Analysis of porcine IGF2 gene expression in adipose tissue and its effect on fatty acid composition.
ABSTRACT: IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism has been described as the causal mutation of a maternally imprinted QTL for muscle growth and fat deposition in pigs. The objective of the current work was to study the association between the IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism and the IGF2 gene expression and its effect on fatty acid composition in adipose tissue in different pig genetic backgrounds. A cis-eQTL region associated with the IGF2 mRNA expression in adipose tissue was identified in an eGWAS with 355 animals. The IGF2 gene was located in this genomic interval and IGF2g.3072G>A was the most significant SNP, explaining a 25% of the gene expression variance. Significant associations between IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism and oleic (C18:1(n-9); p-value = 4.18x10-07), hexadecanoic (C16:1(n-9); p-value = 4.04x10-07), linoleic (C18:2(n-6); p-value = 6.44x10-09), α-linoleic (C18:3(n-3); p-value = 3.30x10-06), arachidonic (C20:4(n-6); p-value = 9.82x10-08) FAs and the MUFA/PUFA ratio (p-value = 2.51x10-9) measured in backfat were identified. Animals carrying the A allele showed an increase in IGF2 gene expression and higher PUFA and lower MUFA content. However, in additional studies was observed that there could be other proximal genetic variants affecting FA composition in adipose tissue. Finally, no differences in the IGF2 gene expression in adipose tissue were found between heterozygous animals classified according to the IGF2:g.3072G>A allele inherited from the father (APGM or AMGP). However, pyrosequencing analysis revealed that there is imprinting of the IGF2 gene in muscle and adipose tissues, with stronger differences among the paternally and maternally inherited alleles in muscle. Our results suggested that IGF2:g.3072G>A polymorphism plays an important role in the regulation of IGF2 gene expression and can be involved in the fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. In both cases, further studies are still needed to deepen the mechanism of regulation of IGF2 gene expression in adipose tissue and the IGF2 role in FA composition.
Project description:This study compared the long-term effects of EY consumption under two diet conditions: normal (ND?+?EY) and high fat diet (HFD?+?EY), on lipid metabolism in mice. ND?+?EY did not increase serum triglycerides, total cholesterol hepatic triglyceride concentrations, adipose tissue accumulation and glucose impairment, not leading to fatty liver. HFD?+?EY markedly decreased adipose tissue accumulation, the triglyceride and total cholesterol, and improved serum HDL-C and blood glucose impairment compared with HFD. PLS-DA analyzes showed both ND?+?EY and HFD?+?EY could decrease serum C18:1 and MUFA. HFD?+?EY could further decrease hepatic C18:2 and PUFA and increase C18:1 and MUFA excretion, which were associated with lower expression of Elovl6 and higher expression of Scd1 in liver. These results suggest that HFD?+?EY significantly improved dyslipidemia caused by HFD through modifying lipid metabolism, and ND?+?EY did not adversely affect the biomarkers associated with dyslipidemia risk, but showed less obvious regulation of lipid metabolism than HFD?+?EY.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the responses of individual tissues to high-fat feeding as a function of mass, fat composition, and transcript abundance. We examined a panel of eight tissues [5 white adipose tissues (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), liver, muscle] obtained from DBA/2J mice on either a standard breeding diet (SBD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD led to weight gain, decreased insulin sensitivity, and tissue-specific responses, including inflammation, in these mice. The dietary fatty acids were partially metabolized and converted in both liver and fat tissues. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were converted in the liver to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and oleic acid (C18:1) was the preferred MUFA for storage of excess energy in all tissues of HFD-fed mice. Transcriptional changes largely reflected the tissue-specific fat deposition. SFA were negatively correlated with genes in the collagen family and processes involving the extracellular matrix. We propose a novel role of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in adipose tissues of diet-induced obesity. Tissue-specific responses to HFD were identified. Liver steatosis was evident in HFD-fed mice. Gonadal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissue and BAT exhibited severe inflammatory and immune responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was the most metabolically active adipose tissue. Gluteal adipose tissue had the highest mass gain but was sluggish in its metabolism. In HFD conditions, BAT functioned largely like WAT in its role as a depot for excess energy, whereas WAT played a role in thermogenesis.
