On-chip wavefront shaping with dielectric metasurface.
ABSTRACT: Metasurfaces can be programmed for a spatial transformation of the wavefront, thus allowing parallel optical signal processing on-chip within an ultracompact dimension. On-chip metasurfaces have been implemented with two-dimensional periodic structures, however, their inherent scattering loss limits their large-scale implementation. The scattering can be minimized in single layer high-contrast transmitarray (HCTA) metasurface. Here we demonstrate a one-dimensional HCTA based lens defined on a standard silicon-on-insulator substrate, with its high transmission (<1?dB loss) maintained over a 200?nm bandwidth. Three layers of the HCTAs are cascaded for demonstrating meta-system functionalities of Fourier transformation and differentiation. The meta-system design holds potential for realizing on-chip transformation optics, mathematical operations and spectrometers, with applications in areas of imaging, sensing and quantum information processing.
Project description:The manipulation and characterization of light polarization states are essential for many applications in quantum communication and computing, spectroscopy, bioinspired navigation, and imaging. Chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces facilitate ultracompact devices for circularly polarized light generation, manipulation, and detection. Herein, we report bioinspired chiral metasurfaces with both strong chiral optical effects and low insertion loss. We experimentally demonstrated submicron-thick circularly polarized light filters with peak extinction ratios up to 35 and maximum transmission efficiencies close to 80% at near-infrared wavelengths (the best operational wavelengths can be engineered in the range of 1.3-1.6?µm). We also monolithically integrated the microscale circular polarization filters with linear polarization filters to perform full-Stokes polarimetric measurements of light with arbitrary polarization states. With the advantages of easy on-chip integration, ultracompact footprints, scalability, and broad wavelength coverage, our designs hold great promise for facilitating chip-integrated polarimeters and polarimetric imaging systems for quantum-based optical computing and information processing, circular dichroism spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis, and remote sensing applications.
Project description:Achieving simultaneous polarization and wavefront control, especially circular polarization with the auxiliary degree of freedom of light and spin angular momentum, is of fundamental importance in many optical applications. Interferences are typically undesirable in highly integrated photonic circuits and metasurfaces. Here, we propose an interference-assisted metasurface-multiplexer (meta-plexer) that counterintuitively exploits constructive and destructive interferences between hybrid meta-atoms and realizes independent spin-selective wavefront manipulation. Such kaleidoscopic meta-plexers are experimentally demonstrated via two types of single-layer spin-wavefront multiplexers that are composed of spatially rotated anisotropic meta-atoms. One type generates a spin-selective Bessel-beam wavefront for spin-down light and a low scattering cross-section for stealth for spin-up light. The other type demonstrates versatile control of the vortex wavefront, which is also characterized by the orbital angular momentum of light, with frequency-switchable numbers of beams under linearly polarized wave excitation. Our findings offer a distinct interference-assisted concept for realizing advanced multifunctional photonics with arbitrary and independent spin-wavefront features. A variety of applications can be readily anticipated in optical diodes, isolators, and spin-Hall meta-devices without cascading bulky optical elements.
Project description:A broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Based on the optimization algorithm and far-field scattering pattern analysis, we propose a rapid and efficient method to design metasurfaces, which avoids the large amount of time-consuming electromagnetic simulations. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show that the proposed metasurface is insensitive to the polarization of incident waves, and presents good scattering-reduction properties for oblique incident waves.
Project description:In the past decades, metasurfaces have opened up a promising venue for manipulating lights and electromagnetic (EM) waves. In the field of nonlinearity, second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a research focus due to its diverse applications. There have been many researches for realizing SHG in optical regime using nonlinear characteristics of optical materials, but its efficiency is low. In microwave frequencies, SHGs are basically studied in the guided-wave systems. Here, high-efficiency SHGs of spatial waves are presented in the microwave frequency using nonlinear metasurface loaded with active chips at the subwavelength scale. The nonlinear meta-atom is composed of receiving antenna, transmitting antenna, and active circuit of frequency multiplier, which can realize strongly nonlinear response and link the EM signals from the receiving to transmitting antennas. Correspondingly, to achieve the function of spatial-wave frequency multiplication, the working frequency of the transmitting antenna in the meta-atom should be twice as that of the receiving antenna, and hence the active chip is well matched to obtain the signal transforming with high efficiency. Good performance of the spatial-wave frequency multiplication is demonstrated in the proof-of-concept experiments with the best transform efficiency of 85.11% under normal incidence, validating the proposed method.
