Understanding the evolution of phenotypical characters in the Micarea prasina group (Pilocarpaceae) and descriptions of six new species within the group.
ABSTRACT: Six new Micarea species are described from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses, based on three loci, i.e. mtSSU rDNA, Mcm7 and ITS rDNA and ancestral state reconstructions, were used to evaluate infra-group divisions and the role of secondary metabolites and selected morphological characters on the taxonomy in the M. prasina group. Two main lineages were found within the group. The Micarea micrococca clade consists of twelve species, including the long-known M. micrococca and the newly described M. microsorediata, M. nigra and M. pauli. Within this clade, most species produce methoxymicareic acid, with the exceptions of M. levicula and M. viridileprosa producing gyrophoric acid. The M. prasina clade includes the newly described M. azorica closely related to M. prasina s.str., M. aeruginoprasina sp. nov. and M. isidioprasina sp. nov. The species within this clade are characterised by the production of micareic acid, with the exception of M. herbarum which lacks any detectable substances and M. subviridescens that produces prasinic acid. Based on our reconstructions, it was concluded that the ancestor of the M. prasina group probably had a thallus consisting of goniocysts, which were lost several times during evolution, while isidia and soredia evolved independently at multiple times. Our research supported the view that the ancestor of M. prasina group did not produce any secondary substances, but they were gained independently in different lineages, such as methoxymicareic acid which is restricted to M. micrococca and allied species or micareic acid present in the M. prasina clade.
Project description:To facilitate the process of spiral nematode species delineation, populations of Helicotylenchus canadensis, H. pseudorobustus, and H. varicaudatus deriving from various locations and diverse natural and anthropogenic environments from Poland were investigated and characterized. For the first time, 28S rDNA sequences are reported for H. canadensis and H. varicaudatus, whereas new mtCOI sequences were acquired for all three analyzed species. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA fragments revealed that H. canadensis and H. varicaudatus are members of a clade that is a sister group to all other Helicotylenchus species; however, the closest known sister group to H. canadensis is H. vulgaris type A. Both 28S rDNA- and mtCOI-based phylogenetic results suggest that this clade excludes H. pseudorobustus, whose most recent common ancestor with the former species was inferred to be the ancestor of all Helicotylenchus species. Moreover, within the mtCOI sequences obtained from H. pseudorobustus, unlike from the other two, a simultaneous presence of TAG and TAA codons was identified. This may indicate mitochondrial genetic code alterations or other genomic rearrangements in H. pseudorobustus.To facilitate the process of spiral nematode species delineation, populations of Helicotylenchus canadensis, H. pseudorobustus, and H. varicaudatus deriving from various locations and diverse natural and anthropogenic environments from Poland were investigated and characterized. For the first time, 28S rDNA sequences are reported for H. canadensis and H. varicaudatus, whereas new mtCOI sequences were acquired for all three analyzed species. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA fragments revealed that H. canadensis and H. varicaudatus are members of a clade that is a sister group to all other Helicotylenchus species; however, the closest known sister group to H. canadensis is H. vulgaris type A. Both 28S rDNA- and mtCOI-based phylogenetic results suggest that this clade excludes H. pseudorobustus, whose most recent common ancestor with the former species was inferred to be the ancestor of all Helicotylenchus species. Moreover, within the mtCOI sequences obtained from H. pseudorobustus, unlike from the other two, a simultaneous presence of TAG and TAA codons was identified. This may indicate mitochondrial genetic code alterations or other genomic rearrangements in H. pseudorobustus.