Project description:Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) from saturated FA. Mice with whole-body or skin-specific deletion of SCD1 are resistant to obesity. Here, we show that mice lacking SCD1 in adipose and/or liver are not protected from either genetic- (agouti; A(y)/a) or diet-induced obesity (DIO) despite a robust reduction in SCD1 MUFA products in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue. Adipose SCD1 deletion had no effect on glucose or insulin tolerance or on hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Interestingly, lack of SCD1 from liver lowered the MUFA levels of adipose tissue and vice versa, as reflected by the changes in FA composition. Simultaneous deletion of SCD1 from liver and adipose resulted in a synergistic lowering of tissue MUFA levels, especially in the A(y)/a model in which glucose tolerance was also improved. Lastly, we found that liver and plasma TG show nearly identical genotype-dependent differences in FA composition, indicating that FA composition of plasma TG is predictive for hepatic SCD1 activity and TG FA composition. The current study suggests that SCD1 deletion from adipose and/or liver is insufficient to elicit protection from obesity, but it supports the existence of extensive lipid cross-talk between liver and adipose tissue.
Project description:Fatty acid type in beef can be detrimental to human health and has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in longissimus thoracis muscle of 48 Nellore young bulls with extreme phenotypes for fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat by RNA-seq technique.Differential expression analyses between animals with extreme phenotype for fatty acid composition showed a total of 13 differentially expressed genes for myristic (C14:0), 35 for palmitic (C16:0), 187 for stearic (C18:0), 371 for oleic (C18:1, cis-9), 24 for conjugated linoleic (C18:2 cis-9, trans11, CLA), 89 for linoleic (C18:2 cis-9,12 n6), and 110 genes for ?-linolenic (C18:3 n3) fatty acids. For the respective sums of the individual fatty acids, 51 differentially expressed genes for saturated fatty acids (SFA), 336 for monounsaturated (MUFA), 131 for polyunsaturated (PUFA), 92 for PUFA/SFA ratio, 55 for ?3, 627 for ?6, and 22 for ?6/?3 ratio were identified. Functional annotation analyses identified several genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, such as those involved in intra and extra-cellular transport of fatty acid synthesis precursors in intramuscular fat of longissimus thoracis muscle. Some of them must be highlighted, such as: ACSM3 and ACSS1 genes, which work as a precursor in fatty acid synthesis; DGAT2 gene that acts in the deposition of saturated fat in the adipose tissue; GPP and LPL genes that support the synthesis of insulin, stimulating both the glucose synthesis and the amino acids entry into the cells; and the BDH1 gene, which is responsible for the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies used in the synthesis of ATP.Several genes related to lipid metabolism and fatty acid composition were identified. These findings must contribute to the elucidation of the genetic basis to improve Nellore meat quality traits, with emphasis on human health. Additionally, it can also contribute to improve the knowledge of fatty acid biosynthesis and the selection of animals with better nutritional quality.
