Mutational processes contributing to the development of multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT: To gain insight into multiple myeloma (MM) tumorigenesis, we analyzed the mutational signatures in 874 whole-exome and 850 whole-genome data from the CoMMpass Study. We identified that coding and non-coding regions are differentially dominated by distinct single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutational signatures, as well as five de novo structural rearrangement signatures. Mutational signatures reflective of different principle mutational processes-aging, defective DNA repair, and apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC)/activation-induced deaminase activity-characterize MM. These mutational signatures show evidence of subgroup specificity-APOBEC-attributed signatures associated with MAF translocation t(14;16) and t(14;20) MM; potentially DNA repair deficiency with t(11;14) and t(4;14); and aging with hyperdiploidy. Mutational signatures beyond that associated with APOBEC are independent of established prognostic markers and appear to have relevance to predicting high-risk MM.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is two- to three-fold more common in African Americans (AAs) compared to European Americans (EAs). This striking disparity, one of the highest of any cancer, may be due to underlying genetic predisposition between these groups. There are multiple unique cytogenetic subtypes of MM, and it is likely that the disparity is associated with only certain subtypes. Previous efforts to understand this disparity have relied on self-reported race rather than genetic ancestry, which may result in bias. To mitigate these difficulties, we studied 881 patients with monoclonal gammopathies who had undergone uniform testing to identify primary cytogenetic abnormalities. DNA from bone marrow samples was genotyped on the Precision Medicine Research Array and biogeographical ancestry was quantitatively assessed using the Geographic Population Structure Origins tool. The probability of having one of three specific subtypes, namely t(11;14), t(14;16), or t(14;20) was significantly higher in the 120 individuals with highest African ancestry (?80%) compared with the 235 individuals with lowest African ancestry (<0.1%) (51% vs. 33%, respectively, p value?=?0.008). Using quantitatively measured African ancestry, we demonstrate a major proportion of the racial disparity in MM is driven by disparity in the occurrence of the t(11;14), t(14;16), and t(14;20) types of MM.
Project description:Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is a pre-malignant precursor of multiple myeloma with a 1% risk of progression per year. Although targeted analyses have shown the presence of specific genetic abnormalities such as IGH translocations, RB1 deletion, 1q gain, hyperdiploidy or RAS gene mutations, little is known about the molecular mechanism of malignant transformation. We performed whole exome sequencing together with comparative genomic hybridization plus single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in 33 flow-cytometry-separated abnormal plasma cell samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to describe somatic gene mutations and chromosome changes at the genome-wide level. Non-synonymous mutations and copy-number alterations were present in 97.0% and in 60.6% of cases, respectively. Importantly, the number of somatic mutations was significantly lower in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance than in myeloma (P<10-4) and we identified six genes that were significantly mutated in myeloma (KRAS, NRAS, DIS3, HIST1H1E, EGR1 and LTB) within the monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance dataset. We also found a positive correlation with increasing chromosome changes and somatic gene mutations. IGH translocations, comprising t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and t(14;20), were present in 27.3% of cases and in a similar frequency to myeloma, consistent with the primary lesion hypothesis. MYC translocations and TP53 deletions or mutations were not detected in samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, indicating that they may be drivers of progression to myeloma. Data from this study show that monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is genetically similar to myeloma, however overall genetic abnormalities are present at significantly lower levels in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significant than in myeloma.
Project description:Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant precursor of multiple myeloma (MM) with a 1% risk of progression per year. Although targeted analyses have shown the presence of specific genetic abnormalities such as IGH translocations, RB1 deletion, 1q gain, hyperdiploidy or RAS genes mutations, little is known about the molecular mechanism of malignant transformation. We have performed whole-exome sequencing together with CGH+SNP array analysis in 33 flow-cytometry separated abnormal plasma cell samples from MGUS patients to describe somatic gene mutations and chromosome changes at the genome-wide level. Non-synonymous mutations and copy-number alterations were present in 97.0% and in 60.6% of cases, respectively. Importantly, the number of somatic mutations was significantly lower in MGUS compared to MM (p<10-4) and we have identified six genes that are significantly mutated in MM (KRAS, NRAS, DIS3, HIST1H1E, EGR1 and LTB) in the MGUS dataset. We also found a positive correlation with increasing chromosome changes and somatic mutations. IGH translocations were present in 27.3% of cases comprising t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) or t(14;20) and were in a similar frequency to MM, which corresponded with the primary lesion hypothesis. Data from this study showed MGUS is a genetically comprehensive disease, however, overall genetic instability is significantly lower compared to MM. Overall design: Overall, 33 MGUS patients were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from flow-cytometry separated abnormal plasma cells and analysed by CGH+SNP arrays to describe somatic gene mutations and chromosome changes at genome-wide level. Agilent Human Reference DNA was used as reference DNA.
