An experimental examination of the effects of alcohol consumption and exposure to misleading postevent information on remembering a hypothetical rape scenario.
ABSTRACT: We experimentally examined the effects of alcohol consumption and exposure to misleading postevent information on memory for a hypothetical interactive rape scenario. We used a 2 beverage (alcohol vs. tonic water) × 2 expectancy (told alcohol vs. told tonic) factorial design. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to conditions. They consumed alcohol (mean blood alcohol content = 0.06%) or tonic water before engaging in the scenario. Alcohol expectancy was controlled by telling participants they were consuming alcohol or tonic water alone, irrespective of the actual beverage they were consuming. Approximately a week later, participants were exposed to a misleading postevent narrative and then recalled the scenario and took a recognition test. Participants who were told that they had consumed alcohol rather than tonic reported fewer correct details, but they were no more likely to report incorrect or misleading information. The confidence-accuracy relationship for control and misled items was similar across groups, and there was some evidence that metacognitive discrimination was better for participants who were told that they had consumed alcohol compared with those told they had tonic water. Implications for interviewing rape victims are discussed.
Project description:Acute alcohol intoxication during encoding can impair subsequent identification accuracy, but results across studies have been inconsistent, with studies often finding no effect. Little is also known about how alcohol intoxication affects the identification confidence-accuracy relationship. We randomly assigned women (N = 153) to consume alcohol (dosed to achieve a 0.08% blood alcohol content) or tonic water, controlling for alcohol expectancy. Women then participated in an interactive hypothetical sexual assault scenario and, 24 hours or 7 days later, attempted to identify the assailant from a perpetrator present or a perpetrator absent simultaneous line-up and reported their decision confidence. Overall, levels of identification accuracy were similar across the alcohol and tonic water groups. However, women who had consumed tonic water as opposed to alcohol identified the assailant with higher confidence on average. Further, calibration analyses suggested that confidence is predictive of accuracy regardless of alcohol consumption. The theoretical and applied implications of our results are discussed.
Project description:Background:Traditional simulation-based education prioritizes participation in simulated scenarios. The educational impact of observation in simulation-based education compared with participation remains uncertain. Our objective was to compare the performances of observers and participants in a standardized simulation scenario. Methods:We assessed learning differences between simulation-based scenario participation and observation using a convergent, parallel, quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of 15 participants and 15 observers (N = 30). Fifteen first-year residents from six medical specialties were evaluated during a simulated scenario (cardiac arrest due to critical hyperkalemia). Evaluation included predefined critical actions and performance assessments. In the first exposure to the simulation scenario, participants and observers underwent a shared postevent debriefing with predetermined learning objectives. Three months later, a follow-up assessment using the same case scenario evaluated all 30 learners as participants. Wilcoxon signed rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare participants and observers at 3-month follow-up. In addition, we used case study methodology to explore the nature of learning for participants and observers. Data were triangulated using direct observations, reflective field notes, and a focus group. Results:Quantitative data analysis comparing the learners' first and second exposure to the investigation scenario demonstrated participants' time to calcium administration as the only statistically significant difference between participant and observer roles (316 seconds vs. 200 seconds, p = 0.0004). Qualitative analysis revealed that both participation and observation improved learning, debriefing was an important component to learning, and debriefing closed the learning gap between observers and participants. Conclusions:Participants and observers had similar performances in simulation-based learning in an isolated scenario of cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia. Findings support current limited literature that observation should not be underestimated as an important opportunity to enhance simulation-based education. When paired with postevent debriefing, scenario observers and participants may reap similar educational benefits.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical violence and rape among female sex workers (FSWs) in Ethiopia.<h4>Design</h4>A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling technique.<h4>Setting</h4>Eleven major towns in Ethiopia.<h4>Participants</h4>4900 FSWs.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The prevalence of experiences of physical beating and rape.<h4>Results</h4>Among FSWs, 17.5% reported physical beating within the last year and 15.2% reported rape since they started selling sex. FSWs aged 35+ years (AOR 0.59, 95%?CI 0.38 to 0.92) were less exposed to physical beating than those aged 15-24 years. FSWs working on the street (AOR 1.92, 95%?CI 1.53 to 2.39), in red-light houses (AOR 1.63, 95%?CI 1.12 to 2.38) and in local drinking houses (AOR 1.35, 95%?CI 1.02 to 1.78) experienced more physical beating than FSWs working in bars/hotels. FSWs who consumed alcohol four or more days in a week (AOR 1.92, 95%?CI 1.21 to 3.04), and who chewed khat frequently experienced more physical violence. Rape was associated with having a low monthly income, drinking alcohol four or more days per week (AOR 2.33, 95%?CI 1.47 to 3.7), experience of heavy episodic drinking in a month (AOR 1.71, 95%?CI 1.24 to 2.38) and chewing khat 3-4 days per week (AOR 2.15, 95%?CI 1.55 to 2.98). Condom breakage was more frequent among FSWs who reported both physical beating (AOR 1.51, 95%?CI 1.25 to 1.84) and rape (AOR 1.26, 95%?CI 1.03 to 1.55).<h4>Conclusion</h4>FSWs in Ethiopia are vulnerable to physical and sexual violence, and the risk increases when they are younger, street-based and high consumers of alcohol or khat. Therefore, targeted efforts are needed for prevention and harm reduction.