Project description:Arachidonic acid (C20:4) is related to a wide range of biological effects including lipid homeostasis. The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2) gene encodes for the delta-6-desaturase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of C20:4 from linoleic acid (C18:2). The purpose of this study was to characterise mutations in the promoter of the porcine FADS2, evaluating in particular the effect of one haplotype tagging polymorphism (rs321384923A > G) on the biosynthesis pathway of C20:4. A total of 1,192 Duroc barrows with records on fatty acid composition in muscle and subcutaneous fat were genotyped. Pigs carrying the A allele showed, irrespective of fat content, both enhanced FADS2 expression and higher C20:4 in muscle and exhibited increased ratios of C20:4 to C18:2 and of C20:4 to eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) in both muscle and adipose tissue. Despite the inverse relationship observed between C20:4 and fat content, the rs321384923 polymorphism had no impact on lean weight. It is concluded that the haplotype encompassing the rs321384923 polymorphism at the porcine FADS2 affects the n-6 fatty acid profile by specifically modifying the desaturation efficiency of C18:2 to C20:4 rather than by concomitant variations in C18:2 following changes in fat content.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14) and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6). The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1) from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0), C18:1, and saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48-0.60), IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The fatty acid (FA) composition of adipose tissue influences the nutritional quality of meat products. The unsaturation level of FAs is determined by fatty acid desaturases such as stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs), which are under control of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). Differences in SCD genotype may thus confer variations in lipid metabolism and FA content among cattle breeds. This study investigated correlations between FA composition and lipogenic gene expression levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of beef cattle breeds of different gender from the Basque region of northern Spain. Pirenaica is the most important beef cattle breed in northern Spain, while Salers cattle and Holstein-Friesian cull cows are also an integral part of the regional beef supply. RESULTS:Pirenaica heifers showed higher monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) contents in subcutaneous adipose tissue than other breeds (P?<?0.001). Alternatively, Salers bulls produced the highest oleic acid content, followed by Pirenaica heifers (P?<?0.001). There was substantial variability in SCD gene expression among breeds, consistent with these differences in MUFA and CLA content. Correlations between SCD1 expression and most FA desaturation indexes (DIs) were positive in Salers (P?<?0.05) and Pirenaica bulls, while, in general, SCD5 expression showed few significant correlations with DIs. There was a significant linear correlation between SCD1 and SRBEP1 in all breeds, suggesting strong regulation of SCD1 expression by SRBEP1. Pirenaica heifers showed a stronger correlation between SCD1 and SREBP1 than Pirenaica bulls. We also observed a opposite relationship between SCD1 and SCD5 expression levels and opposite associations of isoform expression levels with the ?9 desaturation indexes. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that the relationships between FA composition and lipogenic gene expression are influenced by breed and sex. The opposite relationship between SCD isoforms suggests a compensatory regulation of total SCD activity, while opposite relationships between SCD isoforms and desaturation indexes, specially 9c-14:1 DI, previously reported as an indicator of SCD activity, may reflect distinct activities of SCD1 and SCD5 in regulation of FA content. These findings may be useful for beef/dairy breeding and feeding programs to supply nutritionally favorable products.
Project description:Rearing system is a critical nongenetic factor influencing meat quality of ducks. In this study, a total of 360 birds were randomly allocated into floor rearing system (FRS) and net rearing system (NRS) to compare their effects on intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, fatty acid composition, and related gene expression in muscles of Nonghua ducks. Sawdust bedding and stainless mesh bed were equipped in FRS and NRS, respectively. At the eighth week (8w) and 13th week (13w), the breast and thigh muscles of ducks were collected to determine the profiles of lipids composition and the expressions of lipid metabolism-related genes. The IMF content was higher in 13w-FRS than 8w-FRS and 8w-NRS in breast muscle, whereas it was higher in 13w-NRS than other groups in thigh muscle (P < 0.05). C16:1, C20:5(n-3) of muscles were higher in 8w-NRS than 8w-FRS, whereas C18:1(n-9)c, C18:2(n-6)c, ? monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and ?MUFA/?saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio of muscles were higher in 13w-NRS than 8w-FRS and 8w-NRS (P < 