Project description:Despite its association with important agricultural crops, Phytophthora clade 8b is a poorly studied group of species. The clade currently consists of three officially described species (Phytophthora porri, P. brassicae and P. primulae) that are host-specific pathogens of leek, cabbages and Primula spp., respectively. However, over the past few decades, several other clade 8b-like Phytophthoras have been found on a variety of different host plants that were all grown at low temperatures in winter seasons. In this study, a collection of 30 of these isolates was subjected to a phylogenetic study using two loci (the rDNA ITS region and the mitochondrial cox1 gene). This analysis revealed a clear clustering of isolates according to their host plants. To verify whether these isolates belong to separate species, a detailed morphological study was conducted. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences and host specificity, we now present the official description of three new species in clade 8b: Phytophthora cichorii sp. nov., P. dauci sp. nov. and P. lactucae sp. nov. Two other groups of isolates (Phytophthora taxon castitis and Phytophthora taxon parsley) might also represent new species but the data available at this time are insufficient for an official description. This brings Phytophthora clade 8b to a group of six species that are all host-specific, slow-growing and specifically infect herbaceous crops at low temperatures.
Project description:The Stilbonematinae are a monophyletic group of marine nematodes that are characterized by a coat of thiotrophic bacterial symbionts. Among the ten known genera of the Stilbonematinae, the genus Robbea Gerlach 1956 had a problematic taxonomic history of synonymizations and indications of polyphyletic origin. Here we describe three new species of the genus, R. hypermnestra sp. nov., R. ruetzleri sp. nov. and R. agricola sp. nov., using conventional light microscopy, interference contrast microscopy and SEM. We provide 18S rRNA gene sequences of all three species, together with new sequences for the genera Catanema and Leptonemella. Both our morphological analyses as well as our phylogenetic reconstructions corroborate the genus Robbea. In our phylogenetic analysis the three species of the genus Robbea form a distinct clade in the Stilbonematinae radiation and are clearly separated from the clade of the genus Catanema, which has previously been synonymized with Robbea. Surprisingly, in R. hypermnestra sp. nov. all females are intersexes exhibiting male sexual characters. Our extended dataset of Stilbonematinae 18S rRNA genes for the first time allows the identification of the different genera, e.g. in a barcoding approach. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D37C3F5A-CF2B-40E6-8B09-3C72EEED60B0.
Project description:The Chaetosphaeriaceae are a diverse group of pigmented, predominantly phialidic hyphomycetes comprised of several holomorphic genera including Chaetosphaeria, the most prominent genus of the family. Although the morphology of the teleomorphs of the majority of Chaetosphaeria is rather uniform, their associated anamorphs primarily exhibit the variability and evolutionary change observed in the genus. An exception from the morphological monotony among Chaetosphaeria species is a group characterised by scolecosporous, hyaline to light pink, multiseptate, asymmetrical ascospores and a unique three-layered ascomatal wall. Paragaeumannomyces sphaerocellularis, the type species of the genus, exhibits these morphological traits and is compared with similar Chaetosphaeria with craspedodidymum- and chloridium-like synanamorphs. Morphological comparison and phylogenetic analyses of the combined ITS-28S sequences of 35 isolates and vouchers with these characteristics revealed a strongly-supported, morphologically well-delimited clade in the Chaetosphaeriaceae containing 16 species. The generic name Paragaeumannomyces is applied to this monophyletic clade; eight new combinations and five new species, i.e. P. abietinus sp. nov., P. elegans sp. nov., P. granulatus sp. nov., P. sabinianus sp. nov. and P. smokiensis sp. nov., are proposed. A key to Paragaeumannomyces is provided. Using morphology, cultivation studies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS and 28S rDNA, two additional new species from freshwater and terrestrial habitats, Codinaea paniculata sp. nov. and Striatosphaeria castanea sp. nov., are described in the family. A codinaea-like anamorph of S. castanea forms conidia with setulae at each end in axenic culture; this feature expands the known morphology of Striatosphaeria. A chaetosphaeria-like teleomorph is experimentally linked to Dendrophoma cytisporoides, a sporodochial hyphomycete and type species of Dendrophoma, for the first time.
