I Know I Can, but Do I Have the Time? The Role of Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Perceived Time Constraints in Implementing Cognitive-Activation Strategies in Science.
ABSTRACT: Considerable research has demonstrated that teachers' self-efficacy plays a major role in implementing instructional practices. Only few studies, however, have examined the interplay between how teachers' self-efficacy and the challenges that lie outside their influence are related to their implementation of cognitive-activation strategies (CASs), especially in science classrooms. Using the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2015 data from science teachers in Grades 4, 5, 8, and 9, we explored the extent to which teachers' self-efficacy in science teaching and the perceived time constraints explained variations in the enactment of general and inquiry-based CAS. Findings from the overall sample showed that highly self-efficacious teachers reported more frequent implementation of both general and inquiry-based CAS, whereas those who perceived strong time constraints reported a less frequent use of inquiry-based CAS. These relationships also existed across grade levels, except on the relations between perceived time constraint and inquiry-based CAS, which was only significant for the science teachers in Grade 9. We discuss these findings in light of variations in the core competencies of science curriculum, teachers' competences, and the resources for science activities between primary and secondary education. We also point to the theoretical implications of this study for enhancing the conceptual understanding of generic and specific aspects of CAS and the practical implications for teacher education, professional development, and educational policy.
Project description:This study focuses on science teachers' first encounter with computational modeling in professional development workshops. It examines the factors shaping the teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating computational modeling within inquiry-based learning modules for 9th grade physics. The learning modules introduce phenomena, the analysis of measurement data, and offer a method for coordinating the experimental findings with a theory-based computational model. Teachers' attitudes and self-efficacy were studied using survey questions and workshop activity transcripts. As expected, prior experience in physics teaching was related to teachers' self-efficacy in teaching physics in 9th grade. Also, teachers' prior experience with programming was strongly related to their self-efficacy regarding the programming component of model construction. Surprisingly, the short interaction with computational modeling increased the group's self-efficacy, and the average rating of understanding and enjoyment was similar among teachers with and without prior programming experience. Qualitative data provides additional insights into teachers' predispositions towards the integration of computational modeling into the physics teaching.
Project description:Undergraduate college "science partners" provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K-5 teachers in a university-school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed "participatory reform"; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views.
Project description:Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students' self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study.
Project description:A simple, one-pot method to fabricate ordered, monodispersed Pd-CeO<sub>2</sub> colloidal assembled spheres (CASs) was developed using the surfactant-mediated solvothermal approach, which involves a tunable self-assembled process by carefully controlling different chemical reactions. The evolution process and formation mechanism of the CASs were thoroughly investigated by time-controlled and component-controlled experiments. For CO oxidation, this CAS nanocatalyst exhibited much higher catalytic activity and thermal stability than Pd/CeO<sub>2</sub> prepared by an impregnation method, and its complete CO conversion temperature is ?120 °C. The enhanced catalytic performance for CO oxidation could be attributed to the synergistic effect of highly dispersed PdO species and Pd<sup>2+</sup> ions incorporated into the CeO<sub>2</sub> lattice. For this CAS catalyst, each sphere can be viewed as a single reactor, and its catalytic performance can be further improved after being supported on alumina, which is obviously higher than results previously reported. Furthermore, this method was used to successfully prepare M-CeO<sub>2</sub> CASs (M = Pt, Cu, Mn, Co), showing further that this is a new and ideal approach for fabricating active and stable ceria-based materials.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. METHODS: The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. RESULTS: At mid-way enjoyment (p?=?.03), perceived social support from teachers (p?=?.003) and self-efficacy (p?=?.05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p?=?.001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p?=?.02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed among those receiving a high as opposed to a low intervention dose. CONCLUSION: The intervention affected both psychological and social-environmental determinants. Results indicate that social support from teachers might be a potential mediator of PA change, and that overweight adolescents might be in need of specially targeted interventions to avoid reducing their enjoyment of PA. Further studies should continue to assess how intervention effectiveness is influenced by the participants' self-reported dose of intervention received.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A common barrier to exercise is a perceived lack of time. The current pilot study examined the effects of an implementation intention intervention to enhance exercise self-efficacy, increase confidence to exercise when facing time constraints, and increase physical activity in middle-aged adults (n?=?63, aged 35-69). DESIGN:Participants received a pedometer (Fitbit) to objectively measure activity and were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention condition. After a 1-week baseline, the intervention condition received instructions to plan how, where, and when they would add steps to their daily routine to meet their step goal, using personalised schedules and maps. Both groups were contacted nightly via email. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Physical activity (steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity), goal achievement, exercise self-efficacy, time-relevant exercise self-efficacy and affect. RESULTS:Compared to the control, the intervention condition significantly increased in steps, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity, and time-relevant exercise self-efficacy. Goal achievement was related to greater time-relevant exercise self-efficacy and more positive affect at the daily level. CONCLUSION:Findings suggest that the personalised planning intervention increased physical activity and confidence in achieving physical activity goals under time constraints. Avenues for future directions, especially for producing more sustained effects, are discussed.
Project description:In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.
Project description:The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom.
Project description:In the present study, a trans-contextual model was applied to examine the relations between students' perceptions of controlling behavior from teachers, frustration over their basic psychological needs, autonomous motivation toward physical activity in a physical education context, autonomous motivation toward physical activity in an out-of-school context, beliefs and intentions toward future physical activity, and actual participation in physical activity outside of school. We adopted a three-wave prospective study design in which 234 students aged 11-19 years first completed measures of perceived controlling behavior from teachers, frustration over their basic psychological needs, and autonomous motivation toward physical activity in physical education. One week later, their autonomous motivation, beliefs, and intentions toward physical activity outside of school were measured. Students' self-reported engagement in physical activity outside of school was assessed another five weeks later. Results of the path analysis revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of perceived controlling behavior from physical education teachers on students' intention toward physical activity outside of school via the proposed motivational sequence of the trans-contextual model. There was also a significant and negative indirect effect of perceived controlling behavior from physical education teachers on students' self-reported engagement in physical activity outside of school, mediated by the frustration over their need for competence in physical education. Findings emphasize the importance of decreasing controlling behaviors from teachers in a physical education context so as not to inhibit students' physical activity behavior in an out-of-school context.
Project description:This article present data concerning the factors influencing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) intention to use/adopt CloudERP system in Jordan. Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling techniques in R version 1.0.136 were used to analyze data obtained from 394 SMEs. Computer self-efficacy, organizational support, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, facilitating conditions, security and relative advantage have significant influence on the intention to use/adoption CloudERP systems. The survey data-set is made publicly available to amplify further inquiry.