0.05). C22:6(n-3), C20:4(n-6) of breast muscle and C20:3(n-6) of thigh muscle were higher in 13w-NRS than 13w-FRS (P < 0.05). Fatty acids variation was studied by principal component analysis, exhibiting extensive positive loadings on principal components. SREBP1, ACADL, and FABP3 were downregulated in breast muscle, whereas PPAR? and ELOVL5 were upregulated in thigh muscle of NRS ducks at 13w. Principal components were extensively correlated with lipids composition parameters, and principal components of breast muscle 1 and principal components of thigh muscle 1 were correlated with SREBP1 and PPAR?, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, with increasing age, FRS enhanced IMF deposition in breast muscle, and the same promotion in thigh muscle was because of NRS. The variation of fatty acids in muscles was uniform, and the change of single fatty acid was unable to distinguish NRS and FRS. However, as NRS downregulated SREBP1, ACADL and FABP3 in breast muscle and upregulated PPAR? and ELOVL5 in thigh muscle, NRS could improve nutrient value and meat quality by increasing ?MUFA, ?MUFA/?SFA ratio, and important PUFA levels. Therefore, NRS was more recommended than FRS for Nonghua ducks during week 8 to 13 posthatching.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fat content and fatty acid composition in swine are becoming increasingly studied because of their effect on sensory and nutritional quality of meat. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) for fatty acid composition in backfat was previously detected on porcine chromosome 8 (SSC8) in an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross. More recently, a genome-wide association study detected the same genomic region for muscle fatty acid composition in an Iberian x Landrace backcross population. ELOVL6, a strong positional candidate gene for this QTL, contains a polymorphism in its promoter region (ELOVL6:c.-533C?<?T), which is associated with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic acids in muscle and adipose tissues. Here, a combination of single-marker association and the haplotype-based approach was used to analyze backfat fatty acid composition in 470 animals of an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross genotyped with 144 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) distributed along SSC8. RESULTS: Two trait-associated SNP regions were identified at 93 Mb and 119 Mb on SSC8. The strongest statistical signals of both regions were observed for palmitoleic acid (C16:1(n-7)) content and C18:0/C16:0 and C18:1(n-7)/C16:1(n-7) elongation ratios. MAML3 and SETD7 are positional candidate genes in the 93 Mb region and two novel microsatellites in MAML3 and nine SNPs in SETD7 were identified. No significant association for the MAML3 microsatellite genotypes was detected. The SETD7:c.700G?>?T SNP, although statistically significant, was not the strongest signal in this region. In addition, the expression of MAML3 and SETD7 in liver and adipose tissue varied among animals, but no association was detected with the polymorphisms in these genes. In the 119 Mb region, the ELOVL6:c.-533C?>?T polymorphism showed a strong association with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic fatty acids and elongation ratios in backfat. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the polymorphisms studied in MAML3 and SETD7 are not the causal mutations for the QTL in the 93 Mb region. However, the results for ELOVL6 support the hypothesis that the ELOVL6:c.-533C?>?T polymorphism has a pleiotropic effect on backfat and intramuscular fatty acid composition and that it has a role in the determination of the QTL in the 119 Mb region.
Project description:This article addresses the hypothesis that lactation stage, parity and energy-protein feed additive affect fatty acid composition of blood, liver and adipose tissue of cows. The experiment was conducted on 24 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows divided into two feeding groups. One group of cows was fed solely a total mixed ration, while the other group was fed a ration with the addition of 2 kg of energy-protein supplement per cow/day. During the experiment, the samples of liver, adipose tissue and blood were taken and their fatty acid compositions were determined. Analysis of variance was applied to fatty acid relative weight percentage to determine the effect of the stage of lactation, parity, and energy-protein supplement on the fatty acid composition of the tissues. Stage of lactation had a significant impact on the content of many fatty acids in all examined tissues. We found that parity had no effect on fatty acid composition of blood, whereas it significantly affected C16:1 c9 in liver, and C16:1 c9 and C18:0 in adipose tissue. Energy-protein supplement significantly affected the content of most fatty acids in blood (e.g., C18:1 t11 and C18:3 n-3) and liver (C18:3 n-3, both isomers of conjugated linolenic acid and n-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil), but it did not affect the profile of the adipose tissue of cows. According to our best knowledge, this is the first study showing the relationship between parity, stage of lactation and the composition of fatty acids in blood, liver and adipose tissue of cows.