK-p55 subfamily member. We find that MPP7 targets to the lateral surface of epithelial cells via its L27N domain, through an interaction with hDlg1. Loss of either hDlg1 or MPP7 from epithelial Caco-2 cells results in a significant defect in the assembly and maintenance of functional tight junctions. We conclude that the formation of a complex between hDlg1 and MPP7 promotes epithelial cell polarity and tight junction formation.
Project description:During development, forces transmitted between cells are critical for sculpting epithelial tissues. Actomyosin contractility in the middle of the cell apex (medioapical) can change cell shape (e.g., apical constriction) but can also result in force transmission between cells via attachments to adherens junctions. How actomyosin networks maintain attachments to adherens junctions under tension is poorly understood. Here, we discovered that microtubules promote actomyosin intercellular attachments in epithelia during <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> mesoderm invagination. First, we used live imaging to show a novel arrangement of the microtubule cytoskeleton during apical constriction: medioapical Patronin (CAMSAP) foci formed by actomyosin contraction organized an apical noncentrosomal microtubule network. Microtubules were required for mesoderm invagination but were not necessary for initiating apical contractility or adherens junction assembly. Instead, microtubules promoted connections between medioapical actomyosin and adherens junctions. These results delineate a role for coordination between actin and microtubule cytoskeletal systems in intercellular force transmission during tissue morphogenesis.
Project description:Actomyosin contraction generates mechanical forces that influence cell and tissue structure. During convergent extension in Drosophila melanogaster, the spatially regulated activity of the myosin activator Rho-kinase promotes actomyosin contraction at specific planar cell boundaries to produce polarized cell rearrangement. The mechanisms that direct localized Rho-kinase activity are not well understood. We show that Rho GTPase recruits Rho-kinase to adherens junctions and is required for Rho-kinase planar polarity. Shroom, an asymmetrically localized actin- and Rho-kinase-binding protein, amplifies Rho-kinase and myosin II planar polarity and junctional localization downstream of Rho signaling. In Shroom mutants, Rho-kinase and myosin II achieve reduced levels of planar polarity, resulting in decreased junctional tension, a disruption of multicellular rosette formation, and defective convergent extension. These results indicate that Rho GTPase activity is required to establish a planar polarized actomyosin network, and the Shroom actin-binding protein enhances myosin contractility locally to generate robust mechanical forces during axis elongation.
Project description:The spatio-temporal regulation of small Rho GTPases is crucial for the dynamic stability of epithelial tissues. However, how RhoGTPase activity is controlled during development remains largely unknown. To explore the regulation of Rho GTPases in vivo, we analyzed the Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) Cysts, the <i>Drosophila</i> orthologue of mammalian p114RhoGEF, GEF-H1, p190RhoGEF, and AKAP-13. Loss of Cysts causes a phenotype that closely resembles the mutant phenotype of the apical polarity regulator Crumbs. This phenotype can be suppressed by the loss of basolateral polarity proteins, suggesting that Cysts is an integral component of the apical polarity protein network. We demonstrate that Cysts is recruited to the apico-lateral membrane through interactions with the Crumbs complex and Bazooka/Par3. Cysts activates Rho1 at adherens junctions and stabilizes junctional myosin. Junctional myosin depletion is similar in Cysts- and Crumbs-compromised embryos. Together, our findings indicate that Cysts is a downstream effector of the Crumbs complex and links apical polarity proteins to Rho1 and myosin activation at adherens junctions, supporting junctional integrity and epithelial polarity.
Project description:SGEF (SH3-containing Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor) is a RhoGEF of unknown function. We found the SGEF protein to be expressed in many established cell lines and highly expressed in human liver tissue. SGEF stimulated the formation of large interconnected membrane ruffles across dorsal surfaces when expressed in fibroblasts. SGEF required its proline-rich amino-terminus to generate dorsal, but not lateral, membrane ruffles and a functional SH3 domain to colocalize with filamentous actin at sites of membrane protrusion. Full-length SGEF activated RhoG, but not Rac, when expressed in fibroblasts. Further, recombinant SGEF DH/PH protein exchanged nucleotide on RhoG, but not on Rac1 or Rac3, in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy of fibroblasts demonstrated that SGEF induced dorsal ruffles that were morphologically similar to those generated by constitutively active RhoG, but not constitutively active Rac1. Transient expression of SGEF stimulated fibroblast uptake of 10-kDa dextran, a marker of macropinocytosis. This required the full-length protein and a catalytically active DH domain. Finally, activated RhoG was found to be more effective than activated Rac, and comparable to SGEF, in its ability to trigger dextran uptake. Together, this work establishes SGEF as a RhoG exchange factor and provides evidence that both SGEF and RhoG regulate membrane dynamics in promotion of macropinocytosis.