Project description:Cytogenetic abnormalities are found in most multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Although their prognostic value has been well studied, there are limited data on the association of primary cytogenetic abnormalities with disease characteristics and treatment response. This study was designed to evaluate these associations. This is a retrospective study including 2027 Mayo Clinic patients diagnosed with MM between February 2004 and February 2018 who had cytogenetic testing by FISH at diagnosis. Translocations t(4;14), t(14;16), t(6;14), and t(14;20) were associated with anemia, beta2microglobulin >5.5?µg/ml and ?50% bone marrow plasma cells; t(4;14) was associated with higher serum monoclonal protein and plasma cell proliferation. Overall response rate to proteasome inhibitor (PI)-based treatment was higher for IgH translocations compared to trisomies (83% vs. 71%, P?=?0.002), but was higher for trisomies with immunomodulatory drug (IMiD)-based treatment (87% vs. 75%, P?<?0.001). Time to next treatment was longer with trisomies than IgH translocation with IMiD-based (32.1 vs. 18.4 months, P?<?0.001) and PI?+?IMiD-based (44.0 vs. 27.4 months, P?=?0.003) treatments. Outcomes were superior with PI?+?IMiD combinations in all groups. Our results show that t(4;14), t(14;16), t(6;14), and t(14;20) are associated with high-risk disease characteristics, and IgH translocations and trisomies may be associated with better responses to PIs and IMiDs, respectively.
Project description:Analysis of intraclonal heterogeneity has yielded insights into the clonal evolution of hematologic malignancies. We compared the clonal and subclonal compositions of the underlying plasma cell dyscrasia in 544 systemic light chain amyloidosis (PC-AL) patients with 519 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), or symptomatic MM; ie, PC-non-AL patients). Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, subclones were stringently defined as clone size below two thirds of the largest clone and an absolute difference of ?30%. Subclones were found less frequently in the PC-AL group, at 199 (36.6%) of 544 as compared with 267 (51.4%) of 519 in the PC-non-AL group (P < .001), and were not associated with the stage of plasma cell dyscrasia in either entity. In both groups, translocation t(11;14), other immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations, and hyperdiploidy were typically found as main clones, whereas gain of 1q21 and deletions of 8p21, 13q14, and 17p13 were frequently found as subclones. There were no shifts in the subclone/main clone ratio depending on the MGUS, SMM, or MM stage of plasma cell dyscrasia. In multivariate analysis, t(11;14) was associated with lower rates of subclone formation and hyperdiploidy with higher rates. PC-AL itself lost statistical significance, demonstrating that the lower subclone frequency in AL is a reflection of its exceptionally high t(11;14) frequency. In summary, the subclone patterns in PC-AL and PC-non-AL are closely related, implying that subclone formation depends on the main cytogenetic categories and is independent of disease entity and stage.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the prognostic value of t(11;14) for de novo multiple myeloma (MM) patients in novel agent era. Methods:A total of 455 patients with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), before treatments from three hospitals in China, were included in the study. All patients received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after induction therapy as consolidation. High risk (HR) cytogenetics were defined as t(4;14), t(14;16), and/or del 17p. Results:A total of 152 patients were in the HR group. Of patients without HR cytogenetics, 55 were in the t(11;14) group, and 248 were in the standard risk (SR) group without t(11;14). Gain in 1q21 was observed in 38.9% patients with t(11;14). There were no differences in median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively, between patients in the t(11;14) group and those in the SR group. Patients in the t(11;14) group had the longer median PFS and OS, respectively, compared with those in the HR group. Regardless of coexisting with 1q21 gain or not, patients in the t(11;14) group still had similar median PFS and OS compared to those in the SR group. Finally, multivariate analysis indicated that including 1q21 gain and bone marrow plasma cell with CD20 expression, no variables were found to predict the outcome of the t(11;14) group in our cohort. Conclusions:These results confirm that outcomes of t(11;14) MM are similar to standard risk patients when they receive novel agent induction therapy consolidated by ASCT. Gain of 1q21 coexists with t(11;14) frequently. In addition, both bone marrow plasma cell with CD20 expression and 1q21 gain have no impact on median PFS or OS for patients with t(11;14).