Project description:Spectrally controlled diffusion and reflection of light are key operations for light management in many optical devices. Integration of this operation in complex nanophotonic devices requires a 2D interface that provides tailored spectrum and directivity control. Here, we present a metagrating superstructure that realizes a resonant light reflector with tailored angular scattering profile. Millimeter-sized metasurfaces are built from arrays of combined supercells of 20-50 ?m, composed of 5-7 differently pitched metagratings that tailor at will and with large efficiency the angular response. Each supercell is composed of one or more Si Mie resonators, arranged in a periodic array above an Ag back plane and tailored to resonantly scatter light at 650 nm into only the ±1 diffraction orders with very high efficiency. By varying the pitch and supercell design, we can tailor the overall metasurface reflection profile with large flexibility, realizing a broad-angle Lambertian-type scattering metasurface, as well as a large-angle (35-75°) scattering metasurface, both with resonant optical scattering efficiencies above 70%. These ultrathin structures, fabricated using thin-film deposition, electron beam lithography, and reactive ion etching, can find applications for light trapping and spectrum splitting in solar cells and other devices.
Project description:Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.
Project description:Shrinking conventional optical systems to chip-scale dimensions will benefit custom applications in imaging, displaying, sensing, spectroscopy, and metrology. Towards this goal, metasurfaces-planar arrays of subwavelength electromagnetic structures that collectively mimic the functionality of thicker conventional optical elements-have been exploited at frequencies ranging from the microwave range up to the visible range. Here, we demonstrate high-performance metasurface optical components that operate at ultraviolet wavelengths, including wavelengths down to the record-short deep ultraviolet range, and perform representative wavefront shaping functions, namely, high-numerical-aperture lensing, accelerating beam generation, and hologram projection. The constituent nanostructured elements of the metasurfaces are formed of hafnium oxide-a loss-less, high-refractive-index dielectric material deposited using low-temperature atomic layer deposition and patterned using high-aspect-ratio Damascene lithography. This study opens the way towards low-form factor, multifunctional ultraviolet nanophotonic platforms based on flat optical components, enabling diverse applications including lithography, imaging, spectroscopy, and quantum information processing.
Project description:Metasurfaces have revolutionized the design concepts for optical components, fostering an exciting field of flat optics. Thanks to the flat and ultrathin nature, metasurfaces possess unique advantages over conventional optical components, such as lightweight, high compatibility, among others. To comply with potential applications, further research endeavors need to be exerted for advancing the reusability and practicality of metasurfaces. In this work, we demonstrate a reusable template approach to achieve optical multifunctionality with metasurfaces, utilizing both the geometric and propagation phases to shape light waves. In principle, such a metasurface template can be employed infinite times to enable a large variety of optical functions. As proof-of-concept experiments, we demonstrate metalensing, holography, and vortex beam shaping. Our work will leverage the high scalability aspects of metasurface devices for practical applications.
Project description:The phase-matching condition is a key aspect in nonlinear wavelength conversion processes, which requires the momenta of the photons involved in the processes to be conserved. Conventionally, nonlinear phase matching is achieved using either birefringent or periodically poled nonlinear crystals, which requires careful dispersion engineering and is usually narrowband. In recent years, metasurfaces consisting of densely packed arrays of optical antennas have been demonstrated to provide an effective optical momentum to bend light in arbitrary ways. Here, we demonstrate that gradient metasurface structures consisting of phased array antennas are able to circumvent the phase-matching requirement in on-chip nonlinear wavelength conversion. We experimentally demonstrate phase-matching-free second harmonic generation over many coherent lengths in thin film lithium niobate waveguides patterned with the gradient metasurfaces. Efficient second harmonic generation in the metasurface-based devices is observed over a wide range of pump wavelengths (??=?1580-1650?nm).
Project description:Abstract Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) play crucial roles in terahertz (THz) near?field photonics. However, both high?efficiency excitation and wavefront engineering of SSPs remain great challenges, which hinder their wide applications in practice. Here, a scheme is proposed to simultaneously achieve these two goals efficiently using a single ultracompact device. First, it is shown that a gradient meta?coupler constructed by high?efficiency Pancharatnam–Berry (PB) meta?atoms can convert circularly polarized (CP) THz beams into SSPs with absolute efficiency up to 60%. Encoding a parabolic phase profile into the meta?coupler based on the PB mechanism, it is demonstrated that the device can covert CP beams into SSPs with focusing or defocusing wavefronts, dictated by the chirality of the incident wave. Finally, two distinct chirality?dependent phase distributions are encoded into the meta?coupler design by combining the PB and resonance phase mechanisms, and it is demonstrated that the resulting meta?device can achieve SSP excitations with chirality?delinked bifunctional wavefront engineering. THz near?field experiments are performed to characterize all three devices, in excellent agreement with full?wave simulations. The results pave the road to realize ultracompact devices integrating different functionalities on near?field manipulations, which can find many applications (e.g., optical sensing, imaging, on?chip photonics, etc.) in different frequency domains. High?efficiency bifunctional manipulations on surface?plasmon wavefronts are enabled by a single ultracompact meta?device. Constructed with meta?atoms possessing both geometric and resonant phases, the meta?device exhibits distinct phase profiles for impinging lights with different spins, thus generating independent surface?plasmon profiles. These findings may find many applications in integration photonics, such as coupling on?chip optical devices and enhancing light–matter interactions.