DNA barcoding of Deltocephalus Burmeister leafhoppers (Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae, Deltocephalini) in China.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the feasibility of using the DNA barcode region in identifying Deltocephalus from China. Sequences of the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene were obtained for 98 specimens (Deltocephalus vulgaris - 88, Deltocephalus pulicaris - 5, Deltocephalus uncinatus - 5). The average genetic distances among morphological and geographical groups of D. vulgaris ranged from 0.9% to 6.3% and among the three species of Deltocephalus ranged from 16.4% to 21.9% without overlap, which effectively reveals the existence of a "DNA barcoding gap". It is important to assess the status of these morphological variants and explore the genetic variation among Chinese populations of D. vulgaris because the status of this species has led to taxonomic confusion because specimens representing two distinct morphological variants based on the form of the aedeagus are often encountered at a single locality. Forty-five haplotypes (D. vulgaris - 36, D. pulicaris - 5, D. uncinatus - 4) were defined to perform the phylogenetic analyses; they revealed no distinct lineages corresponding either to the two morphotypes of D. vulgaris or to geographical populations. Thus, there is no evidence that these variants represent genetically distinct species.
Project description:Species of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are mainly known as vectors of arboviruses such as bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV). Among the known vectors, few species within the subgenus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 have been implicated in the transmission of BTV and SBV. Nevertheless, phylogenetic studies had revealed the presence of cryptic and undescribed species in Europe, raising questions about their vectorial role. A previous integrative study, associating morphology and barcode data, raised the hypothesis of the presence of undescribed species in Slovakia. The present study, combining morphological and molecular approaches, is aimed to support the hypothesis and a description of Culicoides bysta n. sp. is provided.Series of male and female specimens were dissected and several of them were sequenced for the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses based on 72 cox1 sequences of the species belonging to the Pulicaris group of the subgenus Culicoides, were carried out and the frequencies of intra/interspecific variations were analyzed. The morphology of abundant material of the new species (31 females and 12 males) was examined and compared with the paratypes of Culicoides boyi Nielsen, Kristensen & Pape, 2015 and with specimens of Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus, 1758. For females, suture distances on the eyes were newly evaluated as a diagnostic character and for males we assessed a new measurement on the ninth tergite and on the apicolateral processes.Both phylogenetic analysis and barcode distances supported the distinct status of the new species, Culicoides bysta n. sp. described as a member of the Pulicaris group based on the morphology of males and females. The new species is closely related to C. boyi and C. pulicaris but can be distinguished on the basis of the wing pattern and the ratio between the two eye sutures. Both newly evaluated characters, i.e. eyes in females and male genitalia appeared to be diagnostic for distinguishing the new species described herein.The vector potential of the recently described species C. boyi and C. bysta n. sp. to transmit arboviruses, such as BTV and SBV, is unknown. When considering these two species as being close to C. pulicaris, the previous data, such as the vector implication for C. pulicaris in BTV transmission, should be revaluated in future.
Project description:The symbiotic systems (types of symbionts, their distribution in the host insect body, and their transovarial transmission between generations) of four Deltocephalinae leafhoppers: Fieberiella septentrionalis, Graphocraerus ventralis, Orientus ishidae, and Cicadula quadrinotata have been examined by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular techniques. In all four species, two types of symbionts are present: bacterium Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and yeast-like symbionts closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). Sulcia bacteria are always harbored in giant bacteriocytes, which are grouped into large organs termed "bacteriomes." In F. septentrionalis, G. ventralis, and O. ishidae, numerous yeast-like microorganisms are localized in cells of the fat body, whereas in C. quadrinotata, they occupy the cells of midgut epithelium in large number. Additionally, in C. quadrinotata, a small amount of yeast-like microorganisms occurs intracellularly in the fat body cells and, extracellularly, in the hemolymph. Sulcia bacteria in F. septentrionalis, G. ventralis, O. ishidae, and C. quadrinotata, and the yeast-like symbionts residing in the fat body of F. septentrionalis, G. ventralis, and O. ishidae are transovarially transmitted; i.e., they infect the ovarioles which constitute the ovaries.