Project description:Somatic mutation signatures may represent footprints of genetic and environmental exposures that cause different cancer. Few studies have comprehensively examined their association with germline variants, and none in an indigenous African population. SomaticSignatures was employed to extract mutation signatures based on whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data from female patients with breast cancer (TCGA, training set, n = 1,011; Nigerian samples, validation set, n = 170), and to estimate contributions of signatures in each sample. Association between somatic signatures and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or rare deleterious variants were examined using linear regression. Nine stable signatures were inferred, and four signatures (APOBEC C>T, APOBEC C>G, aging and homologous recombination deficiency) were highly similar to known COSMIC signatures and explained the majority (60-85%) of signature contributions. There were significant heritable components associated with APOBEC C>T signature (h2 = 0.575, p = 0.010) and the combined APOBEC signatures (h2 = 0.432, p = 0.042). In TCGA dataset, seven common SNPs within or near GNB5 were significantly associated with an increased proportion (beta = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.21-0.45) of APOBEC signature contribution at genome-wide significance, while rare germline mutations in MTCL1 was also significantly associated with a higher contribution of this signature (p = 6.1?×?10-6 ). This is the first study to identify associations between germline variants and mutational patterns in breast cancer across diverse populations and geography. The findings provide evidence to substantiate causal links between germline genetic risk variants and carcinogenesis.
Project description:Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive form of multiple myeloma (MM) that is characterized by the presence of ?20% circulating plasma cells. Overall survival remains poor despite advances of anti-MM therapy. The disease biology as well as molecular mechanisms that distinguish pPCL from non-pPCL MM remain poorly understood and, given the rarity of the disease, are challenging to study. In an attempt to identify key biological mechanisms that result in the aggressive pPCL phenotype, we performed whole-exome sequencing and gene expression analysis in 23 and 41 patients with newly diagnosed pPCL, respectively. The results reveal an enrichment of complex structural changes and high-risk mutational patterns in pPCL that explain, at least in part, the aggressive nature of the disease. In particular, pPCL patients with traditional low-risk features such as translocation t(11;14) or hyperdiploidy accumulated adverse risk genetic events that could account for the poor outcome in this group. Furthermore, gene expression profiling showed upregulation of adverse risk modifiers in pPCL compared to non-pPCL MM, while adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins became increasingly downregulated. In conclusion, this is one of the largest studies to dissect pPCL on a genomic and molecular level.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable haematological malignancy characterised by the proliferation of mature antibody-secreting plasma B cells in the bone marrow. MM can arise from initiating translocations, of which the musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF) family is implicated in ?5%. MMs bearing Maf translocations are of poor prognosis. These translocations are associated with elevated Maf expression, including c-MAF, MAFB and MAFA, and with t(14;16) and t(14;20) translocations, involving c-MAF and MAFB, respectively. c-MAF is also overexpressed in MM through MEK/ERK activation, bringing the number of MMs driven by the deregulation of a Maf gene close to 50%. Here we demonstrate that MAFB and c-MAF are phosphorylated by the Ser/Thr kinase GSK3 in human MM cell lines. We show that LiCl-induced GSK3 inhibition targets these phosphorylations and specifically decreases proliferation and colony formation of Maf-expressing MM cell lines. Interestingly, bortezomib induced stabilisation of Maf phosphorylation, an observation that could explain, at least partially, the low efficacy of bortezomib for patients carrying Maf translocations. Thus, GSK3 inhibition could represent a new therapeutic approach for these patients.
Project description:Genetic abnormalities are critical prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM). This retrospective, multicenter study aimed to contribute with the genetic and clinical characterization of MM patients in a country with continental dimensions such as Brazil. Genetic abnormalities were assessed by cIg-fluorescent in situ hybridization (cIg-FISH) in a series of 152 MM patients (median age 55 years, 58.5% men). Overall, genetic abnormalities were detected in 52.7% (80/152) of patients. A 14q32 rearrangement was detected in 33.5% (n=51), including t(11;14), t(4;14) and t(14;16) in 18.4, 14.1, and 1% of cases, respectively. del(13q) was identified in 42.7% (n=65) of patients, of whom 49.2% (32/65) presented a concomitant 14q32 rearrangement. del(17p) had a frequency of 5.2% (n=8). del(13q) was associated with high plasma cell burden (?50%, P=0.02), and del(17p) with advanced ISS stages (P=0.05) and extramedullary disease (P=0.03). t(4;14) was associated with advanced Durie-Salmon stages (P=0.008), renal insufficiency (P=0.01) and was more common in patients over 60 years old. This study reports similar frequencies of genetic abnormalities to most series worldwide, whereas the t(14;16) and del(17p), two high risk factors for newly diagnosed patients, exhibited lower frequencies. Our results expand the knowledge on the molecular features of MM in Brazil, a country where innovative therapies that could overcome a poor prognosis for some genetic abnormalities are not always available.