Treatment Strategy for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm in Elderly Patients: Coiling, Clipping, or Conservative?
ABSTRACT: An increasing number of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) has been discovered in elderly patients in recent years, but the optimal treatment strategy for these patients remains controversial. We report our six-year experience treating UIAs in elderly patients (≥ 70 years old). A retrospective review was conducted of elderly patients who harbored UIAs treated by conservative observation, microsurgical clipping, or endovascular coiling between January 2009 and December 2014. The patients' clinical and imaging information was recorded. Treating methods, procedure-related complications, imaging results, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 141 consecutive elderly patients with 166 UIAs were enrolled in our study. In all, 64 patients with 79 aneurysms were treated with coiling, and 14 patients with 14 aneurysms were treated with clipping. The remaining 63 patients with 73 aneurysms were placed under conservative observation. The average modified Rankin scale was 0.99 (range 0-6) in the full cohort after a mean follow-up of 50.4 months (range 0-70 months). There was no significant difference of modified Rankin scale in patients with UIAs treated by different methods. Multivariate analysis showed that age (p=0.030) and aneurysm size (p=0.011) were independent risk factors for unfavorable outcome of UIAs in the elderly. Patient age (p=0.010) and aneurysm size (p=0.020) were also significantly associated with unfavorable outcome of UIAs managed with observation initially. Our results indicated that endovascular coil embolization and clipping were both safe and effective treatment methods for UIAs in the elderly. Aggressive treatment for UIAs in elderly patients with risk factors of aneurysm rupture should be considered positively.
Project description:Previous analyses of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) cohort have reported on the risks of recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage and death or dependency for a minimum of 5 years and up to a maximum of 14 years after treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm with either neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling. At 1 year there was a 7% absolute and a 24% relative risk reduction of death and dependency in the coiling group compared with the clipping group, but the medium-term results showed the increased need for re-treatment of the target aneurysm in the patients given coiling. We report the long-term follow-up of patients in this UK cohort.In ISAT, patients were randomly allocated to either neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling after a subarachnoid haemorrhage, assuming treatment equipoise, between Sept 12, 1994, and May 1, 2002. We followed up 1644 patients in 22 UK neurosurgical centres for death and clinical outcomes for 10·0-18·5 years. We assessed dependency as self-reported modified Rankin scale score obtained through yearly questionnaires. Data for recurrent aneurysms and rebleeding events were collected from questionnaires and from hospital and general practitioner records. The Office for National Statistics supplied data on deaths. This study is registered, number ISRCTN49866681.At 10 years, 674 (83%) of 809 patients allocated endovascular coiling and 657 (79%) of 835 patients allocated neurosurgical clipping were alive (odds ratio [OR] 1·35, 95% CI 1·06-1·73). Of 1003 individuals who returned a questionnaire at 10 years, 435 (82%) patients treated with endovascular coiling and 370 (78%) patients treated with neurosurgical clipping were independent (modified Rankin scale score 0-2; OR 1·25; 95% CI 0·92-1·71). Patients in the endovascular treatment group were more likely to be alive and independent at 10 years than were patients in the neurosurgery group (OR 1·34, 95% CI 1·07-1·67). 33 patients had a recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage more than 1 year after their initial haemorrhage (17 from the target aneurysm).Although rates of increased dependency alone did not differ between groups, the probability of death or dependency was significantly greater in the neurosurgical group than in the endovascular group. Rebleeding was more likely after endovascular coiling than after neurosurgical clipping, but the risk was small and the probability of disability-free survival was significantly greater in the endovascular group than in the neurosurgical group at 10 years.UK Medical Research Council.
Project description:Endovascular coiling therapy is increasingly popular for obliteration of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but older patients face higher procedural risks and shorter periods during which an untreated aneurysm may rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We assessed trends in clipping and coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, outcomes after clipping and coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and in SAH among Medicare beneficiaries.Using 2000 to 2010 Medicare Provider Analysis and Review data, we identified 2 cohorts of patients admitted electively for clipping or coiling of an unruptured aneurysm: (1) utilization cohort (2000-2010): patients ?65 years enrolled ?1 month in a given year and (2) outcomes cohort (2001-2010): patients ?66 years of age enrolled in Medicare for ?1 year. We calculated rates of clipping, coiling, and SAH per 100 000 Medicare beneficiaries. We tested for trends in the risk of in-hospital mortality and complications, discharge destination, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmissions, and length of hospitalization.Characteristics of patients undergoing clipping (n=4357) or coiling (n=7942) did not change appreciably. Overall, 30-day mortality, in-hospital complications, and 30-day readmissions decreased, generally reaching their lowest levels in 2008 to 2010 (1.6%, 25.0%, and 14.5% for clipping and 1.5%, 13.8%, and 11.0% for coiling, respectively). Procedural treatment rates per 100 000 beneficiaries increased from 1.4 in 2000 to 6.0 in 2010, driven mainly by increased use of coiling but SAH rates did not decrease.Although outcomes tended to improve over time, increased preventative treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms among Medicare beneficiaries did not result in a population-level decrease in SAH rates.