Project description:The genus Conidiobolus Bref. is widely distributed and the Conidiobolus sensu lato contained three other genera, Capillidium, Microconidiobolus and Neoconidiobolus. A molecular phylogeny based on the nuclear large subunit of rDNA (nucLSU), the mitochondrial small subunit of rDNA (mtSSU) and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1) revealed three novel species within the clade of Conidiobolus s.s., i.e. C. bifurcatus sp. nov., C. taihushanensis sp. nov. and C. variabilis sp. nov. These three species were isolated from plant debris in eastern China. Morphologically, C. bifurcatus sp. nov. is characterised by its secondary conidiophores often branched at the tip to form two short stipes each bearing a secondary conidium. C. taihushanensis sp. nov. is different from the others in its straight apical mycelia and the production of 2-5 conidia. C. variabilis sp. nov. is distinctive because of its various shapes of primary conidia. All these three new taxa are illustrated herein with an update key to the species of the genus Conidiobolus s.s.
Project description:Nocardiopsis strains were isolated from water-damaged indoor environments. Two strains (N. alba subsp. alba 704a and a strain representing a novel species, ES10.1) as well as strains of N. prasina, N. lucentensis, and N. tropica produced methanol-soluble toxins that paralyzed the motility of boar spermatozoa at <30 microg of crude extract (dry weight) x ml(-1). N. prasina, N. lucentensis, N. tropica, and strain ES10.1 caused cessation of motility by dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential, Deltapsi, of the boar spermatozoa. Indoor strain 704a produced a substance that destroyed cell membrane barrier function and depleted the sperm cells of ATP. Indoor strain 64/93 was antagonistic towards Corynebacterium renale. Two indoor Nocardiopsis strains were xerotolerant, and all five utilized a wide range of substrates. This combined with the production of toxic substances suggests good survival and potential hazard to human health in water-damaged indoor environments. Two new species, Nocardiopsis exhalans sp. nov. (ES10.1T) and Nocardiopsis umidischolae sp. nov. (66/93T), are proposed based on morphology, chemotaxonomic and physiological characters, phylogenetic analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Paulinella chromatophora is a freshwater filose amoeba with photosynthetic endosymbionts (chromatophores) of cyanobacterial origin that are closely related to free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species (PS-clade). Members of the PS-clade of cyanobacteria contain a proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) that was acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of a carboxysomal operon. In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred before or after the split of the chromatophore ancestor. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses of the almost complete rDNA operon with an improved taxon sampling containing most known cyanobacterial lineages recovered the Paulinella chromatophore as sister to the complete PS-clade. The sequence of the complete carboxysomal operon of Paulinella was determined. Analysis of RubisCO large subunit (rbcL) sequences revealed that Paulinella shares the proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO with the PS-clade. The gamma-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the RubisCO phylogeny. Gene content and order in the carboxysomal operon correlates well with the RubisCO phylogeny demonstrating that the complete carboxysomal operon was acquired by the common ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade through HGT. The carboxysomal operon shows a significantly elevated AT content in Paulinella, which in the rbcL gene is confined to third codon positions. Combined phylogenies using rbcL and the rDNA-operon resulted in a nearly fully resolved tree of the PS-clade. CONCLUSION: The HGT of the carboxysomal operon predated the divergence of the chromatophore ancestor from the PS-clade. Following HGT and divergence of the chromatophore ancestor, diversification of the PS-clade into at least three subclades occurred. The gamma-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis represents the closest known relative to the donor of the carboxysomal operon. The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that the Paulinella chromatophore has already undergone typical steps in the reductive evolution of an endosymbiont.