Project description:Although cellular tumor-suppression mechanisms are widely studied, little is known about mechanisms that act at the level of tissues to suppress the occurrence of aberrant cells in epithelia. We find that ectopic expression of transcription factors that specify cell fates causes abnormal epithelial cysts in Drosophila imaginal discs. Cysts do not form cell autonomously but result from the juxtaposition of two cell populations with divergent fates. Juxtaposition of wild-type and aberrantly specified cells induces enrichment of actomyosin at their entire shared interface, both at adherens junctions as well as along basolateral interfaces. Experimental validation of 3D vertex model simulations demonstrates that enhanced interface contractility is sufficient to explain many morphogenetic behaviors, which depend on cell cluster size. These range from cyst formation by intermediate-sized clusters to segregation of large cell populations by formation of smooth boundaries or apical constriction in small groups of cells. In addition, we find that single cells experiencing lateral interface contractility are eliminated from tissues by apoptosis. Cysts, which disrupt epithelial continuity, form when elimination of single, aberrantly specified cells fails and cells proliferate to intermediate cell cluster sizes. Thus, increased interface contractility functions as error correction mechanism eliminating single aberrant cells from tissues, but failure leads to the formation of large, potentially disease-promoting cysts. Our results provide a novel perspective on morphogenetic mechanisms, which arise from cell-fate heterogeneities within tissues and maintain or disrupt epithelial homeostasis.
Project description:During trans-endothelial migration (TEM), leukocytes use adhesion receptors such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) to adhere to the endothelium. In response to this interaction, the endothelium throws up dynamic membrane protrusions, forming a cup that partially surrounds the adherent leukocyte. Little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate cup formation. In this study, we show that RhoG is activated downstream from ICAM1 engagement. This activation requires the intracellular domain of ICAM1. ICAM1 colocalizes with RhoG and binds to the RhoG-specific SH3-containing guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (SGEF). The SH3 domain of SGEF mediates this interaction. Depletion of endothelial RhoG by small interfering RNA does not affect leukocyte adhesion but decreases cup formation and inhibits leukocyte TEM. Silencing SGEF also results in a substantial reduction in RhoG activity, cup formation, and TEM. Together, these results identify a new signaling pathway involving RhoG and its exchange factor SGEF downstream from ICAM1 that is critical for leukocyte TEM.
Project description:Interplay between apicobasal cell polarity modules and the cytoskeleton is critical for differentiation and integrity of epithelia. However, this coordination is poorly understood at the level of gene regulation by transcription factors. Here, we establish the Drosophila activating transcription factor 3 (atf3) as a cell polarity response gene acting downstream of the membrane-associated Scribble polarity complex. Loss of the tumor suppressors Scribble or Dlg1 induces atf3 expression via aPKC but independent of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Strikingly, removal of Atf3 from Dlg1 deficient cells restores polarized cytoarchitecture, levels and distribution of endosomal trafficking machinery, and differentiation. Conversely, excess Atf3 alters microtubule network, vesicular trafficking and the partition of polarity proteins along the apicobasal axis. Genomic and genetic approaches implicate Atf3 as a regulator of cytoskeleton organization and function, and identify Lamin C as one of its bona fide target genes. By affecting structural features and cell morphology, Atf3 functions in a manner distinct from other transcription factors operating downstream of disrupted cell polarity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:SH3-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SGEF), a RhoG-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), was consider as a key signal that determines cancer cell invasion. Although SGEF has been considered to highly express in glioma and prostate cancer. However, it is not well illustrated in LAC. METHODS:In this experiment, expression of SGEF was detected in 92 LAC and corresponding normal tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we evaluated the invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells by the gain and loss of SGEF expression. Furthermore, RhoG activity was measured by GST pull-down assay. RESULTS:SGEF is highly expressed in LAC tissues than in normal lung tissues and was associated with the TNM stage. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with low SGEF subgroup had longer overall survival compared to those with high expression. Furthermore, univariate analysis showed that SGEF expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. Silencing of SGEF effectively suppressed the invasion and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro by inhibiting RhoG activity, and over-expression of SGEF could reverse this phenomena. CONCLUSION:SGEF is a novel prognostic target in human lung adenocarcinoma.