Project description:Identification of pyraloid species is often hampered by highly similar external morphology requiring microscopic dissection of genitalia. This becomes especially obvious when mass samples from ecological studies or insect monitoring have to be analysed. DNA barcode sequences could accelerate identification, but are not available for most pyraloid species from New Zealand. Hence, we are presenting a first DNA-barcode library for this group, providing 440 COI barcodes (cytochrome C oxidase I sequences) for 73 morphologically-identified species, which is 29% of Pyraloidea known from New Zealand. Results are analysed using the Barcode Index Number system (BIN) of BOLD and the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method (ABGD). Using BIN, the 440 barcodes reveal 82 clusters. A perfect match between BIN assignment and morphological identification was found for 63 species (86.3%). Four species (5.5%) share BINs, each with two species in one BIN, of which <i>Glaucocharis epiphaea</i> and <i>Glaucocharis harmonica</i> even share the same barcode. In contrast, six species (8.2%) split into two or more BINs, with the highest number of five BINs for <i>Orocrambus ramosellus</i>. The interspecific variation of all collected specimens of New Zealand Pyraloidea averages 12.54%. There are deep intraspecific divergences (> 2%) in seven species, for instance <i>Orocrambus vulgaris</i> with up to 6.6% and <i>Scoparia ustimacula</i> with 5.5%. Using ABGD, the 440 barcodes reveal 71 or 88 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), depending on the preferred partition. A perfect match between OTU and morphological identification was found for 56 species (76.7%) or 62 species (84.9%). ABGD delivers four or seven species sharing OTUs and four or ten species split into more than one OTU. Morphological re-examination, as well as the analysis of a concatenated dataset of COI and the nuclear markers EF1? and GADPH for species split into more than one BIN or OTU, do not support a higher number of species. Likewise, there is no evidence for <i>Wolbachia</i> infection as a trigger for these sequence variations.
Project description:DNA barcoding seeks to assemble a standardized reference library for DNA-based identification of eukaryotic species. The utility and limitations of this approach need to be tested on well-characterized taxonomic assemblages. Here we provide a comprehensive DNA barcode analysis for North American birds including 643 species representing 93% of the breeding and pelagic avifauna of the USA and Canada. Most (94%) species possess distinct barcode clusters, with average neighbour-joining bootstrap support of 98%. In the remaining 6%, barcode clusters correspond to small sets of closely related species, most of which hybridize regularly. Fifteen (2%) currently recognized species are comprised of two distinct barcode clusters, many of which may represent cryptic species. Intraspecific variation is weakly related to census population size and species age. This study confirms that DNA barcoding can be effectively applied across the geographical and taxonomic expanse of North American birds. The consistent finding of constrained intraspecific mitochondrial variation in this large assemblage of species supports the emerging view that selective sweeps limit mitochondrial diversity.
Project description:Species delimitation remains a significant challenge when the diagnostic morphological characters are limited. Integrative taxonomy was applied to the genus Protaphorura (Collembola: Onychiuridae), which is one of most difficult soil animals to distinguish taxonomically. Three delimitation approaches (morphology, molecular markers and geography) were applied providing rigorous species validation criteria with an acceptably low error rate. Multiple molecular approaches, including distance- and evolutionary model-based methods, were used to determine species boundaries based on 144 standard barcode sequences. Twenty-two molecular putative species were consistently recovered across molecular and geographical analyses. Geographic criteria were was proved to be an efficient delimitation method for onychiurids. Further morphological examination, based on the combination of the number of pseudocelli, parapseudocelli and ventral mesothoracic chaetae, confirmed 18 taxa of 22 molecular units, with six of them described as new species. These characters were found to be of high taxonomical value. This study highlights the potential benefits of integrative taxonomy, particularly simultaneous use of molecular/geographical tools, as a powerful way of ascertaining the true diversity of the Onychiuridae. Our study also highlights that discovering new morphological characters remains central to achieving a full understanding of collembolan taxonomy.
Project description:UNLABELLED: The morphological concept of Penicillium sclerotiorum (subgenus Aspergilloides) includes strains with monoverticillate, vesiculate conidiophores, and vivid orange to red colony colours, with colourful sclerotia sometimes produced. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), β-tubulin (benA), translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α), and calmodulin (cmd), reveal that the P. sclerotiorum morphospecies is a complex of seven phylogenetically distinct species, three of which were recently described, namely P. guanacastense, P. mallochii, and P. viticola. Three previously unidentified species are described here as P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. johnkrugii. The phylogenetic species are morphologically similar, but differ in combinations of colony characters, sclerotium production, conidiophore stipe roughening and branching, and conidial shape. Ecological characters and differences in geographical distribution further characterise some of the species, but increased sampling is necessary to confirm these differences. The fungal DNA barcode, the ITS, and the animal DNA barcode, cox1, have lower species resolving ability in our phylogenetic analyses, but still allow identification of all the species. Tef1-α and cmd were superior in providing fully resolved, statistically well-supported phylogenetic trees for this species complex, whereas benA resolved all species but had some issues with paraphyly. Penicilliumadametzioides and P. multicolor, considered synonyms of P. sclerotiorum by some previous authors, do not belong to the P. sclerotiorum complex. TAXONOMIC NOVELTIES: New species:Penicillium cainii K.G. Rivera, Malloch & Seifert, P. jacksonii K.G. Rivera, Houbraken & Seifert, P. johnkrugii K.G. Rivera, Houbraken & Seifert.