Wnt5a-Mediated Neutrophil Recruitment Has an Obligatory Role in Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Although the complex roles of macrophages in myocardial injury are widely appreciated, the function of neutrophils in nonischemic cardiac pathology has received relatively little attention. METHODS:To examine the regulation and function of neutrophils in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, mice underwent treatment with Ly6G antibody to deplete neutrophils and then were subjected to transverse aortic constriction. RESULTS:Neutrophil depletion diminished transverse aortic constriction-induced hypertrophy and inflammation and preserved cardiac function. Myeloid deficiency of Wnt5a, a noncanonical Wnt, suppressed neutrophil infiltration to the hearts of transverse aortic constriction-treated mice and produced a phenotype that was similar to the neutropenic conditions. Conversely, mice overexpressing Wnt5a in myeloid cells displayed greater hypertrophic growth, inflammation, and cardiac dysfunction. Neutrophil depletion reversed the Wnt5a overexpression-induced cardiac pathology and eliminated differences in cardiac parameters between wild-type and myeloid-specific Wnt5a transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS:These findings reveal that Wnt5a-regulated neutrophil infiltration has a critical role in pressure overload-induced heart failure.
Project description:Transcriptom analysis of microdissect adrenal medulla after 8 weeks of cardiac pressure overload caused by transverse aortic constriction. Comparative transcriptome analysis was determined using the GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Six microarrays from microdissected adrenal medulla of mice were performed 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction or sham operation.
Project description:Transcriptom analysis of stellate sympathetic ganglia after 8 weeks of cardiac pressure overload caused by transverse aortic constriction. Comparative transcriptome analysis was determined using the GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Six microarrays from stellate sympathetic ganglia of mice were performed 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction or sham operation.
Project description:In response to chronic hypertension, the heart compensates by hypertrophic growth, which frequently progresses to heart failure. Although intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) has a central role in hypertrophic signaling pathways, the Ca(2+) source for activating these pathways remains elusive. We hypothesized that pathological sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak through defective cardiac intracellular Ca(2+) release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyR2) accelerates heart failure development by stimulating Ca(2+)-dependent hypertrophic signaling. Mice heterozygous for the gain-of-function mutation R176Q/+ in RyR2 and wild-type mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction. Cardiac function was significantly lower, and cardiac dimensions were larger at 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction in R176Q/+ compared with wild-type mice. R176Q/+ mice displayed an enhanced hypertrophic response compared with wild-type mice as assessed by heart weight:body weight ratios and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas after transverse aortic constriction. Quantitative PCR revealed increased transcriptional activation of cardiac stress genes in R176Q/+ mice after transverse aortic constriction. Moreover, pressure overload resulted in an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak, associated with higher expression levels of the exon 4 splice form of regulator of calcineurin 1, and a decrease in nuclear factor of activated T-cells phosphorylation in R176Q/+ mice compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that RyR2-dependent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak activates the prohypertrophic calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells pathway under conditions of pressure overload.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) play a critical role in cardiac fibrosis; however, their origin in the diseased heart remains unclear, warranting further investigation. Recent studies suggest the contribution of bone marrow fibroblast progenitor cells (BM-FPCs) in pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. We have previously shown that interleukin-10 (IL10) suppresses pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis; however, the role of IL10 in inhibition of BM-FPC-mediated cardiac fibrosis is not known. We hypothesized that IL10 inhibits pressure overload-induced homing of BM-FPCs to the heart and their transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts and thus attenuates cardiac fibrosis. METHODS:Pressure overload was induced in wild-type (WT) and IL10 knockout (IL10KO) mice by transverse aortic constriction. To determine the bone marrow origin, chimeric mice were created with enhanced green fluorescent protein WT mice marrow to the IL10KO mice. For mechanistic studies, FPCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow. RESULTS:Pressure overload enhanced BM-FPC mobilization and homing in IL10KO mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, WT bone marrow (from enhanced green fluorescent protein mice) transplantation in bone marrow-depleted IL10KO mice (IL10KO chimeric mice) reduced transverse aortic constriction-induced BM-FPC mobilization compared with IL10KO mice. Green fluorescent protein costaining with ?-smooth muscle actin or collagen 1? in left ventricular tissue sections of IL10KO chimeric mice suggests that myofibroblasts were derived from bone marrow after transverse aortic constriction. Finally, WT bone marrow transplantation in IL10KO mice inhibited transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac fibrosis and improved heart function. At the molecular level, IL10 treatment significantly inhibited transforming growth factor-?-induced transdifferentiation and fibrotic signaling in WT BM-FPCs in vitro. Furthermore, fibrosis-associated microRNA (miRNA) expression was highly upregulated in IL10KO-FPCs compared with WT-FPCs. Polymerase chain reaction-based selective miRNA analysis revealed that transforming growth factor-?-induced enhanced expression of fibrosis-associated miRNAs (miRNA-21, -145, and -208) was significantly inhibited by IL10. Restoration of miRNA-21 levels suppressed the IL10 effects on transforming growth factor-?-induced fibrotic signaling in BM-FPCs. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that IL10 inhibits BM-FPC homing and transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts in pressure-overloaded myocardium. Mechanistically, we show for the first time that IL10 suppresses Smad-miRNA-21-mediated activation of BM-FPCs and thus modulates cardiac fibrosis.