Project description:This study sought to test the effect of genetic information and information about the caffeine content of a beverage on caffeine withdrawal, specifically if: (1) being informed that one has tested positive for a gene related to caffeine withdrawal can produce an exaggerated caffeine withdrawal response during abstinence; (2) belief that one has consumed caffeine leads to a reduction in withdrawal symptoms when no caffeine is consumed. Regular coffee drinkers were given a bogus genetic test and were told either that they had tested positive or negative for a gene related to withdrawal. After 24-hour caffeine abstinence withdrawal symptoms were measured using a self-report caffeine withdrawal scale, and then again after a cup of decaffeinated coffee. Half the participants were told their coffee was caffeinated and half were told truthfully that it was decaffeinated. Participants told the coffee was caffeinated reported a greater reduction in withdrawal symptoms than those told it was decaffeinated. Differing genetic test result information produced no difference in reported withdrawal symptoms. These results indicate that information about the dose of caffeine administered can influence withdrawal symptoms, but that genetic information does not have a universal ability to produce nocebo effects across all sensory and cognitive domains.
Project description:Isoflavone compounds naturally occurring in the root of the kudzu plant have been used historically to treat alcohol-related problems. A pilot study was conducted to assess the effects of one primary isoflavone--puerarin--for its ability to modify alcohol intake in humans.Ten (10) healthy adult volunteers were administered puerarin (1200 mg daily) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design experiment for one week prior to an afternoon drinking session lasting 1.5h. Participants had access to up to six bottles of their preferred brand of beer in addition to juice and water. A time course of drinking, sip volumes, and total amount consumed were recorded.Participants consumed on average 3.5 (±0.55) beers when treated with placebo and 2.4 (±0.41) beers when treated with puerarin. In contrast to drinking following placebo treatment when 3 participants drank 5 beers and 1 participant drank all 6 beers, none drank 5 or 6 beers when treated with puerarin. Drinking topography also changed. When treated with puerarin, participants decreased sip size, took more sips to finish a beer, and took longer to consume each beer. Additionally, after finishing a beer, latency to opening the next beer was increased.This study is the first demonstration that a single isoflavone found in the kudzu root can alter alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that alcohol consumption patterns are influenced by puerarin administration and this botanical medication may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of excessive alcohol intake.
Project description:Bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol dependence (AD) frequently co-occur, and co-occurring BD and AD are associated with devastating public health costs. Minimal neurobiological research exists to guide the development of effective treatments for this treatment-resistant population. We believe the present study represents the first investigation of prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate levels in co-occurring BD and current AD. The participants were 78 individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for BD I/II and current AD (n=20), BD I/II alone (n=19), current AD alone (n=20) or no diagnosis (n=19). The participants completed a baseline diagnostic visit, then returned approximately 4 days later for a two-dimensional J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) acquisition in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). All participants were required to demonstrate ?1 week of abstinence from alcohol/drugs via serial biomarker testing before 1H-MRS. A 2 × 2 factorial analysis of variance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-corrected GABA/water concentrations demonstrated a significant BD × AD interaction (F=2.91, P<0.05), signifying uniquely low levels of GABA in BD+AD; this effect doubled when the sample was restricted to individuals who consumed alcohol within 2 weeks of 1H-MRS. There were no overall effects of BD/AD on CSF-corrected glutamate/water levels. However, the BD × AD interaction, signifying uniquely low levels of glutamate in BD+AD, approached statistical significance (F=3.83, P=0.06) in individuals who consumed alcohol within 2 weeks of 1H-MRS. The dACC GABA levels were significantly, negatively associated with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (r=-0.28, P=0.02) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (r=-0.35, P<0.01) scores. If replicated, these results may suggest that future treatment studies should preferentially evaluate therapeutics in BD+AD known to increase prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels.
