Utility of the Cardiovascular Physical Examination and Impact of Spironolactone in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The prognostic value of physical examination, its relation to quality of life, and influence of therapy in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is not well known. METHODS AND RESULTS:We studied participants from the Americas with available physical examination (jugular venous distention, rales, and edema) at baseline in the TOPCAT trial (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist). The association of the number of signs of congestion with the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization), its individual components, and all-cause mortality was assessed using time-updated, multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses. We evaluated whether spironolactone improved congestion at 4 months and whether improvement in congestion was related to quality of life as assessed by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary scores and to outcomes. Among 1644 participants, 22%, 54%, 20%, and 4% had 0, 1, 2, and 3 signs of congestion, respectively, at baseline. After multivariable adjustment, each additional increase in sign of congestion was associated with a 30% to 60% increased risk of each outcome ( P<0.001). Spironolactone reduced the total number of signs of congestion by -0.10 ( P=0.005) signs, jugular venous distention (odds ratio, 0.60; P=0.01), and edema (odds ratio, 0.74; P=0.006) at 4 months compared with placebo. Each reduction in sign of congestion was independently associated with a 4.0 (95% CI, 2.4-5.6) point improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score. When assessed simultaneously, time-updated, but not baseline congestion, predicted outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the physical exam provides independent prognostic value for adverse outcomes. Spironolactone improved congestion compared with placebo. Reducing congestion was independently associated with improved quality of life and outcomes and is a modifiable risk factor. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00094302.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute heart failure (HF) patients with renal insufficiency and risk factors for diuretic resistance may be most likely to derive incremental improvement in congestion with the addition of spironolactone. METHODS:The Aldosterone Targeted Neurohormonal Combined with Natriuresis Therapy in Heart Failure (ATHENA-HF) trial randomized 360 acute HF patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction to spironolactone 100 mg daily or usual care for 96 hours. The current analysis assessed the effects of study therapy within tertiles of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subgroups at heightened risk for diuretic resistance. RESULTS:Across eGFR tertiles, there was no incremental benefit of high-dose spironolactone on any efficacy endpoint, including changes in log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and signs and symptoms of congestion (all P for interaction ? 0.06). High-dose spironolactone had no significant effect on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide reduction regardless of blood pressure, diabetes mellitus status, and loop diuretic dose (all P for interaction ? 0.38). In-hospital changes in serum potassium and creatinine were similar between treatment groups for all GFR tertiles (all P for interaction ? 0.18). Rates of inpatient worsening HF, 30-day worsening HF, and 60-day all-cause mortality were numerically higher among patients with lower baseline eGFR, but relative effects of study treatment did not differ with renal function (all P for interaction ? 0.27). CONCLUSIONS:High-dose spironolactone did not improve congestion over usual care among patients with acute HF, irrespective of renal function and risk factors for diuretic resistance. In-hospital initiation or continuation of spironolactone was safe during the inpatient stay, even when administered at high doses to patients with moderate renal dysfunction.
Project description:Although therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) is recommended for patients with chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction and in post-infarction HF, it has not been studied well in acute HF (AHF) despite being commonly used in this setting. At high doses, MRA therapy in AHF may relieve congestion through its natriuretic properties and mitigate the effects of adverse neurohormonal activation associated with intravenous loop diuretics. The ATHENA-HF (Aldosterone Targeted Neurohormonal Combined with Natriuresis Therapy in Heart Failure) trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of 100 mg/day spironolactone versus placebo (or continued low-dose spironolactone use in participants who are already receiving spironolactone at baseline) in 360 patients hospitalized for AHF. Patients are randomized within 24 h of receiving the first dose of intravenous diuretics. The primary objective is to determine if high-dose spironolactone, compared with standard care, will lead to greater reductions in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels from randomization to 96 h. The secondary endpoints include changes in the clinical congestion score, dyspnea relief, urine output, weight change, loop diuretic dose, and in-hospital worsening HF. Index hospital length of stay and 30-day clinical outcomes will be assessed. Safety endpoints include risk of hyperkalemia and renal function. Differences among patients with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction will be determined. (Study of High-dose Spironolactone vs. Placebo Therapy in Acute Heart Failure [ATHENA-HF]; NCT02235077).