Project description:Cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) produces H2S via enzymatic conversion of L-cysteine and plays a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. We investigated the effects of genetic modulation of CSE and exogenous H2S therapy in the setting of pressure overload-induced heart failure.Transverse aortic constriction was performed in wild-type, CSE knockout, and cardiac-specific CSE transgenic mice. In addition, C57BL/6J or CSE knockout mice received a novel H2S donor (SG-1002). Mice were followed up for 12 weeks with echocardiography. We observed a >60% reduction in myocardial and circulating H2S levels after transverse aortic constriction. CSE knockout mice exhibited significantly greater cardiac dilatation and dysfunction than wild-type mice after transverse aortic constriction, and cardiac-specific CSE transgenic mice maintained cardiac structure and function after transverse aortic constriction. H2S therapy with SG-1002 resulted in cardioprotection during transverse aortic constriction via upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway with preserved mitochondrial function, attenuated oxidative stress, and increased myocardial vascular density.Our results demonstrate that H2S levels are decreased in mice in the setting of heart failure. Moreover, CSE plays a critical role in the preservation of cardiac function in heart failure, and oral H2S therapy prevents the transition from compensated to decompensated heart failure in part via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increased nitric oxide bioavailability.
Project description:Transcriptom analysis of stellate sympathetic ganglia after 8 weeks of cardiac pressure overload caused by transverse aortic constriction. Overall design: Comparative transcriptome analysis was determined using the GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Six microarrays from stellate sympathetic ganglia of mice were performed 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction or sham operation.
Project description:Transcriptom analysis of microdissect adrenal medulla after 8 weeks of cardiac pressure overload caused by transverse aortic constriction. Overall design: Comparative transcriptome analysis was determined using the GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Six microarrays from microdissected adrenal medulla of mice were performed 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction or sham operation.
Project description:Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a eukaryotic initiation factor 2? kinase that inhibits mRNA translation under stress conditions. PKR also mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signaling independently of translational regulation. Congestive heart failure is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and apoptosis, but the role of PKR in left ventricular hypertrophy and the development of congestive heart failure has not been examined.We observed increased myocardial PKR expression and translocation of PKR into the nucleus in humans and mice with congestive heart failure. To determine the impact of PKR on the development of congestive heart failure, PKR knockout and wild-type mice were exposed to pressure overload produced by transverse aortic constriction. Although heart size increased similarly in wild-type and PKR knockout mice after transverse aortic constriction, PKR knockout mice exhibited very little pulmonary congestion, well-preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and contractility, and significantly less myocardial fibrosis compared with wild-type mice. Bone marrow-derived cells from wild-type mice did not abolish the cardiac protective effect observed in PKR knockout mice, whereas bone marrow-derived cells from PKR knockout mice had no cardiac protective effect in wild-type mice. Mechanistically, PKR knockout attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced tumor necrosis factor-? expression and leukocyte infiltration and lowered cardiac expression of proapoptotic factors (Bax and caspase-3), so that PKR knockout hearts were more resistant to transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PKR depletion in isolated cardiomyocytes also conferred protection against tumor necrosis factor-?- or lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.PKR is a maladaptive factor upregulated in hemodynamic overload that contributes to myocardial inflammation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the development of congestive heart failure.
Project description:Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade has been shown to suppress cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in animal models of pressure overload (POL). This study aims to determine whether MR deficiency in myeloid cells modulates aortic constriction-induced cardiovascular injuries. Myeloid MR knockout (MMRKO) mice and littermate control mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation. We found that AAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were significantly attenuated in MMRKO mice. Expression of genes important in generating reactive oxygen species was decreased in MMRKO mice, while that of manganese superoxide dismutase increased. Furthermore, expression of genes important in cardiac metabolism was increased in MMRKO hearts. Macrophage infiltration in the heart was inhibited and expression of inflammatory genes was decreased in MMRKO mice. In addition, aortic fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated in MMRKO mice. Taken together, our data indicated that MR deficiency in myeloid cells effectively attenuated aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as aortic fibrosis and inflammation.
Project description:This study examined whether endogenous extracellular adenosine acts to facilitate the adaptive response of the heart to chronic systolic overload. To examine whether endogenous extracellular adenosine can protect the heart against pressure-overload-induced heart failure, transverse aortic constriction was performed on mice deficient in extracellular adenosine production as the result of genetic deletion of CD73. Although there was no difference in left ventricular size or function between CD73-deficient mice (knockout [KO] mice) and wild-type mice under unstressed conditions, aortic constriction for 2 or 4 weeks induced significantly more myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular dilation, and left ventricular dysfunction in KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Thus, after 2 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, left ventricular fractional shortening decreased to 27.4+/-2.5% and 21.9+/-1.7% in wild-type and KO mice, respectively (P<0.05). Consistent with a role of adenosine in reducing tissue remodeling, KO mice displayed increased myocardial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, adenosine treatment reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and collagen production in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, respectively. Consistent with a role for adenosine in modulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, KO mice demonstrated increased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, accompanied by higher expression of the hypertrophy marker atrial natriuretic peptide. Conversely, the adenosine analogue 2-chloro-adenosine significantly reduced cell size, mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase activation, and atrial natriuretic peptide expression in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that CD73 helps to preserve cardiac function during chronic systolic overload by preventing maladaptive tissue remodeling.