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The species boundaries of some venerids are difficult to define based solely on morphological features due to their indistinct intra- and interspecific phenotypic variability. An unprecedented biodiversity crisis caused by human activities has emerged. Thus, to access the biological diversity and further the conservation of this taxonomically muddling bivalve group, a fast and simple approach that can efficiently examine species boundaries and highlight areas of unrecognized diversity is urgently needed. DNA barcoding has proved its effectiveness in high-volume species identification and discovery. In the present study, Chinese fauna was chosen to examine whether this molecular biomarker is sensitive enough for species delimitation, and how it complements taxonomy and explores species diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 315 specimens from around 60 venerid species were included, qualifying the present study as the first major analysis of DNA barcoding for marine bivalves. Nearly all individuals identified to species level based on morphological traits possessed distinct barcode clusters, except for the specimens of one species pair. Among the 26 individuals that were not assigned binomial names a priori, twelve respectively nested within a species genealogy. The remaining individuals formed five monophyletic clusters that potentially represent species new to science or at least unreported in China. Five putative hidden species were also uncovered in traditional morphospecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study shows that DNA barcoding is effective in species delimitation and can aid taxonomists by indicating useful diagnostic morphological traits, informing needful revision, and flagging unseen species. Moreover, the BOLD system, which deposits barcodes, morphological, geographical and other data, has the potential as a convenient taxonomic platform.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Currently, knowledge regarding the phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna of Turkey is restricted to regions with endemic leishmaniasis. However, rapidly changing environmental and social conditions highlight concerns on the possible future expansion of sand fly-borne diseases in Turkey, promoting risk assessment through biosurveillance activities in non-endemic regions. Traditional morphological approaches are complicated by extensive cryptic speciation in sand flies, thus integrated studies utilizing DNA markers are becoming increasingly important for correct sand fly identification. This study contributes to the knowledge of the sand fly fauna in understudied regions of Turkey, and provides an extensive DNA barcode reference library of expertly identified Turkish sand fly species for the first time. METHODS:Fly sampling was conducted at 101 locations from 29 provinces, covering all three biogeographical regions of Turkey. Specimens were morphologically identified using available keys. Cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) barcode sequences were analyzed both for morphologically distinct species and those specimens with cryptic identity. A taxon identity tree was obtained using Neighbor Joining (NJ) analysis. Species boundaries among closely related taxa evaluated using ABGD, Maximum Likelihood (ML) and haplotype network analyses. Sand fly richness of all three biogeographical regions were compared using nonparametric species richness estimators. RESULTS:A total of 729 barcode sequences (including representatives of all previously reported subgenera) were obtained from a total of 9642 sand fly specimens collected in Turkey. Specimens belonging to the same species or species complex clustered together in the NJ tree, regardless of their geographical origin. The species delimitation methods revealed the existence of 33 MOTUs, increasing the previously reported 28 recorded sand fly species by 17.8%. The richest sand fly diversity was determined in Anatolia, followed by the Mediterranean, and then the Black Sea regions of the country. CONCLUSIONS:A comprehensive cox1 reference library is provided for the sand fly species of Turkey, including the proposed novel taxa discovered herein. Our results have epidemiological significance exposing extensive distributions of proven and suspected sand fly vectors in Turkey, including those areas currently regarded as non-endemic for sand fly-borne disease.
Project description:Despite extensive revisions over recent decades, the taxonomy of benthic octopuses (Family Octopodidae) remains in a considerable flux. Among groups of unresolved status is a species complex of morphologically similar shallow-water octopods from subtropical Australasia, including: Allopatric populations of Octopus tetricus on the eastern and western coasts of Australia, of which the Western Australian form is speculated to be a distinct or sub-species; and Octopus gibbsi from New Zealand, a proposed synonym of Australian forms. This study employed a combination of molecular and morphological techniques to resolve the taxonomic status of the 'tetricus complex'. Phylogenetic analyses (based on five mitochondrial genes: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, COIII and Cytb) and Generalised Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis (based on COI, COIII and Cytb) distinguished eastern and Western Australian O. tetricus as distinct species, while O. gibbsi was found to be synonymous with the east Australian form (BS?=?>97, PP?=?1; GMYC p?=?0.01). Discrete morphological differences in mature male octopuses (based on sixteen morphological traits) provided further evidence of cryptic speciation between east (including New Zealand) and west coast populations; although females proved less useful in morphological distinction among members of the tetricus complex. In addition, phylogenetic analyses suggested populations of octopuses currently treated under the name Octopus vulgaris are paraphyletic; providing evidence of cryptic speciation among global populations of O. vulgaris, the most commercially valuable octopus species worldwide.
Project description:The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerellaimmaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerellacauseyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.