Project description:AIMS:The aim of this study is to use six previously described heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) phenotypes to describe differences in (i) the biological response to spironolactone, (ii) clinical endpoints, and (iii) patient-reported health status by HFpEF phenotype and treatment arm in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial (TOPCAT). METHODS AND RESULTS:We analysed 1767 patients in TOPCAT from the Americas. Using 11 clinical variables, patients were classified according to six HFpEF phenotypes previously identified in the I-PRESERVE and CHARM-Preserved studies. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) measured health status. All phenotypes showed increase in potassium with spironolactone, although only three phenotypes showed significant increase in creatinine, and two phenotypes showed significant decrease in systolic blood pressure. Rate of the TOPCAT primary outcome (cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) differed by HFpEF phenotype (P < 0.001) but not by treatment arm within each HFpEF phenotype. Baseline KCCQ score differed by HFpEF phenotype (P < 0.001), although some phenotypes with poor health status had lower rates of the TOPCAT primary outcome, and some phenotypes with better health status had higher rates of the TOPCAT primary outcome. However, within 3/6 phenotypes, higher baseline KCCQ score was associated with lower risk of the TOPCAT primary outcome. Change in KCCQ scores at 4 and 12 months did not differ among HFpEF phenotypes overall or by treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS:Complex, data-driven HFpEF phenotypes differ according to biological response to spironolactone, baseline health status, and clinical endpoints. These differences may inform the design of targeted clinical trials focusing on improvement in outcomes most relevant for specific HFpEF phenotypes.
Project description:Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is defined as clinical features of heart failure, ideally with biomarker evidence such as elevated plasma natriuretic peptide levels, in the setting of an ejection fraction (EF) greater than 50% and imaging evidence of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction [1,2]. In the absence of cardiac imaging or invasive hemodynamics, this is a clinical syndrome that is often indistinguishable from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). HFpEF and HFrEF present with a cadre of comparable signs and symptoms including jugular venous distention, pulmonary rales on auscultation, breathlessness, orthopnea, exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, fatigue and peripheral edema. HFpEF accounts for at least half of all diagnoses of heart failure [1,2]. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of HFpEF that is linked to worse disease morbidity and mortality. In fact, mortality has been linked to increases in the intrinsic pulmonary vascular resistance in the setting of increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure, characterized hemodynamically by rises in the transpulmonary pressure gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance or diastolic pressure gradient. Despite being the most common form of PH, there are no approved therapies for the treatment of PH secondary to HFpEF. This review will summarize the hemodynamic classifications of PH in the setting of HFpEF, mechanisms of disease, the potential contribution of pulmonary vascular disease to poor outcomes in patients with HFpEF, and new approaches to therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to investigate sex differences in outcomes and responses to spironolactone in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND:HFpEF affects women more frequently than men. Sex differences in responses to effects of mineralocorticoid antagonists have not been reported. METHODS:This was an exploratory, post hoc, non-pre-specified analysis of the TOPCAT (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function) trial. Subjects with symptomatic HF and a left ventricular ejection fraction ?45% were randomized to spironolactone or placebo therapy. Subjects enrolled from the Americas were analyzed. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death, cardiac arrest, or HF hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, CV, and non-CV mortality and CV, HF, and non-CV hospitalization. Sex differences in outcomes and treatment effects were determined using time-to-event analysis. RESULTS:In total, 882 of 1,767 subjects (49.9%) were women. Women were older with fewer comorbidities but worse patient-reported outcomes. There were no sex differences in outcomes in the placebo arm or in response to spironolactone for the primary outcome or its components. Spironolactone therapy was associated with reduced all-cause mortality in women (hazard ratio: 0.66; p = 0.01) but not in men (pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:In TOPCAT, women and men presented with different clinical profiles and similar clinical outcomes. The interaction between spironolactone and sex in TOPCAT overall and in the present analysis was nonsignificant for the primary outcome, but there was a reduction in all-cause mortality associated with spironolactone therapy in women, with a significant interaction between sex and treatment arm. Prospective evaluation is needed to determine whether spironolactone therapy may be effective for treatment of HFpEF in women. (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302).