Project description:OBJECTIVE The impact of treatment method-surgical clipping or endovascular coiling-on the cost of care for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is debated. Here, the authors investigated the association between treatment method and long-term Medicare expenditures in elderly patients with aneurysmal SAH. METHODS The authors performed a cohort study of 100% of the Medicare fee-for-service claims data for elderly patients who had undergone treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms in the period from 2007 to 2012. To control for measured confounding, the authors used propensity score-adjusted multivariable regression analysis with mixed effects to account for clustering at the hospital referral region (HRR) level. An instrumental variable (regional rates of coiling) analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding by creating pseudo-randomization on the treatment method. RESULTS During the study period, 3210 patients underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 1206 (37.6%) had surgical clipping and 2004 (62.4%) had endovascular coiling. The median total Medicare expenditures in the 1st year after admission for SAH were $113,000 (IQR $77,500-$182,000) for surgical clipping and $103,000 (IQR $72,900-$159,000) for endovascular coiling. When the authors adjusted for unmeasured confounders by using an instrumental variable analysis, clipping was associated with increased 1-year Medicare expenditures by $19,577 (95% CI $4492-$34,663). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of Medicare patients with aneurysmal SAH, after controlling for unmeasured confounding, surgical clipping was associated with increased 1-year expenditures in comparison with endovascular coiling.
Project description:OBJECTIVE The comparative effectiveness of the 2 treatment options-surgical clipping and endovascular coiling-for unruptured cerebral aneurysms remains an issue of debate and has not been studied in clinical trials. The authors investigated the association between treatment method for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes in elderly patients. METHODS The authors performed a cohort study of 100% of Medicare fee-for-service claims data for elderly patients who had treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2007 and 2012. To control for measured confounding, the authors used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting with mixed effects to account for clustering at the level of the hospital referral region (HRR). An instrumental variable (regional rates of coiling) analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and to create pseudo-randomization on the treatment method. RESULTS During the study period, 8705 patients underwent treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and met the study inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 2585 (29.7%) had surgical clipping and 6120 (70.3%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference between coiling and clipping in 1-year postoperative mortality (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.68-2.31) or 90-day readmission rate (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.66-1.62). However, clipping was associated with a greater likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 6.39, 95% CI 3.85-10.59) and 3.6 days longer length of stay (LOS; 95% CI 2.90-4.71). The same associations were present in propensity score-adjusted and inverse probability-weighted models. CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of Medicare patients, there was no difference in mortality and the readmission rate between clipping and coiling of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with a higher rate of discharge to a rehabilitation facility and a longer LOS.
Project description:These data present the characteristics of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent endovascular coiling. We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of Iwaki City Medical Center including physiological symptoms, laboratory data, radiological data on admission, and modified Rankin Scale scores at 6 months. Our article entitled "Temporal Muscle as an Indicator of Sarcopenia is Independently Associated with Hunt and Kosnik Grade on Admission and the Modified Rankin Scale at 6 Month of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Endovascular Coiling" was based on these data . We previously reported similar small dataset of elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent surgical clipping , . However, remarkably, this is the largest and the first dataset on temporal muscle thickness or area of patients of all ages with subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent endovascular coiling, not surgical clipping.
Project description:The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) demonstrated improved one-year clinical outcomes for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling compared to surgical clipping. Patients included in ISAT were mostly good grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with small anterior circulation aneurysms. The purported superiority of coiling is commonly extrapolated to patients not studied in the original trial or to those treated using new devices not available at the time. Conversely, many patients are treated by clipping despite ISAT, because they are thought either to be better candidates for surgery, or to offer more durable protection from aneurysm recurrences. These practices have never been formally validated. Thus, for many ruptured aneurysm patients the question of which treatment modality leads to a superior clinical outcome remains unclear. METHODS/TRIAL DESIGN: ISAT II is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized trial comparing clinical outcomes for non-ISAT patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage allocated to coiling or clipping. Inclusion criteria are broad. The primary end-point is the incidence of poor clinical outcome (defined as mRS >2) at one year, just as in ISAT. Secondary end-points include measures of treatment safety for a number of pre-specified subgroups, with efficacy end-points including the presence of a major recurrence at one year; 1,896 patients (862 each arm plus 10% losses) are required to demonstrate a significant difference between coiling and clipping, hypothesizing 23% and 30% poor clinical outcome rates, for coiling and clipping, respectively. The trial should involve at least 50 international centers, and will take approximately 12 years to complete. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat.