Project description:RATIONALE:Drinking alcohol is associated with various interpersonal effects, including effects on cognitive empathy. Empathic accuracy (EA) is a form of cognitive empathy concerned with perceivers' accuracy in inferring a target's thoughts and feelings. The effects of alcohol on EA have not previously been studied. OBJECTIVES:We examined the effect of a moderate alcohol dose on EA in social drinkers. METHODS:Fifty-four men with varying levels of hazardous drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) participated in a randomized, double-blind, between-group study. The alcohol group received 0.56 g/kg alcohol in a vodka and tonic-mixed drink. The placebo group received tonic, with 4 ml of vodka sprayed on top. All participants performed an EA task that involved watching 16 videos of people narrating positive and negative emotional autobiographical events and continuously rating how targets felt while narrating. RESULTS:There were no significant main effects of beverage condition on the EA task. There was an effect of the condition by AUDIT interaction for EA on the positive videos. Post-hoc simple contrasts revealed that in participants with lower AUDIT scores, the alcohol condition had lower EA for positive videos than the placebo condition. No significant main effect for condition occurred in the participants with higher AUDIT scores. CONCLUSIONS:The effect of condition in participants with lower AUDIT scores indicates alcohol selectively reduced EA in individuals low on hazardous drinking. This suggests either alcohol-induced impairments of EA for positive events or a positivity bias in men at low risk for alcohol dependency.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined trends of diagnosis-specific work disability before and after ischaemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN:Participants were followed 4?years before and 4?years after an IHD event for diagnosis-specific work disability (sickness absence and disability pension). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A Swedish population-based cohort study using register data on all individuals aged 25-60 years, living in Sweden, and who suffered their first IHD event in 2006-2008 (n=23 971) was conducted. RESULTS:Before the event, the most common diagnoses of work disability were musculoskeletal disorders (21 annual days for men and 44 for women) and mental disorders (19 men and 31 for women). After multivariable adjustments, we observed a fivefold increase (from 12 to 60 days) in work disability due to diseases of the circulatory system in the first postevent year compared with the last pre-event year among men. Among women, the corresponding increase was fourfold (from 14 to 62 days). By the second postevent year, the number of work disability days decreased significantly compared with the first postevent year among both sexes (to 19 days among men and 23 days among women). Among women, mean days of work disability due to diseases of the circulatory system remained at a higher level than among men during the postevent years. Work disability risk after versus before an IHD event was slightly higher among men (rate ratio (RR) 2.49; 95% CI 2.36 to 2.62) than among women (RR 2.29, 95%?CI 2.12 to 2.49). When pre-event long-term work disability was excluded, diseases of the circulatory system were the most prevalent diagnosis for work disability after an IHD event among both men and women. CONCLUSIONS:An IHD event was strongly associated with an increase in work disability due to diseases of the circulatory system, especially among men and particularly in the first postevent year.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Conduct a head-to-head experimental test of responses to alcohol harm reduction advertisements developed by alcohol industry Social Aspects/Public Relations Organisations (SAPROs) versus those developed by public health (PH) agencies. We hypothesised that, on average, SAPRO advertisements would be less effective at generating motivation (H1) and intentions to reduce alcohol consumption (H2) but more effective at generating positive perceptions of people who drink (H3). DESIGN:Online experiment with random assignment to condition. PARTICIPANTS:2923 Australian adult weekly drinkers (49% high-risk drinkers) recruited from an opt-in online panel. INTERVENTIONS:Participants viewed 3 of 83 advertisements developed by PH agencies (n=2174) or 3 of 28 advertisements developed by SAPROs (n=749). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Participants reported their motivation to reduce the amount of alcohol consumed; behave responsibly and/or not get drunk; and limit their drinking around/never supply to minors, as well as intentions to avoid drinking alcohol completely; reduce the number of drinking occasions; and reduce the amount of alcohol consumed per occasion. Participants also reported their perceptions of people who drink alcohol on six success-related items and four fun-related items. RESULTS:Compared with drinkers exposed to PH advertisements, those exposed to SAPRO advertisements reported lower motivation to reduce the amount of alcohol consumed (?=-0.091, 95%?CI -0.171 to -0.010), and lower odds of intending to avoid alcohol completely (OR=0.77, 0.63 to 0.94) and to reduce the amount of alcohol consumed per occasion (OR=0.82, 0.69 to 0.97). SAPRO advertisements generated more favourable fun-related perceptions of drinkers (?=0.095, 0.013 to 0.177). CONCLUSIONS:The alcohol harm reduction advertisements produced by alcohol industry SAPROs that were tested in this study were not as effective at generating motivation and intentions to reduce alcohol consumption as those developed by PH organisations. These findings raise questions as to whether SAPROs should play a role in alcohol harm reduction efforts.
Project description:Acute metabolic challenges provide insight on how the body responds to metabolic stress. In this study, we assessed transcriptomic response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to an acute glucose challenge. Overall design: Participants consumed 75 g glucose (anhydrous) in 150 mL of water. PBMCs were collected at baseline and 60 minutes post-challenge for RNA extractin and microarray hybridization