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The orders Ascaridida, Oxyurida, and Spirurida represent major components of zooparasitic nematode diversity, including many species of veterinary and medical importance. Phylum-wide nematode phylogenetic hypotheses have mainly been based on nuclear rDNA sequences, but more recently complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene sequences have provided another source of molecular information to evaluate relationships. Although there is much agreement between nuclear rDNA and mtDNA phylogenies, relationships among certain major clades are different. In this study we report that mtDNA sequences do not support the monophyly of Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Spirurida (clade III) in contrast to results for nuclear rDNA. Results from mtDNA genomes show promise as an additional independently evolving genome for developing phylogenetic hypotheses for nematodes, although substantially increased taxon sampling is needed for enhanced comparative value with nuclear rDNA. Ultimately, topological incongruence (and congruence) between nuclear rDNA and mtDNA phylogenetic hypotheses will need to be tested relative to additional independent loci that provide appropriate levels of resolution. RESULTS: For this comparative phylogenetic study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three nematode species, Cucullanus robustus (13,972 bp) representing Ascaridida, Wellcomia siamensis (14,128 bp) representing Oxyurida, and Heliconema longissimum (13,610 bp) representing Spirurida. These new sequences were used along with 33 published nematode mitochondrial genomes to investigate phylogenetic relationships among chromadorean orders. Phylogenetic analyses of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets support the hypothesis that Ascaridida is nested within Rhabditida. The position of Oxyurida within Chromadorea varies among analyses; in most analyses this order is sister to the Ascaridida plus Rhabditida clade, with representative Spirurida forming a distinct clade, however, in one case Oxyurida is sister to Spirurida. Ascaridida, Oxyurida, and Spirurida (the sampled clade III taxa) do not form a monophyletic group based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Tree topology tests revealed that constraining clade III taxa to be monophyletic, given the mtDNA datasets analyzed, was a significantly worse result. CONCLUSION: The phylogenetic hypotheses from comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome data (analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and nucleotide data excluding 3rd positions) indicates that nematodes representing Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Spirurida do not share an exclusive most recent common ancestor, in contrast to published results based on nuclear ribosomal DNA. Overall, mtDNA genome data provides reliable support for nematode relationships that often corroborates findings based on nuclear rDNA. It is anticipated that additional taxonomic sampling will provide a wealth of information on mitochondrial genome evolution and sequence data for developing phylogenetic hypotheses for the phylum Nematoda.
Project description:The name Golovinomyces cynoglossi s. lat. is traditionally applied to a complex of morphologically similar powdery mildews on hosts of the plant family Boraginaceae. The current species-level taxonomy within this complex is ambiguous due to the lack of phylogenetic examinations. The present study applied phylogenetic methods to clarify the taxonomy of G. cynoglossi s. lat. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences retrieved from Asian, European and North American specimens revealed that G. cynoglossi s. lat. collections from different hosts involved several species in five clearly separated lineages. Clade I consists primarily of Golovinomyces cynoglossi s. str. on Cynoglossum. Clade III consists of Golovinomyces sequences retrieved from the host genera Symphytum and Pulmonaria. The taxa within clade III are now assigned to G. asperifoliorum comb. nov. Clade V encompasses G. cynoglossi s. lat. on the host genera Bothriospermum, Buglossoides, Echium, Myosotis, and Trigonotis. The taxa within clade V are now assigned to G. asperifolii comb. nov. The species concerned in this study were lecto- and epitypified to stabilize their nomenclature.
Project description:Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) are plant sap-sucking insects that harbor prokaryotic primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) within specialized cells located in their body cavity. Four-kilobase DNA fragments containing 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were amplified from the P-endosymbiont of 24 whiteflies from 22 different species of 2 whitefly subfamilies. In addition, 3-kb DNA fragments containing mitochondrial cytB, nd1, and large-subunit rDNA (LrDNA) were amplified from 17 whitefly species. Comparisons of the P-endosymbiont (16S-23S rDNA) and host (cytB-nd1-LrDNA) phylogenetic trees indicated overall congruence consistent with a single infection of a whitefly ancestor with a bacterium and subsequent cospeciation (cocladogenesis) of the host and the P-endosymbiont. On the basis of both the P-endosymbiont and host trees, the whiteflies could be subdivided into at least five clusters. The major subdivision was between the subfamilies Aleyrodinae and Aleurodicinae. Unlike the P-endosymbionts of may other insects, the P-endosymbionts of whiteflies were related to Pseudomonas and possibly to the P-endosymbionts of psyllids. The lineage consisting of the P-endosymbionts of whiteflies is given the designation "Candidatus Portiera" gen. nov., with a single species, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" sp. nov.