Project description:Importance:Persistent congestion is associated with worse outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists administered at high doses may relieve congestion, overcome diuretic resistance, and mitigate the effects of adverse neurohormonal activation in AHF. Objective:To assess the effect of high-dose spironolactone and usual care on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels compared with usual care alone. Design, Setting, and Participants:This double-blind and placebo (or low-dose)-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 22 US acute care hospitals among patients with AHF who were previously receiving no or low-dose (12.5 mg or 25 mg daily) spironolactone and had NT-proBNP levels of 1000 pg/mL or more or B-type natriuretic peptide levels of 250 pg/mL or more, regardless of ejection fraction. Interventions:High-dose spironolactone (100 mg) vs placebo or 25 mg spironolactone (usual care) daily for 96 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was the change in NT-proBNP levels from baseline to 96 hours. Secondary end points included the clinical congestion score, dyspnea assessment, net urine output, and net weight change. Safety end points included hyperkalemia and changes in renal function. Results:A total of 360 patients were randomized, of whom the median age was 65 years, 129 (36%) were women, 200 (55.5%) were white, 151 (42%) were black, 8 (2%) were Hispanic or Latino, 9 (2.5%) were of other race/ethnicity, and the median left ventricular ejection fraction was 34%. Baseline median (interquartile range) NT-proBNP levels were 4601 (2697-9596) pg/mL among the group treated with high-dose spironolactone and 3753 (1968-7633) pg/mL among the group who received usual care. There was no significant difference in the log NT-proBNP reduction between the 2 groups (-0.55 [95% CI, -0.92 to -0.18] with high-dose spironolactone and -0.49 [95% CI, -0.98 to -0.14] with usual care, P?=?.57). None of the secondary end point or day-30 all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization rate differed between the 2 groups. The changes in serum potassium and estimated glomerular filtration rate at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Relevance:Adding treatment with high-dose spironolactone to usual care for patients with AHF for 96 hours was well tolerated but did not improve the primary or secondary efficacy end points. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02235077.
Project description:AIMS:Heart failure (HF) is associated with considerable symptom burden and impairment in physical functioning and quality of life. The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced the risk of HF hospitalisation and cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, and could potentially improve congestion symptoms and exercise capacity in patients with HF. We describe the designs of the EMPERIAL-Preserved and EMPERIAL-Reduced trials of empagliflozin in patients with chronic stable HF, with or without type 2 diabetes. METHODS:EMPERIAL-Preserved and EMPERIAL-Reduced are randomised, placebo-controlled trials designed to investigate the effects of empagliflozin on exercise capacity and patient-reported outcomes in patients with chronic stable HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >?40%] and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; LVEF ??40%), respectively. In each trial, approximately 300 patients will be randomised 1:1 to receive empagliflozin 10 mg or placebo once daily for 12?weeks. In both trials, the primary endpoint is the change from baseline in 6-min walk test distance at week 12. Key secondary endpoints are the change from baseline in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score and change from baseline in dyspnoea score of the Chronic Heart Failure Questionnaire at week 12. CONCLUSION:The EMPERIAL-Preserved and EMPERIAL-Reduced trials will determine the effects of empagliflozin on exercise capacity and patient-reported outcomes in patients with HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively, and provide insight into the potential of empagliflozin in the treatment of patients with HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03448406 (EMPERIAL-Preserved), NCT03448419 (EMPERIAL-Reduced).