Project description:The comparative effectiveness of the two treatment options (surgical clipping and endovascular coiling) for ruptured cerebral aneurysms has not been studied in real-world practice in the USA. We investigated the association between the treatment method for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes.We performed a retrospective cohort study of elderly patients who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms from 2007 to 2012 using a 100% sample of Medicare fee-for-service claims data. An instrumental variable analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and to create pseudo-randomization on the treatment method. In sensitivity analysis, controlling only for measured confounding, we used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting with mixed effects to account for clustering at the Hospital Referral Region (HRR) level.During the study period 3210 patients underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1206 (37.6%) had surgical clipping and 2004 (62.4%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference between coiling and clipping in 1-year postoperative mortality (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.54), likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.58), or 30-day readmission rate (OR 1.44; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.87). However, clipping was associated with 2.7?days longer length of stay (LOS) (95% CI 0.45 to 4.99). The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted and inverse probability weighted models.In a cohort of Medicare patients, we did not demonstrate a difference in mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and readmissions between clipping and coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with a slightly longer LOS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Once a decision has been made to treat an intact aneurysm, the best treatment remains uncertain. Both surgical and endovascular management strategies are commonly performed for these lesions. Surgical clipping, for years the standard treatment, is gradually becoming supplanted by endovascular treatment. However, there is no randomized data available to compare the results of surgery versus endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms (UIAs). METHODS:We report the design of the Canadian UnRuptured Endovascular versus Surgery (CURES) trial to compare angiographic and clinical outcomes following treatment of UIAs. RESULTS:The Canadian pilot phase will serve two purposes: i) to determine feasibility of the pivotal international study, and ii) to determine the incidence of treatment failure, a composite primary end-point comprising the occurrence of either: failure to accomplish aneurysm obliteration with the initial treatment modality, a major saccular aneurysm remnant or recurrence, or intracranial hemorrhage following treatment at one year. The pivotal international study will address which strategy leads to the best overall clinical outcomes in terms of mortality, morbidity, and clinical efficacy. CURES is designed to be a pragmatic management trial with loose inclusion criteria. The pilot study plans to enroll 260 patients, a size sufficient (at 80% power and 0.05 significance) to detect a decrease in the incidence of treatment failure from 13% to 4%. The formulation of specific hypotheses for the pivotal phase awaits the preliminary CURES morbidity and mortality results. CONCLUSIONS:The CURES trial intends to test surgical versus endovascular management strategies for the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The Analysis of Recanalization after Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysm (ARETA) prospective study aims to determine factors predicting recurrence after endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms. In this publication, we review endovascular techniques and present the study population. Characteristics of treated and untreated unruptured aneurysms were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixteen neurointerventional departments prospectively enrolled patients treated for ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms between December 2013 and May 2015. Patient demographics, aneurysm characteristics, and endovascular techniques were recorded. RESULTS:A total of 1289 patients with 1761 intracranial aneurysms, 835 (47.4%) ruptured, were enrolled. Of these, 1359 intracranial aneurysms were treated by endovascular means. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated by coiling and balloon-assisted coiling in 97.8% of cases. In unruptured intracranial aneurysms, the rates of flow diversion, flow disruption, and stent-assisted coiling were 11.6%, 6.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Rupture status and aneurysm location, neck diameter, and sac size significantly influenced the chosen technique. Treated unruptured intracranial aneurysms, compared with untreated counterparts, had larger aneurysm sacs (7.6 ± 4.0 versus 3.4 ± 2.0 mm; P < 0.001) and neck dimensions (4.1 ± 2.2 versus 2.4 ± 1.3 mm; P < 0.001) and more frequently an irregular form (84.6% versus 44.4%; P < 0.001). Also, its location influenced whether an unruptured intracranial aneurysm was treated. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides an overview of current neurointerventional practice in the ARETA cohort. The technique choice was influenced by aneurysm morphology, location, and rupture status. Flow diversion, flow disruption, and stent-assisted coiling were commonly used in unruptured intracranial aneurysms, while most ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated with coiling and balloon-assisted coiling.
Project description:Background:Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms are rare. Current treatments include: direct clipping, trapping ± bypass, and endovascular methods (coiling, stenting, or flow diversion). Due to specific characteristics (wide base, location, and shape), a major challenge while dealing with SCA aneurysms is to preserve the flow of the parent artery and perforators. This video demonstrates a revascularization procedure, and clip reconstruction of a large unruptured basilar artery (BA)/SCA aneurysm performed through the subtemporal approach.Case Description:A 60-year-old woman presented with dizziness and headaches. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography showed a right unruptured large BA/SCA aneurysm. After multidisciplinary discussion, and considering gender, age, risk factors of the patient. Endovascular treatment was considered with a high risk of ischemic complications. Therefore, the patient was consented for a superficial temporal artery (STA)-SCA bypass through subtemporal approach followed by direct clipping/ trapping of the aneurysm. Postoperative CTA showed occlusion of the aneurysm and patency of the parent vessels. Postoperatively, the patient experienced immediate transient left mild monoparesis and right IV nerve palsy, which recovered completely at 6-months follow-up.Results:Surgical treatment of SCA aneurysms is decreasing due to the existence of endovascular therapies such as stents and flow diverters. However, some cases may necessitate surgical treatment and revascularization procedures to maintain the blood flow of the parent artery and to treat the previous lesion.Conclusion:The STA-SCA bypass through the subtemporal approach is a feasible option to maintain the blood flow of the parent artery in cases of SCA requiring surgical treatment and trapping/direct clipping of the aneurysm.