Project description:Patients with atrial fibrillation frequently suffer from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. At present there is no proven therapy to improve physical capacity and quality of life in participants with permanent atrial fibrillation with preserved left ventricular contractility.The single-centre IMproved exercise tolerance In heart failure With PReserved Ejection fraction by Spironolactone On myocardial fibrosiS In Atrial Fibrillation (IMPRESS-AF) trial aims to establish whether treatment with spironolactone as compared with placebo improves exercise tolerance (cardiopulmonary exercise testing), quality of life and diastolic function in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation.A total of 250 patients have been randomised in this double-blinded trial for 2-year treatment with 25 mg daily dose of spironolactone or matched placebo. Included participants are 50 years old or older, have permanent atrial fibrillation and ejection fraction >55%. Exclusion criteria include contraindications to spironolactone, poorly controlled hypertension and presence of severe comorbidities with life expectancy <2 years. The primary outcome is improvement in exercise tolerance at 2 years and key secondary outcomes include quality of life (assessed using the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L (EQ-5D) and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) questionnaires), diastolic function and all-cause hospitalisation.The study has been approved by the National Research and Ethics Committee West Midlands-Coventry and Warwickshire (REC reference number 14/WM/1211). The results of the trial will be published in an international peer-reviewed journal.EudraCT2014-003702-33; NCT02673463; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent evidence suggests that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone should be the preferred fourth-line antihypertensive treatment in resistant hypertension (RHTN). Whether spironolactone improves blood pressure (BP) control in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and RHTN is unknown. METHODS:We identified patients with RHTN, defined as baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and 160 mm Hg on 3 or more medications, in the Americas cohort of the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial, in which patients with HFpEF were randomized to spironolactone vs. placebo. We evaluated the effects of spironolactone vs. placebo on BP reduction in this group and related this to the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS:We identified 403 participants in the Americas with RHTN. Compared to people without RHTN, those with RHTN were more frequently women, non-White, diabetics, with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and body mass index, and a lower hemoglobin concentration. In the RHTN group, spironolactone resulted in a decrease of SBP: -6.1 (-8.9, -3.3); P < 0.001 and diastolic BP: -2.9 (-4.6, -1.2); P = 0.001 mm Hg during the first 8 months. BP became controlled after 4 weeks in 63% of patients receiving spironolactone vs. 46% receiving placebo (P = 0.003), with similar responses at 8 weeks, 4 and 8 months. Patients with RHTN derived similar overall benefit from spironolactone on the primary outcomes as those without. CONCLUSIONS:In HFpEF patients with RHTN, spironolactone lowered BP substantially and was associated with similar benefit as those without RHTN. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:Trial Number NCT00094302 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Albuminuria predicts adverse events in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. No therapies to date have reduced albuminuria in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS:We analyzed 1175 participants from the Americas from the TOPCAT study (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) measurements at baseline. We examined the association of UACR with the primary outcome (cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) and its individual components, all-cause mortality, and several safety end points using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. We evaluated whether spironolactone reduced albuminuria at the 1-year visit in a subpopulation (N=744). Thirty-five percent had microalbuminuria, 13% had macroalbuminuria, and 80% were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Increasing UACR was associated with male sex, higher systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and renal dysfunction. Macroalbuminuria (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.22-2.28) and microalbuminuria (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.15-1.86) were independently associated with the TOPCAT primary end point (compared with normoalbuminuria). Adjusting for placebo response, spironolactone reduced albuminuria by 39% in all participants at the 1-year visit compared with baseline (geometric mean ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.49-0.77) and by 76% (geometric mean ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.56) among those with macroalbuminuria. Reducing UACR by 50% was independently associated with a reduction in heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.90; P=0.017) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.91; P=0.019). The change in UACR was significantly associated with change in systolic blood pressure ( P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In TOPCAT, albuminuria was independently associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Spironolactone significantly reduced albuminuria compared with placebo. Reducing albuminuria was independently associated with improved outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00094302.